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SYSTEM

Truck

QueuingTheory

Job Management

LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Describe the components of the haul unit

cycle time.

2. Estimate the number of trucks required to

keep the existing equipment working at

capacity.

3. Describe techniques that will assist

engineers in obtaining maximum hauling

efficiency.

4. Describe how dumpers can be used to help

in material movement during construction.

What is horizontal transport

system?

during construction

by mobile construction plants

such as trucks, dumpers and forklift in

a systematic manner

Truck

trucks are used to transport excavated material,

aggregates and construction material

because of their high travel speeds and low hauling costs.

as the primary hauling unit provides a high degree

of flexibility,

as the number in service can be increased or

decreased easily from the total hauling capacity of a

fleet.

productive capacity of a truck depends on the size

of its load and the number of trips it can make in an

hour

ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF TRUCKS

REQUIRED AND TRUCK OPERATION

Off-Highway Truck

The Haul Cycle

summing the time required for each of

the following components of the haul

cycle:

1. Load—at the excavator/loader

2. Haul—from the loader to the

unloading site

3. Dump—at the unloading site,

including maneuvering

4. Return—travel back to the loader

5. Spot—move into loading position at

the loader

The total haul cycle time

calculated as the sum of fixed time and variable

time.

Fixed time

is the sum of load, dump, and spot times.

These times are referred to as fixed since they do not

depend on the haul distance or travel speed of the haul

unit.

Fixed times can usually be closely estimated for a

particular operation.

Travel time

are added together and referred to as variable time.

Travel time can be found by using travel time curves or by

dividing the travel distance by the average speed of the

haul unit.

Loading Time

Refer to 1st Equation

is used due to manufacturer design

typically operates at or near 100%

efficiency when actually engaged in

loading

Either bank measure or loose measure

Calculating the Number of Haul

Units Required

EXAMPLE 3-1-

shovel production

job efficiency of 75% is 229 BCY/h (175

BCM/h)

truck transit time (cycle time less load time)

is 0.5 hr

determine how many trucks having a

capacity of 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM) would be

required to fully service the shovel.

How many bank cubic yards (meters) per

hour will be produced by this combination?

SOLUTION

Shovel production @ 75% =

229/0.75 = 305 BCY/h (233 BCM/h)

Load time =

16.5/305 = 0.0540 h (Eq 1)

(12.6/233 = 0.0540 h)

Transit time = 0.5 hr

Use 11 trucks.

Expected production.= 229 BCY/h (175 BCM/h)

EXAMPLE 2

dipper cycle time of 22 sec

how many trucks would be required to

service this shovel?

tough clay with a bucket fill factor of 0.80

load factor of 0.77.

trucks will carry 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM) of soil.

truck transit time is 0.5 hr.

SOLUTION

= 1.85 BCY (1.42 BCM)

Number of dippers to fill haul unit

= 16.5/1.85 = 8.9

= (12.6/1.42 = 8.9)

Use 9 dippers.

Load Time = (9 X 22) / (60 X 60)

= 0.0550 hr (Eq 2)

= (0.055 + 0.5) / 0.055 = 10.1 (Eq 3)

Use 11 trucks.

require that each bucket load be slightly reduced or that

the last bucket carry less than a full load.

Effect of Reduced Haul Units

the number of haul units required is

used,

no increase in production occurs if more

than the required number of haul units is

provided.

if less than the required number is

available, the expected production is

reduced in proportion to the shortage.

EXAMPLE 3

trucks are available. What is the

expected production of this system?

SOLUTION

Expected production

= (8 / 10.3) X 229

= 178 BCY/h (136 BCM/h) (Eq 6 – 4)

Cost Analysis

number of trucks of a given size

required to service a specific loader

does not consider economic factors.

In reality, cost performance (or cost

per unit of production) is usually a

prime consideration in planning an

excavation and hauling operation.

Cost performance

(Cost of fleet/ unit time) / (Production/unit time)

Cost performance

Cost performance may be calculated for the

haul fleet only or for the entire load and haul

fleet.

Considering a range of haul unit sizes and

by varying the number of haul units

may find the size and number of haul units to

service a specific loader that yield the lowest

cost per unit of production.

trial-and-error procedure that may become

time-consuming if done manually.

EXAMPLE 4

(233 BCM/h),

a job efficiency of 75%,

costs $83.00/h.

Determine what size truck and how many of

them should be used to provide the lowest

loading and hauling cost.

