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[A factual text, used to explain a process (natural

and social phenomena) to answer “why, how, what


causes, what happens when/if…”]

EXPLANATION
GENERIC STRUCTURE
• Generalized Statement(s)
• Details of how and why in a
series of logical steps (in
paragraphs)
• Closing (optional)
LANGUAGE FEATURES
• Simple Present Tense
• Generic, non human participant
(he/she/one)
• Time relationship (first, then, next,
finally)
• Cause-effect relationship (thus, so
that, if)
• Passive voice
Examples of Cause – Effects:
• The concert has been cancelled owing to
the lack of support.
• Due to his health, he can only work part
time.
• Her lack of interest leads to her failure.
• The consequence of eating too much is
having a stomach ache.

Note:
owing to, due to = preposition, lead to =
verb, the consequence of = noun phrase
EXPLANATION OR
PROCEDURE?
SIMILARITIES
• Both texts have the similarity in
which both describe how to make
or done something. They give
the detail description on
something, phenomena, goods,
product case or problem.
DIFFERENCES
PROCEDURE
• Commonly called as instruction text. It uses
pattern of command in building the structure.
It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted
the “to”. It is a kind of instruction text which
uses full command verb. Procedure is
commonly used to describe how to make
something which is close to our daily activity.
• Examples:
how to make a cup of tea
how to make a good kite
etc
DIFFERENCES
EXPLANATION
• Commonly used the passive voice in
building the text. Explanation is such a
scientific written material. It describes how
certain phenomenon or event happen. It
uses passive pattern in describing the
topic.
• Examples:
How a tornado form
how tsunami works
EXPLANATION TEXT
• Show a knowledge about how thing
is formed.
• Often use technical terms related to
the thing which is being explained.
• Is commonly composed in the mode
of simple present tense.
HOW CHOCOLATE IS
MADE
• General statement; it is a statement
which says about chocolate and how it is
formed
• Sequenced explanation; it is a series of
explanation on how chocolate is formed
before we eat. First, the chocolate is
coming from the cacao tree. Then it is
fermented and shipped to the chocolate
producer. The cacao bean then are roasted
and winnowed.
HOW CHOCOLATE IS MADE
Chocolate starts from a tree called cacao tree. This tree grows
in equatorial regions, especially in places such as South
America, Africa, and Indonesia. The cacao tree produces a fruit
about the size of a small pineapple. Inside the fruits are the
tree's seeds. They are also known as coco beans.
Next, the beans are fermented for about a week, and dried in
the sun. After that they are shipped to the chocolate maker.
The chocolate maker starts by roasting the beans to bring out
the flavor. Different beans from different places have different
qualities and flavor. So they are often sorted and blended to
produce a distinctive mix.
The next process is winnowing. The roasted beans are
winnowed to remove the meat nib of the cacao bean from its
shell. Then the nibs are blended. The blended nibs are ground
to make it a liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. It
tastes bitter.
All seeds contain some amount of fat and cacao beans are not
different. However, cacao beans are half fat. It is pure bitter
chocolate.
How does Rain Happen?
Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the
world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as
well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept


of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth's surface
water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water
vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere. The water in the
atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The
droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as
precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.
However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates
while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon
which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.
In this way, the crude oil is separated into the various fractions, which
are drawn off ready for further refining.

The vapors at the bottom of the tower are the hottest, and those at the
higher levels are cooler.

This is done by heating the crude oil, which is pumped to the bottom of a
tall steel tube called a ‘fractionating tower’.

Crude oil is made up of a number of different ingredients and each of


these boils and vaporizes at a different temperature.

This tower is divided into compartments all the way up and the very hot
petroleum enters to the bottom of the tower as a vapor.

Oil is first distilled, which breaks it down into gas, petrol, paraffin,
lubricating oil, diesel, and other fuel oils and asphalt.

Petrol collects in the top trays, paraffin condenses a little lower down and
the other oils become liquids at even lower levels.

At the bottom of each compartment in the tower are trays, and the
different vapors condense, or turn into liquid, on the trays at different
levels.
Before crude oil can be used, it has to be processed in a
refinery and converted into many different products. Oil is
first distilled, which breaks it down into gas, petrol, paraffin,
lubricating oil, diesel, and other fuel oils and asphalt. This is
done by heating the crude oil, which is pumped to the
bottom of a tall steel tube called a ‘fractionating tower’. This
tower is divided into compartments all the way up and the
very hot petroleum enters to the bottom of the tower as a
vapor. Crude oil is made up of a number of different
ingredients and each of these boils and vaporizes at a
different temperature. The vapors at the bottom of the
tower are the hottest, and those at the higher levels are
cooler. At the bottom of each compartment in the tower are
trays, and the different vapors condense, or turn into liquid,
on the trays at different levels.
Petrol collects in the top trays, paraffin condenses a little
lower down and the other oils become liquids at even lower
levels. In this way, the crude oil is separated into the various
fractions, which are drawn off ready for further refining.