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Job Management


1. Describe the components of the haul unit
cycle time.
2. Estimate the number of trucks required to
keep the existing equipment working at
3. Describe techniques that will assist
engineers in obtaining maximum hauling
4. Describe how dumpers can be used to help
in material movement during construction.
What is horizontal transport

 movement of material horizontally

during construction
 by mobile construction plants
 such as trucks, dumpers and forklift in
a systematic manner
 trucks are used to transport excavated material,
aggregates and construction material
 because of their high travel speeds and low hauling costs.
 as the primary hauling unit provides a high degree
of flexibility,
 as the number in service can be increased or
decreased easily from the total hauling capacity of a
 productive capacity of a truck depends on the size
of its load and the number of trips it can make in an

Off-Highway Truck


The Haul Cycle

 Total haul unit cycle time is found by

summing the time required for each of
the following components of the haul
1. Load—at the excavator/loader
2. Haul—from the loader to the
unloading site
3. Dump—at the unloading site,
including maneuvering
4. Return—travel back to the loader
5. Spot—move into loading position at
the loader
The total haul cycle time
 calculated as the sum of fixed time and variable
 Fixed time
 is the sum of load, dump, and spot times.
 These times are referred to as fixed since they do not
depend on the haul distance or travel speed of the haul
 Fixed times can usually be closely estimated for a
particular operation.
 Travel time
 are added together and referred to as variable time.
 Travel time can be found by using travel time curves or by
dividing the travel distance by the average speed of the
haul unit.
Loading Time

 The time required to load a haul unit

Load time = Number of buckets X Excavator cycle time

Refer to 1st Equation

 loading rate at 100% loader efficiency

is used due to manufacturer design
 typically operates at or near 100%
efficiency when actually engaged in
 Either bank measure or loose measure
Calculating the Number of Haul
Units Required
shovel production
 job efficiency of 75% is 229 BCY/h (175
 truck transit time (cycle time less load time)
is 0.5 hr
 determine how many trucks having a
capacity of 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM) would be
required to fully service the shovel.
 How many bank cubic yards (meters) per
hour will be produced by this combination?
Shovel production @ 75% =
229/0.75 = 305 BCY/h (233 BCM/h)

Load time =
16.5/305 = 0.0540 h (Eq 1)
(12.6/233 = 0.0540 h)
Transit time = 0.5 hr

 Use 11 trucks.
 Expected production.= 229 BCY/h (175 BCM/h)

 If a 3-LCY (2.3 LCM) hydraulic shovel has a

dipper cycle time of 22 sec
 how many trucks would be required to
service this shovel?
 tough clay with a bucket fill factor of 0.80
 load factor of 0.77.
 trucks will carry 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM) of soil.
 truck transit time is 0.5 hr.

Bucket load = 3 X 0.80 X 0.77

= 1.85 BCY (1.42 BCM)
Number of dippers to fill haul unit
= 16.5/1.85 = 8.9
= (12.6/1.42 = 8.9)

 Use 9 dippers.
Load Time = (9 X 22) / (60 X 60)
= 0.0550 hr (Eq 2)

Number of units required

= (0.055 + 0.5) / 0.055 = 10.1 (Eq 3)

 Use 11 trucks.

 Note that the use of 9 shovel cycles to fill a truck will

require that each bucket load be slightly reduced or that
the last bucket carry less than a full load.
Effect of Reduced Haul Units

 If the rational method of determining

the number of haul units required is
 no increase in production occurs if more
than the required number of haul units is
 if less than the required number is
available, the expected production is
reduced in proportion to the shortage.

In the situation of Example 3-1, only 8

trucks are available. What is the
expected production of this system?

Expected production
= (8 / 10.3) X 229
= 178 BCY/h (136 BCM/h) (Eq 6 – 4)
Cost Analysis

 In the method described above the

number of trucks of a given size
required to service a specific loader
does not consider economic factors.
 In reality, cost performance (or cost
per unit of production) is usually a
prime consideration in planning an
excavation and hauling operation.
Cost performance
(Cost of fleet/ unit time) / (Production/unit time)
Cost performance
 Cost performance may be calculated for the
haul fleet only or for the entire load and haul
 Considering a range of haul unit sizes and
by varying the number of haul units
 may find the size and number of haul units to
service a specific loader that yield the lowest
cost per unit of production.
 trial-and-error procedure that may become
time-consuming if done manually.

