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NERVOUS SYSTEM

Ahmad aminuddin
NERVOUS SYSTEM

 STRUCTURALLY
 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
 PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
 FUNCTIONALLY
 SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
NERVOUS TISSUE
 NEURON
 CELL BODY WITH DENDRITE AND AXON.
 SYNAPS.
 NEUROGLIA
 C.N.S
 OLIGODENDROGLIA.
 ASTROCYTE.
 EPENDYMAL CELL.
 MICROGLIA.
 P.N.S.
 SATELLITE CELL.
 NEUROLEMMA ( SCHWANN ) CELL.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
 CONSIST OF
 BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD.
 NUCLEUS
 TRACT
 COMPOSED OF
 GRAY MATTER - NERVE CELL BODIES.
 WHITE MATTER - TRACT.
 MENINGES
 PIAMATER.
 ARACHNOID.
 DURAMATER.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

 PERIPHERAL N
 CRANIAL N
 SPINAL N
 SUPPORTED AND PROTECTED
 ENDONEURIUM.
 PERINEURIUM.
 EPINEURIUM.
CERVICAL PLEXUS

fig 8.11 1062


BRACHIAL PLEXUS
INTERCOSTAL NERVES
LUMBAR PLEXUS
CRANIAL AND SPINAL P.N.
 SOMATIC FIBERS
 GENERAL SENSORY F. ( G.S.A.)
 EXTEROCEPTIVE SENSATION.
 PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSATION.
 SOMATIC MOTOR FIBERS ( G.S.E.)
 VISCERAL FIBERS
 VISCERAL SENSORY FIBERS ( G.V.A.)
 GENERAL MOTOR FIBERS ( G.V.E.)
 PRESYNAPTIC FIBERS.
 POSTSYNAPTIC FIBERS.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

 CONSIST OF
 SOMATIC PART OF THE C.N.S.
 SOMATIC PART OF THE P.N.S.
 INNERVATION TO
 ALL PART OF THE BODY ,EXCEPT
 VISCERA IN THE BODY CAVITY.
 SMOOTH MUSCLES.

 GLANDS.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

 PROVIDES
 THE SOMATIC SENSORY SYSTEM
TRANSMITS SENSATION OF TOUCH, PAIN, TEMPERATURE
AND POSITION.
 THE SOMATIC MOTOR SYSTEM
INNERVATES ONLY SKELETAL MUSCLES.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
 DIVISION
 SYMPATHETIC.
 PARASYMPATHETIC.
 THE ANATOMICAL DISTINCTION
 THE LOCATION OF THE PRESYNAPTIC CELL BODIES.
 WHICH NERVES CONDUCT THE PRESYNAPTIC FIBER
FROM THE C.N.S.
 THE FUNCTIONAL DISTINCTION
 THE POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON LIBERATE
-NOREPINEPHRINE - SYMPATHETIC.
-ACETYLCHOLINE - PARASYMPATHETIC.
SYMPATHETIC DIVISION

 THE CELL BODIES OF THE PRESYNAPTIC


NEURON ARE FOUND IN THE INTERMEDI
OLATERAL CELL COLUMNS.
 THE CELL BODIES OF THE POSTSYNAP -
TIC NEURON OCCUR IN
 PARAVERTEBRAL GANGLIA.
 PREVERTEBRAL GANGLIA.
PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
 PRESYNAPTIC NEURON CELL BODIES ARE
LOCATED
 IN THE GRAY MATTER OF THE BRAIN STEM, THE
FIBERS EXIT THE C.N.S. WITHIN THE CRANIAL N.
III, VII, IX AND X - CRANIAL PARASYMPATHETIC
OUTFLOW
 IN THE GRAY MATTER OF THE SACRAL SEG- MEN ( S
2-4 ) THE FIBERS EXIT THE C.N.S THROUGH THE
ANTERIR ROOTS OF SACRAL SPINAL N S 2-4 AND
THE PELVIC SPLANCHNIC N THA T ARISE FROM
THEIR ANTERIOR RAMI – SACRAL PARASYMPATHE-
TIC OUTFLOW
CRANIAL NERVES.
 C.N. CARRY ONE OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWING
FIVE MAIN FUNCTION ;
 MOTOR ( EFFERENT ) FIBERS.
 MOTOR FIBERS TO VOLUNTARY (STRIATED) MUSCLE
 SOMATIC MOTOR.
 BRANCHIAL MOTOR.
 MOTOR FIBERS INVOLVED IN INNERVATING INVO LUNTARY
(SMOOTH) MUSCLES OR GLANDS
 SENSORY ( AFFERENT ) FIBERS
 FIBERS CONVEYING SENSATION FROM THE VSCR
 FIBERS TRANSMITTING GENERAL SENSATION
 FIBERS TRANSMITTING UNIQUE SENSATION
STRUCTURE OF THE SCALP

