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Dec 03, 2018

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Power Point Presentation of Exponential and Logarithmic Function

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Power Point Presentation of Exponential and Logarithmic Function

© All Rights Reserved

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functions

Topic 1: Exponential and logarithmic functions

• Exponential functions

• Definition, properties, graph

• Compound interest

• Logarithmic functions

• Definition, properties, graph

• Exponential and logarithmic equations

3

Introductory example

An amount of 1000 EUR is invested in a savings account yielding 3%

of compound interest each year.

Express the amount 𝐴 in the account in terms of the time 𝑡 (in years,

starting from the time of investment). 𝐴 = 1000 ∙ 1.03𝑡

When will the amount in the savings account be equal to 1500 euro?

Find 𝑡 such that 𝐴 = 1500.

1000 1.03 1500

t

1.03 1.5

t (divide by 1000 on both sides)

equation: unknown

is in the exponent t log1.03 log1.5 (apply log 𝑎𝑟 = 𝑟 log 𝑎 )

log1.5

t 13.7...

Answer: After about 13.7 years, log1.03

the amount is equal to 1500 euro.

4

Exponential equations

• An exponential equation is an equation in which the

unknown appears at least once in the exponent.

• To solve an exponential equation of the form 𝑎 ∙ 𝑏 𝑥 = 𝑐

(where 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 are positive numbers):

𝑐

o divide both sides by 𝑎: 𝑏 𝑥 =

𝑎

𝑐

o take the logarithm of both sides: log(𝑏 𝑥 ) = log

𝑎

𝑐

o apply rule for logarithm of a power: 𝑥 ∙ log 𝑏 = log

𝑎

𝑐

log 𝑎

o divide both sides by log 𝑏 : 𝑥 =

log 𝑏

1.05𝑥 = 2.

5

Introductory example

Ann invests an amount of 1000 EUR in a savings account yielding 3% of

compound interest each year. John invests 900 EUR in a savings account

yielding 3.5% of compound interest each year.

When will they have the same amount in their savings account?

𝐴 = 1000 ∙ 1.03𝑡 𝐽 = 900 ∙ 1.035𝑡 Find 𝑡 such that 𝐴 = 𝐽.

t

t t 1.03

log log 0.9

1.03t 900 1.035

1.03

t

1.035 1000 t log log 0.9

t 1.035

1.03

0.9

log 0.9

t 21.7...

1.035 1.03

log

Answer: It takes nearly 22 years before 1.035

the two amounts are equal.

6

Exponential equations

• An exponential equation is an equation in which the

unknown appears at least once in the exponent.

• To solve an exponential equation of the form 𝑎1 ∙ 𝑏1𝑥 = 𝑎2 ∙ 𝑏2𝑥

(where 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑏1 and 𝑏2 are positive numbers):

𝑎2

o divide both sides by 𝑎1 : 𝑏1𝑥 = ∙ 𝑏2𝑥

𝑎1

𝑏1𝑥 𝑎2

o divide both sides by 𝑏2𝑥 : =

𝑏2𝑥 𝑎1

𝑏1 𝑥 𝑎2

o apply rule for quotient of powers: =

𝑏2 𝑎1

3 ∙ 1.05𝑥 = 2 ∙ 1.08𝑥 .

7

Exercise

Solve the following exponential equations:

1 𝑥

• 3∙ 2

+ 7 = 55

• 5 + 3 ∙ 4𝑥−1 = 12

1 𝑥

• 2∙ 3𝑥 −5∙

3

=0

8

Logarithmic equations

• A logarithmic equation is an equation in which the unknown

appears in the base or as an argument of a logarithm.

exponential and logarithmic functions and remember that:

o 𝑦 = log 𝑔 𝑥 ⇔ 𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑦

o log 𝑔 𝑚 = log 𝑔 𝑛 ⇔ 𝑚 = 𝑛

o 𝑏𝑚 = 𝑏𝑛 ⇔ 𝑚 = 𝑛

o 𝑏 log𝑏 𝑥 = 𝑥

o log 𝑏 (𝑏 𝑥 ) = 𝑥

9

Exercise

Solve the following logarithmic equations:

2

a) log2 = 3 + log2x

𝑥

b) ln(2𝑥 − 1) = 3

c) log(5𝑥 + 1) = log(4𝑥 + 2)

d) e3ln𝑥 = 8

10

• The following section in the course book deal with the topic

in this slideshow

o 4.4 Logarithmic and Exponential Equations

• Most of the exercises to these sections are interesting as

well: some as technical finger exercises, some as word

problems.

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