 A shovel has a loading rate of 305 BCY/h

(233 BCM/h),
 a job efficiency of 75%,
 costs $83.00/h.
 Determine what size truck and how many of
them should be used to provide the lowest
loading and hauling cost.
 What will be the production of this system?
Size Truck Cost Transit Time
$/h h

11.5 8.79 31.00 0.46

14.8 11.3 38.00 0.48
 Load time (11.5 BCY)
= 11.5 / 305 = 0.0377 h
= (8.79 / 233) =0.0377 h

 Load time (14.8 BCY)

=14.8 / 305 = 0.0485 h
= (11.3 / 233) =0.0485 h

 N (11.5 BCY) = (0.0377 + 0.46) / 0.0377 = 13.2

 N (14.8 BCY) = (0.0485 + 0.48) / 0.0485 = 10.9
Production Cost Performance
Fleet Cost
Size Number $/h
11.5 14 229 175 517 2.258 2.954
11.5 13 226 173 486 2.150 2.809
14.8 11 229 175 501 2.188 2.863
14.8 10 210 161 463 2.205 2.876
 Optimum solution

= 13 (11.5-BCY trucks)
@ $2.15/BCY ($2.81/BCM)

 expected production

= 226 BCY/h (173 BCM/h)

 In 1947 C. Palm presented a method based
on the theory of finite queues to determine
the optimum distribution of repairmen
servicing automatic machines.
 Variations of this model (often called the
Swedish Machine Model) have been
successfully applied to a number of similar
 J. M. Spaugh is credited with first applying
the model to a construction excavation and
hauling operation.
Application of Queuing
 The following terms and symbols will be used
in applying queuing theory to the loading and
hauling problem:
n = number of haul units in the fleet
a = mean arrival rate of a particular haul unit
l = mean loading rate of the excavator (units/h)
r = ratio of arrival rate to loading rate
Po = probability that no haul unit is available at
the loader
Pt = probability that one or more haul units are
available at the loader
 Since there must be either a haul unit
at the loader or no haul unit at the
loader, the sum of Po and Pt must
equal one.
 Hence,
 Pt = 1 - Po
 In order to find Pt and Po, it will be necessary
to calculate the ratio, r defined above.
 A simple equation for computing r can be
developed as follows:
a = arrival rate = 1/transit time
l = loading rate = 1/loading time
l = loader production/truck capacity
r = loading time/transit time
r = truck capacity/(loader production x
transit time)
 The value Po (probability of having no haul
unit available for loading at any particular
 the value of Pt will depend on the number of
haul units in the fleet as well as the ratio r.
 Tables such as Table 6-1 for determining
the value of Pt have been developed.
 Linear interpolation may be used for values
of r between those given in the table.
 For greater accuracy, more detailed tables
may be used or the value of Po may be
calculated from the following equation:
 Po =

 Although this equation look complex it is

easily computed by using a hand calculator,
as the following example will show.

 A shovel has loading rate of 305

BCY/h (233 BCM/h),
 truck capacity is 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM)
 truck travel time less loading time is
0.54 hr. for fleet of 5 trucks
 what is the probability that there will be
a truck available for loading at any
particular instant?
r= = 0.1

= = 0.1
Po =

Po =
Po =
Po =

Po = = = 0.564

Pt = 1- Po = 1-0.564 =0.436
Optimum Number of Haul

 The expected production of an

excavator/haul system using queueing
theory is determined
 by multiplying the normal production of
the excavator by the probability of having
a haul unit available at any instant.
Expected production = Normal excavator production x Pt

 expected production is the normal

production of the excavator multiplied
by Pt for the number of haul units
being used.
 the expected production of the system
would be only 43.6% of the normal
 When queuing theory is used, the
optimum number of haul units for a
particular operation is selected as the
combination of excavator and haul
units which yields the best cost
 (i.e., lowest unit cost of production).
 Cost performance over a range of haul
unit numbers is determined and the
optimum number of units selected.
 An approximate value of the optimum
n may be found by taking the
reciprocal of r.
 A range of n values about this value
should then be investigated.
 A shovel has a loading rate of 305 BCY/h (233 BCM/h)
 job efficiency of 75%
 cost $83.00/h
 truck capacity of 16.5 BCY (12.6 BCM)
 cost $31.00/h
 travel time less loading time of 0.54 h

What is the optimum number of haul units to use for this


What is the expected production and unit cost of excavation

and haul?
r = 16.5 = 0.1
305 x 0.54

= 12.6 = 0.1
233 x 0.54
Normal production of shovel = 305 x 0.75 = 229 BCY/h

= 233 x 0.75 = 175 BCM/h

Approximate optimum value of n = 1 = 1 = 10

r 0.1
 Optimum solution

= 9 trucks @ $2.174/BCY ($2.846/BCM)

 Expected production

= 167 BCY/h (127 BCM/h)


