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Lecture 7

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Introduction

Heat transfer is applied in the following processes in

industries

Chemical reactions

Exothermic reactions require removal of energy to increase

rate of reaction

Endothermic reactions require supply of energy to increase

rate of reaction

Increased rate of reactions lead into smaller reactor size.

Examples : Combustion, gasification, pyrolysis,

polymerisation, synthesis, smelting of ores and alloying of

metals.

Introduction

Air conditioning and space heating

Maintenance of environmental conditions for products and

for human comfort

Industrial processes create a lot of waste heat, much of

which can be used effectively by the application of

appropriate heat transfer system

Introduction

Introduction

Physical changes

Heat transfer plays a role in the production of

materials in a specific physical state and form, in

their purification.

Examples : Evaporation, condensation,

crystallisation, drying, powder and fibre

production.

Power generation

Heat transfer is crucial to the generation of electrical

power and to the provision of cooling water for

power plant.

Examples : Thermal power plants, steam boilers.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 5

Introduction

Biological reactions

Microbial activity might lead into consumption

or release of energy

Microbial growth is best at certain temperature.

Thus, supply or removal of heat in the system is

necessary to maintain temperature that either

inhibits or enhances biological activity

Examples : fermentation, brewing, baking,

pasteurisation, purification, cooling and freezing

of foodstuff.

Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchanger Classifications

Heat Exchanger Classifications

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

The industrial counterpart of a double pipe system is the

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger, as shown below

connecting tees, and a return bend.

The inner pipe is supported within the outer pipe by packing

glands

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

The design process requires determination of

fluid placement - which fluid should pass

through the annulus and which should pass

through the inner pipe.

The Rules are:

Fluid with highest fouling characteristics should be

placed in the inner pipe for easier mechanical

cleaning

For equal allowable pressure drop on both streams,

ensure that there is nearly equal mass velocities and

pressure drops.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 11

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

If the calculated pressure drop exceeds the allowable

value, the following might be done to transfer the heat

load.

Use a by-pass

Reverse the location of the streams.

Use Parallel-Series connection

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Compact heat exchanger: It has a large heat transfer

surface area per unit volume (e.g., car radiator, human

lung). A heat exchanger with the area density > 700

m2/m3 is classified as being compact.

usually move perpendicular to each other. The cross-flow

is further classified as unmixed and mixed flow.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger: The most common type of heat exchanger in

industrial applications.

They contain a large number of tubes (sometimes several hundred) packed in a shell

with their axes parallel to that of the shell. Heat transfer takes place as one fluid flows

inside the tubes while the other fluid flows outside the tubes through the shell.

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are further classified according to the number of shell

and tube passes involved.

Regenerative heat exchanger: Involves

the alternate passage of the hot and cold

fluid streams through the same flow area.

Dynamic-type regenerator: Involves a

rotating drum and continuous flow of the

hot and cold fluid through different

portions of the drum so that any portion of

the drum passes periodically through the

hot stream, storing heat, and then through

the cold stream, rejecting this stored heat.

Ccondenser: One of the fluids is cooled

and condenses as it flows through the

heat exchanger.

Boiler: One of the fluids absorbs heat and

vaporizes.

Plate and frame (or just plate) heat exchanger: Consists of a series of plates with

corrugated flat flow passages. The hot and cold fluids flow in alternate passages, and

thus each cold fluid stream is surrounded by two hot fluid streams, resulting in very

effective heat transfer. Well suited for liquid-to-liquid applications.

A plate-and-frame

liquid-to-liquid heat

exchanger.

Plate Heat Exchangers

Plate heat exchangers are characterised by:

heat transfer efficiency up to five times that of other

types of heat exchanger

compact dimensions which fit in a small space and

are low weight

low investment and operating costs

flexible construction which can be extended or

rearranged to meet new process conditions

low fouling as a result of turbulence created by the

plate patter

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 18

Spiral Heat Exchangers

Features of spiral heat exchanger are:

All stainless steel wetted surface is standard on the tube side

Least expensive construction for higher pressures and

temperatures

True counter-current flow and spiral pattern provide high

efficiency

Compact and lightweight

Rugged construction and spiral design allow for high initial

temperature difference between fluids, and protects against

hydraulic and thermal shock

Easy to clean, easy to install

Spiral Heat Exchangers

Heat Transfer Calculation

Heat transfer is described by

Q U A T ..............(1)

where

U is the overall heat transfer coefficient,

A is the heat transfer area, and

T is the temperature difference.