 SKIN.
 CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
 APONEUROSIS.
 LOOSE AREOLAR TISSUE.
 PERICRANIUM.
CLINICAL ASPECT
 SCALP WOUND
 SUPERFICIAL S.W.
 DEEP S.W.
 SCALP INFECTIONS
 LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS THE DANGER AREA.
 EMISSARY VEIN.
 ECHYMOSIS.
 SEBACEOUS CYSTS
 CEPHALHEMATOMA
CRANIAL MENINGES
 PROTECT THE BRAIN.
 FORM THE SUPPORTING FRAMEWORK
FOR ARTERIES, VEINS AND VENOUS SINU
SES.
 ENCLOSE A FLUID-FILLED CAVITY, THE
SUBARACHNOID SPACE, WICH IS VITAL
TO THE NORMAL FUNCTION OF THE
BRAIN
MENINGES

 DURA MATER.
 ARACHNOID MATER.
 SUBARACHNOID SPACE WITH C.F.S.
 PIA MATER.
DURA MATER

 DURAL INFOLDINGS
 CEREBRAL FALX.
 CEREBELLAR TENTORIUM.
 CEREBELLAR FALX.
 SELLAR DIAPHRAGM
CLINICAL ASPECT
 BLUNT TRAUMA TO THE HEAD
 FRACTURE OF THE CRANIAL BASE USUALLY TEARS THE DURA
AND RESULTS IN LEAKAGE OF C.F.F.
 TENTORIAL HERNIATION
 TENTORIAL HERNIATION, THE TEMPORAL LOBE MAY BE
LACERATED BY THE TOUGH CEREBELLAR TENTORIUM AND THE
OCULOMOTOR N. MAY BE STRECHED, COMPRESSED –
PARALYSIS OF THE EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES.
 BULGING OF THE SELLAR DIAPHRAGM
 PITUITARY TUMOR – SUPERIOR EXTENSION MAY CAUSE
PRESSURE ON THE OPTIC CHIASM – VISUAL SYMPTOM.
DURAL VENOUS SINUSES

 SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS.


 INFERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS.
 TRANSVERSE SINUS.
 OCCIPITAL SINUS.
 CAVERNOUS SINUS.
 SUPERIOR PETROSAL SINUSES.
 INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUSES.
EMISSARY VEINS

 FRONTAL E.V.
 PARIETAL E.V.
 MASTOID E.V.
 POSTERIOR CONDYLAR E.V.
VASCULATURE OF THE DURA
MATER
 ARTERIAL SUPPLY
 ANTERIOR BRANCH AND
 POSTERIOR BRANCH OF THE MIDDLE
MENINGEAL ARTERY.
 VENOUS DRAINAGE
 ACCOMPANY THE MENINGEAL A.,THE
MIDDLE MENINGEAL V.- PTERYGOID PLEXUS
LEPTO MENUNGITIS

 USUALLY CONFINED TO SUBARACHNOID


SPACE AND ARACHNOID-PIA.
 THE BACTERIA FROM
 AN INFECTIOUS OF THE HEART, LUNG AND
OTHER VISCERA.
 NASAL SINUS.
BRAIN
 THE CEREBRUM
 FRONTAL LOBES.
 THE PARIETAL LOBES.
 THE TEMPORAL LOBES.
 THE OCCIPITAL LOBES.
 THE DIENCEPHALON
 EPITHALAMUS.
 DORSALTHALAMUS.
 HYPOTHALAMUS.
 THE MIDBRAIN
 THE PONS
 THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA
 THE CEREBELLUM
THE BRAINSTEM
 THE MIDBRAIN
 LIE AT THE JUNCTION OF THE MIDDLE AND ANTERIOR
CRANIAL FOSSA.
 C.N. III, C.N. IV.
 THE PONS
 LIE IN THE ANTERIOR PART OF THE POSTERIOR CRANIAL
FOSSA.
 C.N. V.
 THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA
 LIES IN THE POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA.
 C.N. IX, C.N.X, C.N.XII
- C.N.VI – C.N.VIII AT THE JUNCTION OF PONS AND MEDULLA.
CEREBRAL INJURIES
 CEREBRAL CONCUSSION
 CONSCIOUSNESS MAY BE LOST FOR ONLY 8 – 10 SEC., IN
MORE SEVERE INJURIES CONS SCIOUSNESS MAY BE LOST
FOR HOURS AND EVEN DAYS.
 CEREBRAL CONTUSION
 THE PIA IS STRIPPED FRON THE INJURED SURFACE OF THE
BRAIN AND MAY BE TORN, ALLOWING BLOOD TO ENTER THE
SUBARACHNOID SPACE, MAY RESULT IN AN EXTENDED LOST
OF CONSCIOUSNESS
 CEREBRAL LACERATION
 DEPRESSED CRANIAL FRCT – RUPTURE BLOOD VESSEL – BLEE
DING INTO THE BRAIN AND SUBARACHNOID SPACE, CAUSING
INCREASE INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE AND CEREBRAL COMPRE
SSION.