What will be the production of this system?

Size Truck Cost Transit Time

$/h h

BCY BCM

14.8 11.3 38.00 0.48

SOLUTION

Load time (11.5 BCY)

= 11.5 / 305 = 0.0377 h

= (8.79 / 233) =0.0377 h

=14.8 / 305 = 0.0485 h

= (11.3 / 233) =0.0485 h

N (14.8 BCY) = (0.0485 + 0.48) / 0.0485 = 10.9

Production Cost Performance

Fleet Cost

Size Number $/h

$/BCY $/BCM

BCY BCY/h BCM/h

11.5 14 229 175 517 2.258 2.954

11.5 13 226 173 486 2.150 2.809

14.8 11 229 175 501 2.188 2.863

14.8 10 210 161 463 2.205 2.876

Optimum solution

= 13 (11.5-BCY trucks)

@ $2.15/BCY ($2.81/BCM)

expected production

QUEUING THEORY

In 1947 C. Palm presented a method based

on the theory of finite queues to determine

the optimum distribution of repairmen

servicing automatic machines.

Variations of this model (often called the

Swedish Machine Model) have been

successfully applied to a number of similar

problems.

J. M. Spaugh is credited with first applying

the model to a construction excavation and

hauling operation.

Application of Queuing

Theory

The following terms and symbols will be used

in applying queuing theory to the loading and

hauling problem:

n = number of haul units in the fleet

a = mean arrival rate of a particular haul unit

(arrivals/h)

l = mean loading rate of the excavator (units/h)

r = ratio of arrival rate to loading rate

Po = probability that no haul unit is available at

the loader

Pt = probability that one or more haul units are

available at the loader

Since there must be either a haul unit

at the loader or no haul unit at the

loader, the sum of Po and Pt must

equal one.

Hence,

Pt = 1 - Po

In order to find Pt and Po, it will be necessary

to calculate the ratio, r defined above.

A simple equation for computing r can be

developed as follows:

a = arrival rate = 1/transit time

l = loading rate = 1/loading time

Or

l = loader production/truck capacity

r = loading time/transit time

Or

r = truck capacity/(loader production x

transit time)

The value Po (probability of having no haul

unit available for loading at any particular

instant)

the value of Pt will depend on the number of

haul units in the fleet as well as the ratio r.

Tables such as Table 6-1 for determining

the value of Pt have been developed.

Linear interpolation may be used for values

of r between those given in the table.

For greater accuracy, more detailed tables

may be used or the value of Po may be

calculated from the following equation:

Po =

easily computed by using a hand calculator,

as the following example will show.

EXAMPLE

BCY/h (233 BCM/h),

truck capacity is 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM)

truck travel time less loading time is

0.54 hr. for fleet of 5 trucks

what is the probability that there will be

a truck available for loading at any

particular instant?

r= = 0.1

= = 0.1

-1

Po =

Po =

Po =

Po =

Po = = = 0.564

Pt = 1- Po = 1-0.564 =0.436

TABLE 6-1 PROBABILITY OF HAUL UNIT

BEING AVAILABLE (Pt)

Optimum Number of Haul

Units

excavator/haul system using queueing

theory is determined

by multiplying the normal production of

the excavator by the probability of having

a haul unit available at any instant.

Expected production = Normal excavator production x Pt

production of the excavator multiplied

by Pt for the number of haul units

being used.

the expected production of the system

would be only 43.6% of the normal

production.

When queuing theory is used, the

optimum number of haul units for a

particular operation is selected as the

combination of excavator and haul

units which yields the best cost

performance

(i.e., lowest unit cost of production).

Cost performance over a range of haul

unit numbers is determined and the

optimum number of units selected.

An approximate value of the optimum

n may be found by taking the

reciprocal of r.

A range of n values about this value

should then be investigated.

Example

A shovel has a loading rate of 305 BCY/h (233 BCM/h)

job efficiency of 75%

cost $83.00/h

truck capacity of 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM)

cost $31.00/h

travel time less loading time of 0.54 h

operation?

and haul?

Solution

r = 16.5 = 0.1

305 x 0.54

= 12.6 = 0.1

233 x 0.54

Normal production of shovel = 305 x 0.75 = 229 BCY/h

r 0.1

Optimum solution

Expected production

JOB MANAGEMENT

Spotting Haul Units

Standby Units

Hauling Operations

Sizing Haul Units

A difficult factor to measure in estimating excavator

performance is the effect of the size of the target

which the haul unit presents to the excavator

operator.