Calculation of the value of U is a key requirement in

any design problem in which heating or cooling is

involved.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 21

Heat Transfer Calculation

If heat is transmitted through a number of media in

series, the overall heat transfer coefficient is broken

into individual coefficients

Suppose heat is being transferred through three

media, each of area A, the individual coefficients

being 1, 2, and 3 and the corresponding

temperature changes are T1, T2 and T3.

Q1 1 A T1

Q A T

2 2 2 .......................( 2)

Q3 3 A T3

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 22

Heat Transfer Calculation

But Q Q Q

Q

1 2 3

Q

T1

1 A

Q

T2 ..............(3)

2 A

Q

T3

3 A

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 23

Heat Transfer Calculation

From Equation (3), the total temperature difference

is given by:

T T1 T2 T3

Q 1 Q 1 Q 1

A 1 A 2 A 3

Q 1 1 1

T .............(4)

A 1 2 3

But from Equation (1)

Q 1

T

A U

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 24

Heat Transfer Calculation

Therefore:

1 1 1 1

............(5)

U 1 2 3

The reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficients are the

resistances

Equation (5) illustrates that the resistances are

additive

Heat Transfer Calculation

In some cases, for example, for radial flow of heat

through a thick pipe or cylinder, the area for heat

transfer is a function of position.

Thus the area for transfer applicable to each of the

three media could differ and may be A1, A2, and A3

Equation (2) then becomes

zAS2W2s1233`

Q1 1 A1 T1

Q A T

2 2 2 2 .......................(6)

Q3 3 A3 T3

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 26

Heat Transfer Calculation

Since

Q1 Q 2 Q 3 Q

Then

1 1 1

Q

Q

Q

A1 1 A2 2 A3 3

1 1 1

T Q ..............(7)

A1 1 A2 2 A3 3

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 27

Heat Transfer Calculation

Equation (7) must then be written in terms of

one of the areas or sometimes in terms of a mean

area

Since Q and T must be independent of the

particular area considered, the value of U will

vary according to which area is used as the basis

Thus Equation (7) can be written, for example as:

Q U1 A1 T ..............(8)

Heat Transfer Calculation

Then

1 A1

T

U1 Q

A1 1 1 1

Q

Q A1 1 A2 2 A3 3

• Giving

1 1 A1 1 A1 1

.........(9)

U1 1 A2 2 A3 3

HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATION

• A heat exchanger typically involves two

flowing fluids separated by a solid wall.

• Heat is first transferred from the hot fluid to

the wall by convection, through the wall by

conduction, and from the wall to the cold

fluid again by convection.

associated with heat transfer in

a double-pipe heat exchanger.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 30

U the overall heat transfer

coefficient, W/m2C

When

coefficient. When one of the convection coefficients is much smaller than the other

(say, hi << ho), we have 1/hi >> 1/ho, and thus U hi. This situation arises frequently

when one of the fluids is a gas and the other is a liquid. In such cases, fins are

commonly used on the gas side to enhance the product UA and thus the heat

transfer on that side.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 31

The overall heat transfer coefficient When the tube is finned on one

ranges from about 10 W/m2C for side to enhance heat transfer, the

gas-to-gas heat exchangers to about total heat transfer surface area on

10,000 W/m2C for heat exchangers the finned side is

that involve phase changes.

thermal conductivity, we

can use this total area in

the convection

resistance relation

Rconv = 1/hAs

Heat Exchanger Fouling

• Fouling is the formation of deposits on heat

transfer surface

• It impedes heat transfer

• It increases the resistance to fluid flow

• Fouling occurs in almost all heat transfer

processes

• Fouling increases costs of operating heat

exchangers

• The following Figure shows a set-up for a

fouled wall

Heat Exchanger Fouling

T

layer

Heat Tw

f = Thermal conductivity of

transfer f

wall fouling layer

f

f

Rf f fluid , geometry, temperature, time, velocity, etc....(1)

f

Fouling Factor

The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with time as a result of

accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The layer of deposits represents

additional resistance to heat transfer. This is represented by a fouling factor Rf.

The fouling factor increases with the operating temperature and the length of

service and decreases with the velocity of the fluids.

