You are on page 1of 25


1. Alhate Dipak
Session 1
2. Shende Kishor
3. Tarle Nikita Guide: Prof. S.D.Chaughule
4. Thorat Ashwini
5. Gadade Shubhangi
 Refrigeration is the process of maintaining temperature at a specified
confined space.

 Transport refrigeration system maintains temperature in automobiles for

different purposes.

 Since transportation is one of the need of human being therefore to feel

comfort it is used.

 To maintain quality of the product which are in transport.

 To maintain the condition of product at point of sale.

 It is important cold chain between manufacturer and consumer.

Simple Vapour compression cycle
Psychometric Processes

 Sensible cooling of air

 Sensible heating of the air

Cooling load
 The heating and cooling load of air conditioning and
refrigeration is a heat that changes temperature and humidity
in the room being air-conditioned, other than produced by an
air-conditioning system.

 Itoccurs in the form of an external heat invading the room or

an internal heat produced in the room.

 The heat from the air-conditioner absorbs this heating and

cooling load, thereby maintaining the temperature and
humidity of the air in the room at a required level.
Cooling load calculations objectives
 a) Provide information for equipment selection, system sizing and
system design.

 b) Provide data for evaluating the optimum possibilities for load


 c) Permit analysis of loads as required for system design, operation

and control.
 Space – is either a volume or a site without a partition or a partitioned room
 Room – is an enclosed or partitioned space that is usually treated as single
 Zone – is a space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or
cooling requirements or comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by
a single device.
 British thermal unit (Btu) - is the approximate heat required to raise 1 lb.
of water 1 deg Fahrenheit, from 590 F to 600 F.
 Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD) – An equivalent
temperature difference used for calculating the instantaneous external
cooling load across a wall or roof.
 Sensible Heat Gain – Is the energy added to the space by conduction,
convection and/or radiation.
 Latent Heat Gain – Is the energy added to the space when moisture is
added to the space by means of vapor emitted by the occupants, generated
by a process or through air infiltration from outside or adjacent areas.
 Radiant Heat Gain – The rate at which heat absorbed is by the surfaces
enclosing the space and the objects within the space.
 Space Heat Gain – Is the rate at which heat enters into and/or is generated
within the conditioned space during a given time interval.
 Space Cooling Load – Is the rate at which energy must be removed from
a space to maintain a constant space air temperature.
 Space Heat Extraction Rate - The rate at which heat is removed from the
conditioned space and is equal to the space cooling load if the room
temperature remains constant.
 Dry Bulb Temperature – temperature of air indicated by thermometer
 Wet Bulb Temperature– temperature measured by a thermometer that has
a bulb wrapped in wet cloth.
 Dew point Temperature – Is the temperature to which air must be cooled
in order to reach saturation
 Relative humidity - Describes how far the air is from saturation. It is a
useful term for expressing the amount of water vapor when discussing the
amount and rate of evaporation.
 Heat Transfer Coefficient (U-factor) – is the rate of heat flow through a
unit area of building envelope material or assembly, including its boundary
films, per unit of temperature difference between the inside and outside air.
The U-factor is expressed in Btu/ (hr 0 F ft2 ).
 Thermal Resistance (R) – reciprocal of a heat transfer coefficient and is
expressed in (hr 0 F ft2 )/Btu.
Cooling Load Calculation Methods

 The total equivalent temperature differential method with

time averaging (TETD/TA)

 The transfer function method (TFM)

 The cooling load temperature differential method(CLTD)

 The heat balance (HB) method

 The radiant time series (RTS) method

Components of cooling load

 Sensible heat gain : Direct addition of heat to the enclosed space.

It may occur due to any of the following:

 Solar and transmission heat gain through walls and glass

 Transmissions gain through portion walls ,ceiling floors etc

 Internal heat gain from people, power, lights, appliances etc

 Supply duct heat gain, supply duct leakage loss and fan horsepower
 Latent heat gain: When there is addition of water vapour to the
air of enclosed space latent heat gain is said to occur.
For Example:
• Infiltration
• Internal heat gain from people, steam, appliances etc
• Vapour transmission
• Supply duct leakage loss

• Grand Total Heat = Sensible heat + Latent heat

Problem statement

 Design a VCC transport refrigeration system used for foods and

beverages having following data:
 Cabin dimensions=(1.75×1.75×2.24)m3
 Cabin temperature without cooling = 450C … Extreme condition
Heat Load Calculation