 Sizing Haul Units

 Spotting Haul Units
 Standby Units
 Hauling Operations
Sizing Haul Units
 A difficult factor to measure in estimating excavator
performance is the effect of the size of the target
which the haul unit presents to the excavator
 It has been found that the use of too small a haul
unit will both increase the excavator cycle time and
lead to excessive spillage during loading.
 Job studies have shown that these factors often
result in production losses of 10% to 20%.
 As a rule of thumb, it is suggested that, haul units
have a minimum capacity of 4 times the excavator
bucket capacity.
 Draglines require even larger target areas.
 For dragline operations, haul unit sizes of 5 to 10
times bucket capacity are recommended.
 desirable to have haul units that hold an
integer number of bucket loads.
 The use of a partially filled bucket to top off
a load is always inefficient and is especially
costly for haul units that hold a low number
of bucket loads (4 or less).
 Spillage during loading must also be
Spotting Haul Units
 It has been found that careless spotting of
haul units at the excavator is one of the
most common causes of inefficiency in
excavator operations.
 The location of the loading position of the
haul unit should be carefully planned to
minimize excavator cycle time.
 Reducing the swing of a shovel by 30° will
increase production approximately 15%.
 The use of a 180° swing for loading
instead of a 90° swing will reduce shovel
production by almost one-third.
 Spotting time for back-in loading may be reduced by using
spotting logs or bumpers to help the haul unit operator position his
vehicle for loading.
 For shovel loading, haul units should be spotted as close to the
bank as possible within the radius of the dipper as it leaves the
 To further reduce the loss of production during spotting, it may be
advisable to use two spotting positions, one on each side of the
 In this case, one haul unit may be spotted while the other unit is
being loaded.
 Continuous in-line spotting is also efficient whenever job layout
permits and a minimum swing angle can be obtained.
 Having a supervisor direct spotting may also increase production
and be economically feasible.
Standby Units

 Since fixed costs for operation of a haul unit are

usually small in comparison with those of the
excavator, standby haul units are frequently
provided to ensure that the productive capacity of
the excavator is fully utilized.
 Standby units are used to replace haul units that
break down or are unable to perform in
synchronization with other haul units.
 It is suggested that standby units be provided on a
ratio of 1:5 for average multiple-excavator
 This ratio may be reduced for large haul fleets.
 For single-excavator operations with a small
haul fleet, the ratio should be increased to
about 1:4.
 If rented equipment is available on short notice,
it may be possible to reduce the number of
standby units even further.
 In any case, the exact determination of the
number of standby units to be provided should
be based on the construction organization's
past experience, manufacturer's data on haul
unit breakdown, and an analysis of the opera-
tional situation.
Hauling Operations
 To obtain maximum efficiency in excavation and
hauling operations, the operation of the excavator and
haul fleet must be carefully synchronized.
 Ideally, the haul units would be separated by a fixed
distance, travels at exactly the same speed, and
arrive at the loader precisely when required for
 In such an idealized situation the excavator and haul
units would all be kept fully utilized.
 In actual practice, of course, such perfection cannot
be obtained.
 Nevertheless, the objective in managing such an
operation is to approach the ideal situation as closely
as possible.
Techniques that will assist managers in obtaining
maximum hauling efficiency

 Whenever possible, stagger the starting and

stopping time for haul units in order to avoid the
bunching up of units at the beginning or the end of
a shift.
 Load haul units as close to the rated load as
possible. Do not overload because excessive
maintenance and breakdowns will result. Poor
haul road conditions may require units to operate
at less than rated load. It will usually prove eco-
nomical to improve the condition of such haul
 Keep dump bodies clean and in good condition in
order to facilitate dumping.
 Operate haul units at the highest legal safe speed
and maintain the desired interval between units.
Sluggish units should be replaced by standby units,
if standby units are unavailable, load the sluggish
unit lightly so that it can maintain the required
speed. Do not allow speeding. Speeding is not
only unsafe, but it also results in excessive
equipment wear and upsets the uniform spacing of
haul units.
 Provide separated haul and return lanes whenever
possible. This decreases the chance of accidents
and allows higher safe vehicle speeds.
 Develop an efficient traffic pattern for operation of
haul units in loading and dumping areas. Minimize
backing and interference between units.
 Have haul units assist in spreading of fill by spread
dumping (dumping while moving forward).
 Whenever conditions at dump sites are not uniform,
alternate haul units between slow and fast dumping
sites in order to maintain more uniform intervals
between haul units.
 Use time studies and job observation to determine
the factors that limit production. Methods may then be
devised to improve the situation. Use actual job data
to refine estimates based on average or theoretical