Economic Effect of Fouling

Major costs include:

◦ Increased capital cost (over-designed exchangers,

use of switchable exchangers)

◦ Loss of energy (due to increased heat transfer

resistance)

◦ Loss of throughput (due to downtime)

◦ Increased pressure drop (hence pumping costs)

◦ Maintenance costs (cleaning and disposing waste,

chemical additives, replacement of parts, etc.)

◦ Increased safety hazards

◦ Reduced flow

Types of Fouling

• Fouling can be classified according to

mechanism, process type, or by industry

• Most common classification is based on the

principal process that causes fouling:

– Particulate fouling

– Chemical reaction fouling

– Corrosion fouling

– Biological fouling

– Freezing fouling

– Precipitation fouling

• In most cases a combination of the above

mechanisms occurs together

Fouling in Industry

Industry group Type of fouling that occurs Usual extent of

problem

Food and kindred Chemical reaction Major

products Precipitation (milk processing) Major

Biofouling Medium

Particulate (gas side) – spray drying Minor/Major

Corrosion Minor

Textile mill products Particulate (cooling water) Medium/Minor

Biofouling Medium

Chemical and Allied Chemical reaction (process side) Minor/major

Precipitation (process side, cooling water) Medium

Biofouling (cooling water) Medium

Particulate (cooling water, gas side) Minor/Medium

Corrosion Medium

Petroleum refining and Chemical reaction (process side) Major

related industries Precipitation (cooling water) Medium

Biofouling (cooling water) Medium

Particulate (cooling water, gas side) Minor/Medium

Corrosion (process side) Medium

Stone, clay, glass products Particulate (heat recovery, gas side) Minor/Major

Fouling Process

• Fouling process involves four stages, namely:

– Transport of the deposits to the surface

– Attachment of the deposits to the surface

– Removal of part of the deposits from the surface

– Ageing of the deposit on the surface

• Net deposition (fouling) depends on:

– Time

– Geometry of the heat exchanger

– Type of foulant material

– Type of surface material

– Wall and bulk temperatures

– Stream velocity

– Heat exchange mechanism

Example- 1

A double-pipe heat exchanger is constructed of a stainless

steel (𝜆 = 15.1𝑊/𝑚℃ ) inner tube of diameter 𝐷𝑖 =

1.5𝑐𝑚 and outer diameter of 𝐷𝑜 = 1.9𝑐𝑚 and outer shell

of inner diameter 3.2𝑐𝑚. The convection heat transfer

coefficient is given to be ℎ𝑖 = 800𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ on the inner

surface of the tube and ℎ𝑜 = 1200𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ on the outer

surface. For a fouling factor of 𝑅𝑓,𝑖 = 0.0004𝑚2 ℃/𝑊 on

the tube side and 𝑅𝑓,0 = 0.0001𝑚2 ℃/𝑊 on the shell

side, determine the thermal resistance of the heat

exchanger per unit length and overall heat transfer

coefficients, 𝑈𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑈𝑜 .

ANALYSIS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

An engineer often finds himself or herself in a position

1. to select a heat exchanger that will achieve a specified temperature

change in a fluid stream of known mass flow rate - the log mean

temperature difference (or LMTD) method.

2. to predict the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluid streams in

a specified heat exchanger - the effectiveness–NTU method.

The rate of heat transfer in heat

exchanger (HE is insulated): Two fluid

streams that

have the same

capacity rates

experience the

same

temperature

change in a well-

insulated heat

exchanger.

THE LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE

DIFFERENCE METHOD

the following assumptions:

U is constant everywhere in the heat exchanger.

Specific heat capacity is constant

There are negligible heat losses

There are no partial phase changes

The flow is steady

Mean Temperature Difference

For a small element of the length of the heat

exchanger, dL:

dQ U Th Tc A dL...........(10)

is the surface area per unit length

A

dA A dL

d M Cp dT ..........(11a)

Q

But h h h

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 44

Mean Temperature Difference

Taking heat balance from L=0 to L=x measured

from the cold end

M h C p,h Th Th, 2 M c C p,c Tc Tc,1 ......(12)

From Equation (12)

M c C p ,c

Th Th, 2 Tc Tc,1 ..........(13)

M Ch p ,h

C

Tc Tc ,1 Tc A dL......(14)

M

dQ U Th , 2

c p ,c

M h C p ,h

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 45

Mean Temperature Difference

• Equating Equation (14) with (11b) gives

M c C p ,c

dQ U Th , 2 Tc Tc ,1 Tc A dL M c C p ,c dTc ...(15)

