REVIEW OF ORTHOPEDIC NURSING

OVERVIEW OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
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The musculoskeletal system includes 206 bones for adults which are connected at joints. The joints are held together by ligaments and cushioned by cartilages. tendons attach muscles to the bones.

FUNCTIONS:
Supports the soft tissue of the body and provide form and shape. ´ Facilitates movement ´ protections to the underlying organs ´ Hematopoiesis ´ Stores minerals for body use.
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2 MAIN DIVISIONS:
AXIAL SKELETON APPENDICULAR SKELETON

AXIAL SKELETON
‡Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) - Left and right Clavicle (2) and Scapula (2). ‡Arm and Forearm (6 bones) - Left and right Humerus (2) (Arm), Ulna (2) and Radius (2) (Fore Arm). ‡Hands (58 bones) - Left and right Carpal (16) (wrist), Metacarpal (10), Proximal phalanges (10), Middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and sesamoid (4). ‡Pelvis (2 bones) - Left and right os coxae (2) (ilium). ‡Thigh and leg (8 bones) - Femur (2) (thigh), Tibia (2), Patella (2) (knee), and Fibula (2) (leg). ‡Feet (56 bones) - Tarsals (14) (ankle), Metatarsals (10), Proximal phalanges (10), middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and sesamoid (4).

APPENDICULAR
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consists of those bones found in the midline of the body. there are 80 bones.
« SKULL

(28) « HYOID BONE(1) « VERTEBRAL COLUMN(26) « THORACIC CAGE(25)

SKULL

28 BONES
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Cranium (8)
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Frontal bone (1) Parietal bones (2) Occipital bone (1) Temporal bones (2) Sphenoid bone (1) Ethmoid bone (1)

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Facial (14)
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Maxillary bones (2) Zygomatic bones (2) Palatine bones (2) Mandible (1) Lacrimal bones (2) Nasal bones (2) Inferior nasal conchae (2) Vomer (1)
Ear Bones (3)
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Incus Malleus stapes

HYOID BONE -> 1 BONE

VERTEBRAL COLUMN 26 BONES

‡Cervical vertebrae (7) ‡Thoracic vertebrae (12) ‡Lumbar vertebrae (5) ‡Sacrum (1) ‡Coccyx (1)

THORACIC CAGE

25 BONES

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True ribs (14) False ribs (10) Sternum (1)

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