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PREVENTING

POLLUTION FROM SHIPS

Annex I
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION
(MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX I)

Main Shipboard Oil Pollution Sources:

• engine room bilges


and fuel tanks ballast
• bunker operations
• tankers cargo operations
• tank washing and ballasting
operations on tankers
• other operations
• tankers accidents

accidental oil spills contribute to less than 5 - 10% of all oil pollution.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

The history of main tanker accidents:

1967 March 18, Cornwall, Eng.:

Torrey Canyon ran aground, spilling


her entire cargo of 120,000 tons of crude
oil off the Scilly Islands while entering
the English Channel.
This resulted in the biggest
oil pollution incident ever recorded up to
that time and was a result of poor
navigational practices.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION
In 1989 March 24, Prince William Sound, Alaska:
tanker Exxon Valdez hit an undersea reef and spilled 10 million
gallons of oil into the water, causing the worst oil spill in U.S. history
and probably the one which gained the biggest media coverage to
date. The U.S. public demanded action - and duly got it.
The United States introduced its Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90),
making it mandatory for all tankers calling at U.S. ports to have
double hulls.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

• 2000 Nov. 28, Mississippi River south of New Orleans: oil tanker
Westchester lost power and ran aground near Port Sulphur, La., dumping
567,000 gallons of crude oil into lower Mississippi. The spill was the largest
in U.S. waters since Exxon Valdez disaster in March 1989.

2002 Nov. 13, Spain: Prestige suffered


a damaged hull and was towed to sea
and sank. The oil tanker “Prestige” sank
off Spain's NW coast, taking more than
70,000 tonnes of fuel into the Atlantic
with it.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

“Special Areas” * according to Marpol:

Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea, Red Sea, Gulfs area,


Gulf of Aden,Oman Area of the Arabian Sea, **
NW European waters, Southern South Africa waters
Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures into the
Antarctic Area (south of latitude 60°S) is prohibited.

* In Annexes I, II, V - MARPOL defines certain sea areas as "special areas" in which, for
technical reasons relating to their oceanographic and ecological condition and to their sea
traffic a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea is required.

* * The Special Area requirements for these areas have not taken effect because of lack of
notifications from MARPOL Parties whose coastlines border the relevant special areas on
the existence of adequate reception facilities
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

1.Control of discharge of oil or oily mixtures from ships


machinery space and from fuel tanks

. Outside “Special Area” discharge may take place if:


• the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content
does note exceed 30 litres per nautical mile
• proceeding on voyage
• more than 50 miles from land
• discharge monitoring and control system is used to discharge
residue
• the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed
1/15,000 or 1/30,000* of the total quantity of the particular cargo of
which the residue formed a part ( * for tankers delivered after 31
December 1979 )
• the tanker is equipped with Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control
System and a Slop Tank arrangement
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

2. Construction requirements for


all ships machinery space:

• sludge tanks of adequate capacity with regard to the type of machinery


and length of voyage

• standard discharge connection fitted to the ship’s discharge pipeline for


residues from bilges and sludge tanks to enable connection to reception
facilities

• oil fuel tanks protection against collision/grounding (i.e. double hull) for
ships with an aggregate oil fuel capacity of 600 m³, delivered on or after
1 August 2010. A max. capacity limit of m³ per oil fuel tank is 2,500³
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

3. Requirements for equipment of


all ships machinery space

• All ships ≥400 GT must be fitted with oil filtering equipment


(Oily Water Separator) producing an effluent with oil content <15ppm

• Ships ≥ 10000 GT shall be fitted with oil filtering equipment


(15ppm) with alarm and automatic stopping device

• Oily Water Separators (OWS) and Oil Content Meters (OCM)


(bilge alarms) shall be approved as per IMO resolutions:
A.393(X), MEPC.60 (33) or since 01.012005 MEPC.107(49)
which states that:
- OWS to be tested also with a stable emulsion
- OCM to include a recording function for date, time, alarm
and operating status. All records to be stored for 18 months
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

6. Equipment requirements for oil tankers cargo area

6.1. Oil tankers ≥ 150 GT shall be equipped with Oil Discharge Monitoring
Equipment (ODME) approved by the Administration, which includes:
- a recording device to provide continuous record of the discharge in litres
per nautical mile and total quantity discharged, or
the oil content and rate of discharge.
Record shall be identifiable as to time
and date and shall be kept for at least
three years; any discharge of oily
mixture is automatically stopped when
exceeding the permitted instantaneous
rate of discharge of oil;
Design of the oil content meter to be
incorporated in the system shall comply
with IMO requirements.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