 Sensible heat gain through building structure by conduction

Q =U×A× (T2-T1)
where effective heat transfer coefficient is given by

From table 2, still air heat flowing horizontal (vertical surface) (ka) =
8.3 W/m2kWind 24 kmph (vertical) (f0) =34 W/m2k
From table 3, asbestos packed (kasbestos )=2.812 W/m2k
U = 5.028 W/m2k
Hence, Q =U×A× (T2-T1)= 5257.8 W
 Solar heat gain through outside walls

For roofs, from table 5, light construction maximum equivalent

temperature is 180C
For walls, from table 6, North latitude wall facing,
Q = 4654.14 W Q  UAte
This is solar heat gain through outside walls
 Solar heat gain due to infiltration

From table 9, Rooms with no windows or outside doors= 0.5-0.75Ac

Amount of infiltered air through windows and wall = 2760 W
 Heat gain from products- e.g. apples
From table 7, temperature in 0C=00C Capacity heat evolved = 690-
From table 8, Humidity 90%, Period for loss= 6-8 months Loss of
Apple – Freezing point = -20C % water =84
Cp above freezing = 3.60 kJ/kg0C
Cp below freezing = 1.88 kJ/kg0C
Hfg= 280 kJ/kg
Chilling load above freezing

ρ = 0.240 g/cm3 …..for apple

Hence, Q = 70.79 kW
 Room Sensible heat gain factor

RSH= 5.25+4.65+2.76=12.66kW

 Grand Total heat Load

GTH = RSH+RLH = 12.66+70.79=83.45kW

= 23.84 TR
Selection of Refrigerant
Selected refrigerant-
Selection criteria-
• Compressor
• Temperature
requirements, etc.
Selection of compressors
General practices to be followed based on following factors for selection:

 Capacity of the plant

 Mass flow rate of refrigerant

 variables of pressure drop/TX flow rates

 No of evaporator

 Input power requirements

 Space and size of compressor

Selection of compressors
 Selection of compressor for project is based on
 Type of application
 Temperature to be maintained
 Tonnage capacity of cooling load
 Mass flow rate of refrigerant
 Compressor require 2 in nos. because requirement of high tonnage
capacity i.e. multi staging with intercooler
 Compressor selected is hermetically sealed reciprocating
compressor by Fras cold (Q7-33.1Y.VS)
Selection of cooling system- evaporator and
condensers &expansion valve
 The Capacity of Plant
 Availability of Water
 Quality of Water
 First Costs
 Operating Cost
 Maintenance
 Potential for Heat Recovery
 Flexibility of Control
Standard practices for selection of evaporators
 For cooling loads below 100–125 tons, the initial capital and recurring
maintenance costs for a water-cooled system are rarely justified and
the chiller(s) shall be air cooled.
 Above 200 tons capacity systems and with the use of rotary
compressor chillers, the water-cooled condensing option becomes
 Between 100 and 200 tons peak cooling load, it becomes a matter of
the owner’s ability to deal with the maintenance requirements of a
cooling tower system and the capital funds available.
Selection of evaporator and condenser
 Selection of evaporator is air cooled chillers from manufacturer’s
catalogue Daikin 100AV3.
 Selection of condensers will also be from Daikin manufacturer’s
catalogues model no. LMDMD-AW1 350
 Selection is based on following factors:
 Availabilityof air
 Cooling load i.e. tonnage capacity
 Type of refrigerant
 Cooling media and refrigerant mass flow rate

 Expansion valve types selected is thermostatic expansion valve of

Dan Foss TCAE (-600C—450C).
 NPTEL Lecture notes title – “ selection of air conditioning system”
 References paper title “Design and Cooling Performances of an Air
Conditioning System with Two Parallel Refrigeration Cycles for a Special
Purpose Vehicle”.
 [1] S. A. Tassou, ―Food Transport refrigeration system‖, Brunel University
Centre for Energy and Built Environment Research School of Engineering and
 [2] S.W.T. Spence, W.J. Doran, D.W. Artt, ―Design, construction and testing
of an air-cycle refrigeration system for road transport‖, Int J Refrigeration
27/5 (2004) 503–510.
 [3] Stephen W.T. Spence, W. John Doranb, David W. Artta, G. McCullough,
―Performance analysis of a feasible air-cycle refrigeration system for road
transport‖, International Journal of Refrigeration 28 (2005) 381–388