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Research Methods

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 06:
Sample Designs and Sampling Procedures
Sampling Terminology
 Sample: A subset, or some part, of a larger population.

 Population or universe: A complete group of entities sharing

some common set of characteristics.

 Population element: An individual member of a specific


 Census: An investigation of all the individual elements

making up a population.
Stages in the
Define the target population
of a Sample Select a sampling frame

Determine if a probability or nonprobability

sampling method will be chosen

Plan procedure
for selecting sampling units

Determine sample size

Select actual sampling units

Conduct fieldwork
Two Major Categories of Sampling
 Probability sampling: A sampling technique in which every
member of the population has known, nonzero probability of
 Two types of probability sampling
o Simple Random Sampling
o Complex Random Sampling: Includes
i)Systematic sample, ii) Stratified sample, iii) Cluster sample,
iv) Multistage area sample
 Non probability sampling : A sampling technique in which units of
the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or
i) Convenience, ii) Judgment, iii) Quota , iv) Snowball
Simple Random Sampling

The simple random sample is considered a special case in

which each population element has a known and equal
chance of selection.
Easy to implement with automatic dialing (random-digit dialing) and
with computerized voice response systems
 Requires a listing of population elements.
 Takes more time to implement.
 Uses larger sample sizes.
 Produces larger errors.
Systematic Sampling
 In this approach, every kth ele-ment in the population is
sampled, beginning with a random start of an element in the
range of 1 to k.
To draw a systematic sample, do the following:
 Identify, list, and number the elements in the population.
 Identify the skip interval (k).
 Identify the random start.
 Draw a sample by choosing every kth entry.
 Simple to design.
 Easier to use than the simple random. Easy to determine
sampling distribution of mean or proportion.
 Periodicity within the population may skew the sample and
 If the population list has a mono-tonic trend, a biased
estimate will result based on the start point.
Stratified Sampling
Most populations can be segregated into several mutually
exclusive subpopulations, or strata. The process by which the
sample is constrained to include elements from each of the
segments is called stratified random sampling.
 Researcher controls sample size in strata.
 Increased statistical efficiency. Provides data to represent and analyze
 Enables use of different methods in strata
 Increased error will result if subgroups are selected at different rates.
 Especially expensive if strata on the population have to be created.
Cluster Sampling
The population can also be divided into groups of elements with
some groups randomly selected for study. This is cluster
sampling. Cluster sampling differs from stratified sampling in
several ways
 Provides an unbiased estimate of population parameters if properly done.
 Economically more efficient than simple random.
 Lowest cost per sample, especially with geographic clusters.
 Easy to do without a population list.
 Often lower statistical efficiency (more error) due to subgroups being
homogeneous rather than heterogeneous.
Why Non probability Sampling?

1.Satisfactorily meet the sampling objectives.

2. Cost and time

3. Provide acceptable results

4. Feasible alternative
Nonprobability Sampling
 Convenience: The sampling procedure used to obtain those units
or people most conveniently available.
 Judgment: A technique in which an experienced individual selects
the sample based upon some appropriate characteristic of the
sample member.
 Quota: A procedure that ensures that various subgroups in the
population are represented pertinent characteristics to the exact
extent that the investigator desire
 Snowball: A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are
selected by probability methods and additional respondents are
obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.
Sampling Error:
 Random Sampling Error
 Non Sampling Error/Systematic Error
Random Sampling Error
 The difference between the sample results and the result of a
census conducted using identical procedures
Systematic Errors:
Occurs when
 Imperfect aspect of the research design that involves;
 Response error
 Mistake in the execution of the research
 Error comes from such sources as sample bias
 Mistake in recording responses
 Sampling frame error (when certain sample elements are
excluded or when the entire population is not accurately
represented in the sampling frame)
 Non response error (The statistical difference between a
survey that includes only those who responded and a survey
that also includes who failed to respond).
Determine the Sample Size
z 2 p (1  p )
z  tabulated zvalue 90  1.645, 95  1.96 99  2.576
p  proportion
e  error , level of confidence
N  PopulationSize
When population Size known
n0 N
n0  ( N  1)