THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

EMERITA C. MENDOZA, R.N., M.D.

Functions of the Reproductive System
 Males:

to produce sperm  Females: to produce ova  Development of primary & secondary sexual characteristics  To engage in sexual responses  To allow fertilization, implantation of the fetus, & fetal development

Sexual Reproduction

Male Reproductive System:
 To

produce & release spermatozoa  To secrete testosterone

Female Reproductive System:
 To

produce ova & provide a place for growth of embryo  To secrete estrogen & progesterone

 Spermatozoon

(sperm cells) Head region Tail region M per ejaculation  fertilize ovum (fertilization)

 1/300

The Male Reproductive System

The Male Genitalia
 Penis:

average of 45 inches in length; 1 inch in width  Scrotum: carries the descended testes
 Penis:

2 spongy tissues:  corpus spongiosum

The Male Reproductive Tubules
  Seminiferous

->  Rete testis ->  Epididymis ->  Vas deferens ->  Ejaculatory ducts
 Volume

tubules

of semen:

seminal vesicles 60%  prostate 20%

The Prostate
 Capsule

of prostate  Fascia of Denonvilliers  3 concentric groups:  inner mucosals or suburethral  submucosals  outer prostatics  Open to prostatic sinus -> prostatic utricle

Scrotum

 Skin

& Dartos muscle  External spermatic fascia  Cremaster muscle  Internal spermatic fascia  Areolar tissue  Processus vaginalis  Mediastinum testis  Tunica vaginalis  Tunica albuginea

Cremasteric reflex
Performed

by stroking along the inguinal canal Contraction of the cremaster causes testes to move up, as in cold weather

TESTICULAR TORSION
 

Twisting of the spermatic cord Symptoms: sudden onset of pain, tenderness, swelling of affected cord Majority of cases is a MEDICAL EMERGENCY!!!!!!!

The Female Reproductive System

The Uterus

Histology of the Uterine Wall
 Note

the abundant uterine glands  Layers: (from inner to outer)  Endometrium
Stratum

functionalis Stratum basalis

Myometrium

The Adnexae or Adnexa
Referred

to as the appendages of the uterus. Composed of:
Ovaries Fallopian

tubes ligaments

The Breasts

The Menstrual Cycle

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