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Teflon©

A.k.a.: Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE

Eric Alberigi, Michael Gammon,


James Morison
History of Teflon ©
 Discovered on April 6, 1938 by a DuPont
chemist Dr. Roy J. Plunkett 1
Chemistry of Teflon©
 Consists of a chain of carbon atoms
completely surrounded by fluorine atoms.
 Fluorine atoms shield the carbon chain due
to strong bonds between them.
 Starts life out as a vinyl monomer.
 Undergoes free radical vinyl
polymerization turning into
polytetrafluorethylene. 6.
Properties of Teflon©

 Tensile Strength: 21-


34 MPa
 Melting Point: 327 °C
 Particle Size: 0.1-0.3
micron 8.
 Coefficient of Friction
Static: 0.12-0.15 5.
Kinetic: 0.05-0.10 1.
Properties of Teflon©
Continued
 Inert to virtually all chemicals.
 Lowest coefficient of friction of known
materials.
 Lowest dielectric constant of any known
plastic (1.89-2.1).
 Easy to mold and spin cast.
 Resists moisture. 1.
Properties of Teflon© Continued
 Teflon has the lowest dielectric Material Dielectric Constant Dielectric Strength
constant of any known plastic, (10^6 V/m)

ranging from 1.89-2.1, and can


Air 1.00059 3
maintain this constant at
extremely high frequencies Rubber 6.7 12

(GHz) which is good for Nylon 3.4 14


telecommunication devises. 1. It
has one of the highest dielectric Water 80 n/a

strengths which means it can


withstand a very high voltage Pyrex 5.6 14

without discharging. 10.


Fused Quartz 3.78 8
 Teflon has a high chemical
resistance to everything but Teflon 2.1 60

molten alkali metals and


fluorocarbon oils. 3. 10.
Applications of Teflon ©
 Teflon coated cookware
 Teflon impregnated
clothing
 Capacitors
 Teflon infused oils
 Teflon tubing, specifically
for chemistry applications
 Teflon coated bearings
 Teflon bench laminates
 Useful as a plastic
substitute when harsh
chemicals are involved
Teflon © Friction Test

This test was used to find the


static and kinetic coefficient of
friction of wood onto Teflon and
other materials.
Force probe was connected to a
block and was pulled at a constant
velocity.
Force vs. Time was then graphed.
Teflon © Friction Test
Material μk μs Material μk μs
Teflon 0.162 0.177 Plastic 0.321 0.395
Teflon 0.160 0.206 Plastic 0.286 0.346
Wood 0.359 0.504 Metal 0.302 0.346
Wood 0.391 0.496 Metal 0.279 0.316

Increase in Friction Force


Wood:
Dynamic 73 % Static 108 %
Plastic:
Dynamic 55 % Static 63%
Teflon © Friction Test
Coe fficie nt of Kine tic Friction

0.450

0.400

0.350

0.300

0.250 Teflon
Wood
Uk

Plas tic
0.200 Metal

0.150

0.100

0.050

0.000
Material

Coe fficie nt of Static Friction

0.600

0.500

0.400

Teflon
Wood
Us

0.300
Plas tic
Metal

0.200

0.100

0.000
Material
Teflon © Friction Test
 Why does Teflon have such a low coefficient of
friction and is so non-reactive?
 Both of these attributes derive from the same
property. When a foreign substance touches the
PTFE, it does not want to stick to it because the
fluorine makes such a tight bond with the carbon
the fluorine will repel the molecule trying to touch
it, for this reason, Teflon has a very low
coefficient of friction and is also non-reactive.
Bending Test

This test was performed to


determine the Modulus of elasticity
of PTFE.
Teflon plate was placed on two
stands and a load was placed onto
the Teflon. The deflection of the
board was then measured.
5.
Bending Test
 In order to determine the modulus of elasticity, we
have to factor in the size of our Teflon plate, to do
this, we first find second moment of inertia: I =
WH3/12 where W is the width, H is the height of
our sample.
 Next, we used the formula d = WL3/48EI, where d
is the displacement, W is the load, L is the
distance between the supports, E is the modulus of
elasticity, and I is the second moment of inertia. 5.
Bending Test Results
Load (N) vs. Displacement (m)

700

600

500
Load (N)

400

300

200

100

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016
Displacement (m)
Bending Test Results
Material Modulus of
 We determined the Elasticity
modulus of elasticity to be (Gpa)
0.82 GPa from the data
taken above. This seems Aluminum 25
to be correct because it is
relatively low compared to Magnesium 17
metals, this means that the Steel 83
Teflon is not as stiff as
metals that we have Tungsten 160
studied.
Teflon 0.82
9.
Question Page
 Question: If Teflon doesn’t stick to
anything, how does it stick to my frying
pan?
 Question: What National Monument uses
Teflon?
 Question: What are some good applications
of Teflon?
Answer Page
 Answer 1: The pan is
bead-blasted and a
primer is applied to
the pan, then the
Teflon is imbedded
into the primer.
 Answer 2: The Statue
of Liberty has a Teflon
coated steel structure
so it does not ruin the
copper skin.
Conclusion
 Teflon's properties of being non-reactive
and having an extremely low coefficient of
friction gives it a wide variety of uses.
From Teflon coated bearings and
windshield wipers, to stain resistant Teflon
impregnated pants, Teflon helps improves
our lives in many ways.
 It could be possibly the greatest material
ever invented (by mistake) by man.
References
1. www.dupont.con/teflon/af/potapps.html
2. http://www.boedeker.com/teflon_p.htm
3. www2.rpa.net/~kras1474/tefuses.html
4. www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/electroneg.html
5. www.chemguide.co.uk/basicorg/bonding/eneg.html
6. www.warwickmills.com/teflon.html
7. http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/BD1/printall.php
8. www.chenguang-chemi.com/sfn-1.htm
9. Callister, William D. Materials Science and Engineering an
Introduction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2003.
10. Serway, Raymond A., and John W. Jewett. Physics for Scientists and
Engineers. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004.
11. http://www.theaviary.com/teflon.shtml