M h C p ,h

U A

L Tc , 2

1

0 M c C p,c dL T1 M c C p , c

dTc

c,

Th , 2 Tc Tc ,1 Tc

M C h p,h

Mean Temperature Difference

Resulting into

M c C p ,c M c C p ,c

Th, 2 Tc ,1 1 Tc , 2

UA M h C p ,h M C

1

ln

h p ,h

...(16)

M c C p ,c M c C p ,c

M C M c C p ,c

1 Th , 2 c p , c

T 1 Tc ,1

M h C p ,h M C c ,1 M C

h p , h h p , h

But from energy balance:

M c C p ,c

Th, 2 Th,1 Tc , 2 Tc ,1 ..........(17)

M C h p ,h

Mean Temperature Difference

Substituting Th,2 in the numerator of

Equation (16) and simplifying gives

UA 1 Th ,1 Tc , 2

ln ........(18)

M c C p ,c M c C p ,c Th , 2 Tc ,1

1

M h C p ,h

But from equation (17), i.e. energy balance:

M c C p , c Th,1 Th, 2

M h C p , h Tc , 2 Tc ,1

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 48

Mean Temperature Difference

Proposed Substitution in Equation (18) gives

UA Tc , 2 Tc ,1 Th ,1 Tc , 2

ln

M c C p ,c Th ,1 Tc , 2 Th , 2 Tc ,1 Th , 2 Tc ,1

Mean Temperature Difference

Which can be rearranged into

Th ,1 Tc , 2 Th, 2 Tc ,1

Q M c C p ,c Tc , 2 Tc ,1 U A

....(19)

Th,1 Tc , 2

ln

T T

h, 2 c ,1

(Th,1-Tc,2)=∆Th

(Th,2-Tc,1)= ∆Tc

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 50

Mean Temperature Difference

The expression in the square bracket in

Equation (19) is the Logarithmic Mean

Temperature Difference (LMTD).

This expression is shortened into

Th Tc

LMTD .............(20)

Th

ln

Tc

Q U A LMTD U A Tlm .........(21)

Where Th= temperature difference at the hot

terminal and Tc= temperature difference at the

cold terminal

PE 311 Lecture Series 51

Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:

Use of a Correction Factor

geometry of the heat exchanger and the

inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot

and cold fluid streams.

F for common cross-flow and shell-and-

tube heat exchanger configurations is

given in the figure versus two

temperature ratios P and R defined as

T and t shell- and tube-side temperatures

F = 1 for a condenser or boiler

Correction factor

F charts for

common shell-

and-tube heat

exchangers.

Correction

factor F charts

for common

cross-flow heat

exchangers.

The LMTD method is very suitable for determining the size of a heat

exchanger to realize prescribed outlet temperatures when the

mass flow rates and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot

and cold fluids are specified.

With the LMTD method, the task is to select a heat exchanger that

will meet the prescribed heat transfer requirements. The

procedure to be followed by the selection process is:

1. Select the type of heat exchanger suitable for the application.

2. Determine any unknown inlet or outlet temperature and the heat

transfer rate using an energy balance.

3. Calculate the log mean temperature difference Tlm and the

correction factor F, if necessary.

4. Obtain (select or calculate) the value of the overall heat transfer

coefficient U.

5. Calculate the heat transfer surface area As .

The task is completed by selecting a heat exchanger that has a

heat transfer surface area equal to or larger than As.

Example -2

Steam in the condenser of a power plant is to be

condensed at a temperature of 30℃ with the cooling

water from a nearby lake, which enters the tube of the

condenser at 14℃ and leaves at 22℃ the surface area of

the tubes is 45𝑚2 and the overall heat transfer coefficient

is 2100𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ . Determine the mass flow rate of the

cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the

steam in the condenser

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 56

THE EFFECTIVENESS–NTU METHOD

A second kind of problem encountered in heat exchanger analysis is the

determination of the heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures of the hot and

cold fluids for prescribed fluid mass flow rates and inlet temperatures when the

type and size of the heat exchanger are specified.

Cmin is the smaller of Ch and Cc

Actual heat transfer rate

The effectiveness of a

heat exchanger depends

on the geometry of the

heat exchanger as well

as the flow arrangement.