6.3. Every crude oil tanker ≥ 20,000 dwt


delivered after 1 June 1982
shall be fitted with a cargo tank cleaning system
using crude oil washing (COW)
approved by Administration.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

7. Oil Record Book requirements

• Part I - Machinery space Operations for tankers ≥ 150 GT


and for non tankers ≥ 400 GT
• Part II - Cargo/ballast operations for oil tanker ≥ 150 GT

• When making entries, the date, operational letter code


and item number must be inserted
and the required details recorded
in the record of operations

• Each completed operation


to be signed and dated by
officer in charge as soon
as the operation is over.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

8. Approved Shipboard Oil Pollution Plan (SOPEP)


required for oil tankers ≥ 150 GT and non-tankers ≥ 400 GT
SOPEP - based on IMO guidelines* is written in the
working language of the master and officers.

The plan shall consist of:


- the procedure to be followed by the master or other
persons having charge of the ship to report an oil
pollution incident,
- the list of authorities or persons to be
contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident;

For ships fulfilling reg. 17 of Marpol Annex II, SOPEP may be combined
with the shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid
substances and the title is changed to “Shipboard marine pollution
emergency plan”. SMPEP

* MEPC.54(32) as amended by resolution MEPC.86(44)


*
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

11. Surveys and Certification

- are required for ships ≥ 400 GT and oil tankers ≥ 150 GT.
International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPPC)
shall be issued:
- after an initial or renewal survey
- by the Administration or organization duly authorized by it.
- for a period not exceeding five years.

Certificate shall cease if the relevant surveys are not


completed, if the certificate is not endorsed, upon transfer
of the ship to the flag of another State.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

5. Certificates and documents to be carried onboard:

• Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (including the Record of


Construction and Equipment (Form A or B)
• Statement of compliance for Condition Assessment Scheme
(Tankers only)

Type of Approval Certificates:

• Oily Water Separator


• 15 PPM Alarm
• Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System
(Tankers Only)
• Oil/Water Interface Detector (Tanker Only)
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

6.2. COMMENCING CARGO OPERATIONS

Before any operation proper procedures must be adopted in


accordance with Oil Tanker Operating Instruction

• Cargo Planning
• Commencing Operations
• Precautions Before and During Loading
• Precautions Before Discharge
• Tank Cleaning Plan

All or parts of the above refer to the blanking of manifolds not in use,
checking valves and lines, the use of checklists, scuppers in place, trips
and alarms tested, commencing loading slowly, checking valves and
lines again once cargo operations underway, checking cargo going
into/out of correct tanks, proper watch keeping and communications as
well as the readiness of salvage pumps and clean-up equipment in case
of a spill.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

6.3. MONITORING OF OPERATIONS

Monitoring of all cargo operations is essential for the purpose of safety


and the avoidance of pollution.

Monitoring comprises:

• the cross checking of fixed with portable gauges


• the calculation of loading/discharge rates – unplanned
deviations in the loading rate must be investigated immediately
• checking pressures at the manifold
• ensuring cargo is being loaded/discharged from the correct
spaces and that spaces not involved in the
operation are checked
• check of moorings
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

14. Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA 90)


- authorized as an Act by the
United States Congress in 1990
- produced as a result of:

- Marine Pollution and in particular


of the M.V. Exxon Valdez incident

- series of amendments to the US


Federal anti-pollution acts known
as the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

The OPA 90 requirement;

All Vessels carrying oil in


bulk as a cargo into United
States waters must have an
approved Vessel Response
Plan (VRP) on board.

Under OPA 90, the clean-up must be carried out by the organisation, which
spilled the oil, this organisation is known as the ‘Responsible Party’ - this is any
person owning, operating or demise-chartering the vessel concerned.
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION
The Key elements of the OPA 90 Vessel Response Plan (VRP):

• general information about the ship


• notification procedures and contact numbers
• onboard spill mitigation procedures
• shore based response activities
• a list of contacts
• training procedures
• drill procedures
• plan review and update procedures
• specific information for each US Coast Guard Zone
• an appendix for vessel specific information

The OPA 90 VRP consists of the ship's MARPOL SOPEP but contains additional
information on the shore based organisations and individuals that are named in it.
Some states have requirements that are more rigorous than those defined in OPA
90.
NO QUESTIONS!!!
EVERYTHING HAS
BEEN COVERED
BY CAPT. MANI…..