It has been found that the use of too small a haul

unit will both increase the excavator cycle time and

lead to excessive spillage during loading.

Job studies have shown that these factors often

result in production losses of 10% to 20%.

As a rule of thumb, it is suggested that, haul units

have a minimum capacity of 4 times the excavator

bucket capacity.

Draglines require even larger target areas.

For dragline operations, haul unit sizes of 5 to 10

times bucket capacity are recommended.

desirable to have haul units that hold an

integer number of bucket loads.

The use of a partially filled bucket to top off

a load is always inefficient and is especially

costly for haul units that hold a low number

of bucket loads (4 or less).

Spillage during loading must also be

minimized.

Spotting Haul Units

It has been found that careless spotting of

haul units at the excavator is one of the

most common causes of inefficiency in

excavator operations.

The location of the loading position of the

haul unit should be carefully planned to

minimize excavator cycle time.

Reducing the swing of a shovel by 30° will

increase production approximately 15%.

The use of a 180° swing for loading

instead of a 90° swing will reduce shovel

production by almost one-third.

Spotting time for back-in loading may be reduced by using

spotting logs or bumpers to help the haul unit operator position his

vehicle for loading.

For shovel loading, haul units should be spotted as close to the

bank as possible within the radius of the dipper as it leaves the

bank.

To further reduce the loss of production during spotting, it may be

advisable to use two spotting positions, one on each side of the

excavator/loader.

In this case, one haul unit may be spotted while the other unit is

being loaded.

Continuous in-line spotting is also efficient whenever job layout

permits and a minimum swing angle can be obtained.

Having a supervisor direct spotting may also increase production

and be economically feasible.

Standby Units

usually small in comparison with those of the

excavator, standby haul units are frequently

provided to ensure that the productive capacity of

the excavator is fully utilized.

Standby units are used to replace haul units that

break down or are unable to perform in

synchronization with other haul units.

It is suggested that standby units be provided on a

ratio of 1:5 for average multiple-excavator

operations.

This ratio may be reduced for large haul fleets.

For single-excavator operations with a small

haul fleet, the ratio should be increased to

about 1:4.

If rented equipment is available on short notice,

it may be possible to reduce the number of

standby units even further.

In any case, the exact determination of the

number of standby units to be provided should

be based on the construction organization's

past experience, manufacturer's data on haul

unit breakdown, and an analysis of the opera-

tional situation.

Hauling Operations

To obtain maximum efficiency in excavation and

hauling operations, the operation of the excavator and

haul fleet must be carefully synchronized.

Ideally, the haul units would be separated by a fixed

distance, travels at exactly the same speed, and

arrive at the loader precisely when required for

loading.

In such an idealized situation the excavator and haul

units would all be kept fully utilized.

In actual practice, of course, such perfection cannot

be obtained.

Nevertheless, the objective in managing such an

operation is to approach the ideal situation as closely

as possible.

Techniques that will assist managers in obtaining

maximum hauling efficiency

stopping time for haul units in order to avoid the

bunching up of units at the beginning or the end of

a shift.

Load haul units as close to the rated load as

possible. Do not overload because excessive

maintenance and breakdowns will result. Poor

haul road conditions may require units to operate

at less than rated load. It will usually prove eco-

nomical to improve the condition of such haul

roads.

Keep dump bodies clean and in good condition in

order to facilitate dumping.

Operate haul units at the highest legal safe speed

and maintain the desired interval between units.

Sluggish units should be replaced by standby units,

if standby units are unavailable, load the sluggish

unit lightly so that it can maintain the required

speed. Do not allow speeding. Speeding is not

only unsafe, but it also results in excessive

equipment wear and upsets the uniform spacing of

haul units.

Provide separated haul and return lanes whenever

possible. This decreases the chance of accidents

and allows higher safe vehicle speeds.

Develop an efficient traffic pattern for operation of

haul units in loading and dumping areas. Minimize

backing and interference between units.

Have haul units assist in spreading of fill by spread

dumping (dumping while moving forward).

Whenever conditions at dump sites are not uniform,

alternate haul units between slow and fast dumping

sites in order to maintain more uniform intervals

between haul units.

Use time studies and job observation to determine

the factors that limit production. Methods may then be

devised to improve the situation. Use actual job data

to refine estimates based on average or theoretical

data.

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