Therefore, different types

of heat exchangers have

different effectiveness

relations.

We illustrate the

development of the

effectiveness e relation

for the double-pipe

parallel-flow heat

exchanger.

Effectiveness relations of the heat exchangers typically involve the

dimensionless group UAs /Cmin.

This quantity is called the number of transfer units NTU.

of NTU is a measure of the surface area As.

Thus, the larger the NTU, the larger the heat

exchanger.

capacity

ratio

number of transfer units NTU and the capacity ratio c.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 61

Effectiveness

for heat

exchangers.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 63

When all the inlet and outlet temperatures are specified, the size of

the heat exchanger can easily be determined using the LMTD

method. Alternatively, it can be determined from the effectiveness–

NTU method by first evaluating the effectiveness from its definition

and then the NTU from the appropriate NTU relation.

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 64

(e.g., boiler, condenser)

Observations from the effectiveness relations and charts

• The value of the effectiveness ranges from 0 to 1. It increases

rapidly with NTU for small values (up to about NTU = 1.5) but

rather slowly for larger values. Therefore, the use of a heat

exchanger with a large NTU (usually larger than 3) and thus a

large size cannot be justified economically, since a large

increase in NTU in this case corresponds to a small increase in

effectiveness.

• For a given NTU and capacity ratio c = Cmin /Cmax, the counter-

flow heat exchanger has the highest effectiveness, followed

closely by the cross-flow heat exchangers with both fluids

unmixed. The lowest effectiveness values are encountered in

parallel-flow heat exchangers.

• The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is independent of the

capacity ratio c for NTU values of less than about 0.3.

• The value of the capacity ratio c ranges between 0 and 1. For a

given NTU, the effectiveness becomes a maximum for c = 0

(e.g., boiler, condenser) and a minimum for c = 1 (when the heat

capacity rates of the two fluids are equal).

SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

The uncertainty in the predicted value of U can exceed 30 percent. Thus, it is

natural to tend to overdesign the heat exchangers.

Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers is usually accompanied by

increased pressure drop, and thus higher pumping power.

Therefore, any gain from the enhancement in heat transfer should be weighed

against the cost of the accompanying pressure drop.

Usually, the more viscous fluid is more suitable for the shell side (larger

passage area and thus lower pressure drop) and the fluid with the higher

pressure for the tube side.

The proper selection of

a heat exchanger depends The rate of heat transfer in the

on several factors: prospective heat exchanger

• Heat Transfer Rate

• Cost

• Pumping Power

The annual cost of electricity associated with

• Size and Weight the operation of the pumps and fans

• Type

• Materials

Heat Transfer Enhancement

Heat Transfer Enhancement is the practice of

modifying a heat transfer surface to increase the

heat transfer in order to have a cost effective and

environmentally friendly heat exchanger

◦ Reduction of heat transfer surface for fixed heat duty and

pressure drop, leading into better space utilisation, reduced

fluid volume, and reduced capital cost;

◦ Reduced actual mean temperature difference Tm for fixed

heat duty and surface area, leading into increased

thermodynamic process efficiency and reduced operating

costs;

◦ Increased heat duty for fixed surface area; and

◦ Reduced pumping power for fixed heat duty and surface area

Heat Transfer Enhancement

Heat transfer enhancement may be achieved by

Passive or Active techniques

Active techniques require application of external

power.

Active Techniques used are:

◦ surface vibration,

◦ fluid vibration,

◦ electrostatic fields,

◦ injection,

◦ jet impingement,

◦ suction,

◦ and mechanical aids (e.g. stirrers)..

Because of the need for external power active

techniques have limited practical applications

Heat Transfer Enhancement

Passive techniques involve mainly surface

treatment

Techniques used are:

◦ extended surfaces (fins),

◦ rough surfaces,

◦ coated surfaces,

◦ coiled tubes,

◦ surface tension devices,

◦ swirl flow devices,

◦ displaced enhancement devices.

Some of these are shown in Figure 1

Passive techniques

3.Segmented fins for circular cylinder

11/30/2018 PE 311 Lecture Series 71

Heat Transfer Enhancement

Increase in heat transfer due to surface treatment can

be brought about by:

Increased turbulence

Increased surface area

Improved mixing or

Flow swirl

Enhancement is industrially important because:

It reduces heat exchanger size and cost;

It increases the heat duty of the exchanger;

It permits closer approach temperatures

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