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RESEARCH IN

APPLIED
LINGUISTICS
THE NATURE OF RESEARCH

WHAT IS RESEARCH?
➢ Research is the formal, systematic application of
the scientific method to the study of the problem
(Gay et al, 2011)
➢ A process of steps used to collect and analyse
information to increase of our understanding of a
topic or issues (Creswell, 2010)
➢ The scientific study of systematic, controlled,
empirical, and critical investigation of expected
hypothesis about the relationship between
natural phenomena (Keylinger, 2002).

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RESEARCH
PARADIGMS
Simply a belief system (or
theory) that guides the way we
do things, or more normally
establishes a set of practices.

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How things really are?
What is the reality?

Ontology
How do we know the
reality?
RESEARCH PARADIGM

Epistemology Methodology What tools do we use


to know that reality?

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A basic Set of Beliefs that Guide Actions
Source: Guba (1990) as cited in Refnaldi (2016) p. 9.11

Post-Positivism Constructivism
• Determination • Understanding
• Reductionism • Multiple participant meanings
• Empirical observation and measurement • Social and historical construction
• Theory verification • Theory generation

Advocacy/Participatory Pragmatism
• Political empowerment • Consequences of actions
• Issue-oriented • Problem-centered
• Collaborative • Pluralistics
• Change-oriented • Real-world practice oriented

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How does research differ?

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Ferry, 2011)

Exploratory

Basic Quantitative

Applied
Qualitative

Confirmatory

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BASIC & APPLIED RESEARCH

Basic Applied

Basic Applied

Basic Applied

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QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Quantitative Qualitative

Quantitative Qualitative

Quantitative Qualitative

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EXPLORATORY & CONFIRMATORY RESEARCH

Exploratory Confirmatory

Exploratory Confirmatory

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QUANTITATIVE
&
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH

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➢ Quantitative Research

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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Definition

Quantitative Research, involves data collection procedures that result


primarily by statistical methods (Dornyei, 2007).

Quantitative research can be conceptually divided into two types:


associational and experimental (Mackey and Gass, 2005)

Tavakoli (2012) states that “quantitative research stresses the importance


of large groups of randomly selected participants, manipulating variables
within participants’ immediate environment and determining whether there
is relationship between independent variable and the dependent variable.

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Main Characteristics of Quantitative Research

Using a number : the single most important feature of quantitative research is, naturally
that is centered around numbers
A priori categorization: because the use of numbers already dominates the data collection
phase, the work requires specifying the categories and values needed to be done prior to
the actual study

Variable rather than cases : quantitative is centered on the study of variables that capture
these common features and which are quantified by counting, scaling or by assigning
values categorical data.

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Statistics and the language of statistics: the close link of quantitative research
and statistics, much of the statistical terminology has become part of the
quantitative vocabulary.

Quest for generalizability and universal laws numbers: the general quantitative
aspiration is to eliminate any individual-based subjectivity from the various
phase of the research process by developing systematic canons and rules for
every face of data collection and analysis.

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RESEARCH DESIGN TYPE

1. Survey Research
Is gather data on the characteristics and view informants about the nature of language or
language learning through the use of oral interviews or written questioners (Brown,2001).

Five types of questions that can be used in a survey according to Rosset and Brown, 2001)

1. Problem
2. Priorities
3. Abilities
4. Attitudes
5. Solution
Question Example : What kinds of problems do have in reading a research article? (Problem)

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Correlational ( Associational) Research

Is a type of non-experimental research in which the researcher investigates the relationship


between two or more naturally occurring variables.
Ex:
Research question: are student motivational characteristics related to language choice?

Context: Motivational characteristics and information was gathered on their language

Analysis: the study was set up so that the relationship between these variable could be
examined

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is a type of quantitative research in which the experimenters manipulate
certain stimuli, treatments, or environmental conditions and observe how the
condition or behavior of the subject is affected or changed.

 Experimentation provides method of hypothesis testing.


 Experimental design is the blueprint of the procedures than enable the
researcher to test hypotheses by reaching valid conclusion about
relationship between independent and dependent variable

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Strength and Weakness of Quantitative Research

Strength Weakness

➢ inquiry is systematic, rigorous, ➢ They average out responses


focused, and tightly controlled. Across the whole observed group participant it is
➢ involving precise measurement and
impossible to do justice to the subjective variety of
an individual life.
producing reliable and replicable
data that is generalizable to other
➢ Quantitative methods are generally not
very sensitive in uncovering the reason for
contexts particular observation or the dynamics
➢ The research process is relative underlying the examined situation or
phenomena.
quick and offers good value for
money, particularly because the data ➢ The general exploratory capacity of
analysis can be done using statistical quantitative research is rather limited.
computer software.

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

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What is Qualitative Research?

An umbrella term used to refer to a complex and evolving research


Crocker, 2009 methodology.

A means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or


Cresswell, 2007 groups ascribe to a social or human problem.

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Qualitative Research’s Characteristics

Rich Description Natural & Holistic Representation Few Participants


Provision of careful and detailed Aims to study individuals ad events in their Work more intensively with
description natural settings rather than the use of fewer participants and less
laboratories or other artificial concerned about issues of
environment. generalizability.

Emic Perspective Researcher’s Role Possible Ideological


Orientation
Participants or insider point of The researcher is the key ‘instrument’
view e.g. critical discourse analysis, in
the means of addressing social
change.
Interpretive Analysis The Nature of Qualitative Data
Research outcomes is ultimately the product of Works with a wide range of data including recorded
the researcher’s subjective interpretation of the interviews, observation, audio-visual, various types of
data text.

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TYPES OF
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH

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1. CASE STUDY

What is case study?

case study is not a methodological choices, but an object being ‘studied’


(Stake, 1995)

case study is ‘bounded system’ (Merriam, 1988)

Case study is ‘an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary


phenomenon, within its real life context (Yin, 2003)

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THE CHARACTERISTICS

• Comprise a bound system

• The decision depends on the object to be studied

• Typically longitudinal

• Multiple source of data

• Use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case

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2. ETHNOGRAPHY

What is Ethnography?

Graphy means description, ethno means culture (Tavakoli, 2012).

Ethnographic approaches are particularly valuable when not enough is known about a context or
situation (Mackay & Gass, 2005)

The term ethnography refers to both the product-the presentation of the final analysis and
interpretation of the completed study and the research process itself (Heigham & Sakui, 2009)

Ethnography as studying people in the location where they live and providing a description of their
social life and values, beliefs, and behaviours using qualitative methodologies such as observations,
unstructured interviews, and review and analysis of documents (Bowling, 1997).

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SO, WHAT IS ETHNOGRAPHY SIMPLY MEANS?

Ethnography studies the culture (values, beliefs,


behaviours) of distinct group within society.

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THE CHARACTERISTICS

• Topics studied are typically broad


• Provide profoundly detailed understanding of a culture
• Collect a large quantity of varied data
• The research process is fluid and iterative, the data collection, analysis, and
interpretation overlap.

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3. NARRATIVE INQUIRY

What is narrative inquiry?


Is a qualitative research approach for narratively inquiring into people and thus
allowing for the intimate study of individuals’ experiences overtime in context
(Tavakoli, 2012)

The heart of narrative inquiry a story or a collection of stories (Murray, 2009)

Narrative inquiry is based on the premise that we understand or make sense of


our lives through narrative (Bruner, 1990).

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THE CHARACTERISTICS

• Involves eliciting and documenting stories of individual’s life experiences


• Based on premises that we understand or make sense of our live through
narratives
• Gather by interviews and conversations
• The stories are often analysed using thematic analysis procedures

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WHY NARRATIVE RESEARCH?

• To provide a voice for those normally unheard


• Explores educational research problems by analysing the experiences of an individual

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HOW TO DIFFER THOSE THREE RESEARCH DESIGN?

Design Focus

Case Study Organization or individual

Ethnography Culture or context

Narrative Inquiry Individual experiences

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ACTION RESEARCH

Systematic procedures done by teachers (or other individuals in an educational


Mills, 2011 setting) to gather information about, and subsequently improve, the ways their
particular educational setting operates, their teaching, and their student learning.

A means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups


Creswell, 2012 ascribe to a social or human problem.

Meredith & A form of applied research whose primary purpose is to increase the quality,
Joyce 2007 impact, and justice of education professionals'’ practice.

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ACTION RESEARCH’ S CYCLE

Select a Collect
Focus Data

Analyse
Continue &
/ Modify Interpret
Data

Take
Reflect
Action

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THANKS!
Any questions?
You can find me at @username & user@mail.me

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