IOFS -01


By Dr. Sahab Prasad

Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

Alloy is defined as the combination of two or more chemical elements, one of which MUST be a metal and the resultant product should have metallic characteristics. Alloys could be Binary, Ternary, Quaternary and so on depending upon the number of elements present. Alloys are classified based on the structure they have i.e. a] homogeneous b] mixture

Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

Phases in Alloy Structure
Phase : A phase is something which is physically distinct, chemically homogeneous and
to some extent mechanically separable (on the microstructure level)

Possible phases in Solid state a] Pure Metal b] Compound / intermediate alloy phase c] Solid Solution

Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

TiH. CaSe. Ti. Fe.g.O.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . W and C.g. Mg2Sn.H.N e. Ag5Cd8. W. TiC. Ta. AgCd.g. Cu2Se b] Interstitial Compounds ± between transition metals Sc.Phases in Alloy Structure Compounds: a] Valence Compounds ± between two dissimilar metals following valence rules e. Fe4N.B. TaC. Fe3C c] Electron Compounds ± Some of the alloy systems show similar lattice structure at or near compositions having a definite electron / atom ratios e. AgCd3 Padaqa.

Can have either of the following a] Limited Solubility b] Unlimited Solubility (e. Restricted solublities.Phases in Alloy Structure Solid Solutions: A solution in solid state. Relative size factor. Austenite Interstitial: Padaqa.g. Sb-Bi) Unlimited Solubility solid solutions follow Hume-Rothery Guide-lines / factors viz. Cu-Ni. Crystal lattice factor. Substitutional : Where solute atoms substitute / replace the solvent atoms in the solvent lattice. Chemical affinity factor & Relative valence factor Where solute atoms occupy interstitial (in between) sites in the solvent lattice. Au-Ag.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Important examples include Ferrite.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Substitutional Solid Solution Disordered Solid Solution Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Substitutional Solid Solution Ordered Solid Solution Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Interstitial Solid Solution Padaqa.

solutions Padaqa.Cooling Curves Liq Liq Liq+s s s For the pure Metals & most of the Compounds For the Solid .iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Amount of Phases.Alloy Phase Diagrams Number of Phases. Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Type of Phases & Form of Phases So we must know a] the conditions under which these phases exist b] the conditions under which a change will occur Great deal of information regarding phase changes is accumulated and recorded in graphical form in the form of what is known as Phase / Equilibrium / Constitution Diagrams.

ISOMORPHOUS SYSTEMS ‡ Have complete solubility in the liquid and solid states. ‡ Range of freezing temperature ‡ Depression / Elevation of freezing point of pure component Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Padaqa.Construction of Phase Diagram By taking a series of cooling curves for the same system over a range of compositions the liquidus and solidus temperatures for each composition can be determined allowing the solidus and liquidus to be mapped to determine the phase diagram.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Padaqa. This allows the solidus and liquidus to be plotted to produce the phase diagram. the cooling curves indicate the temperatures of the solidus and liquidus for a given composition.Construction of Phase Diagram By removing the time axis from the curves and replacing it with composition.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

T) the phase diagram can answer the following: 1. What are the relative amounts of the phases (phase proportions or phase fractions)? Padaqa. What are the phase compositions? 3.Phase Diagram For any given point (x.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . What phases are present? 2.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Cu-Ni Binary Phase Diagram Any given point (x. T) on the phase diagram represents an alloy of composition x held at equilibrium at temperature T Point A: 60 wt% Ni at 1100ºC E Point B: 35 wt% Ni at 1250ºC Padaqa.

II Padaqa.I Q: Phase amounts ? Rule .iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Cu-Ni Binary Phase Diagram Point A: 60 wt% Ni at 1100ºC Q: Phase present? Ans: E Q: Phase composition ? Ans: 60 wt% Ni Q: Phase amount ? Ans: 100% Point B: 35 wt% Ni at 1250ºC Q: Phases present? Ans: E + L Q: Phase compositions ? Rule .

Composition of phases in the two-phase region Rule .iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .5 wt% Ni CE= 42.5 wt% Ni Padaqa.I CL= 31.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .II Tie-Line: A lever E L Alloy composition C0: Fulcrum fL: weight at liquidus point fE: weight at solidus point The lever is balanced f L (C0  CL ) ! f (C  C0 ) f  f !1 f ! E E   0 opposite lever arm ! total lever arm Padaqa.Amount of phases in the two-phase region Rule .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .727 f !     Single phase polycrystalline E Padaqa.Development of Microstructure during Solidification 35  32 3 ! ! 0.273 43  32 11 f L ! 1  f ! 0.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .The Eutectic System Padaqa.

The Eutectic System Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

The Eutectic System / Reaction Tin ± Bismuth Alloy System EUTECTIC means EASY / LOWEST MELTING LIQUID SOLID 1 + SOLID 2 Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .The Eutectic Transformation Padaqa.

Eutectic Reaction & Eutectic Alloy Invariant reaction L 62 wt%Sn cool 183ºC E 18 wt%Sn  F 97 wt%Sn Eutectic mixture 375 X Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

5 Padaqa.5 ! 0.5 62  18 44 f eut E F ! 1  0.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Hypoeutectic Alloy Eutectic mixture EF Proeutectic or Primary E 18 62 97 Amount of proeutectic E at a temperature just below 183ºC = Amount of E at a temperature just above 183ºC Tie line just below 183ºC (green) f pro E ! 62  40 22 ! ! 0 .

Hypoeutectic Alloy Eutectic mixture EF Proeutectic or Primary E 18 62 97 Amount of total E and total F at a temperature just below 183ºC Tie line just below 183ºC (red) ¡ f total 97  40 57 ! ! ! 0 .iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .72 ! 0.28 Padaqa. 72 97  18 79 f total F ! 1  0.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Phase Transformations Padaqa.

Lead ² Tin Phase Diagram Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Aluminum ² Silicon Phase Diagram Padaqa.

4 wt% C Razor blades scissors. knives Padaqa.3 wt% C Bicycle frame Ship hull Car body Medium C steel 0.8-1.4-0.Iron ² Carbon System Mild steel 0-0.7 wt% C Rail wheel rail axle rails High C steel 0.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Phases in Fe-Fe3C system Phase Liquid H-Ferrite Symbol L H K E Description Liquid solution of Fe and C Interstitial solid solution of C in H-Fe (high temperature bcc phase) Interstitial solid solution of C in K-Fe (FCC phase of Fe) Interstitial solid solution of C in E-Fe (room temperature bcc phase) Soft and Ductile Interstitial compound of Fe and C (orthorhombic system) Hard and Brittle Eutectoid mixture of ferrite & cementite Eutectic mixture of austenite & cementite Austenite Ferrite Cementite Pearlite Fe3C E + Fe3C Ledeburite K + Fe3C Padaqa.

5 wt % C ) €€€p H (0.67 wt % C ) € 725 o C Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .02 wt % C )  Fe3C (6.1 wt 1150 o C C )  Fe3C (6.67 wt C) Eutectoid Reaction K (0.8 wt % C ) €€ p E (0.18 wt % C ) 1493o C L ( 4.3 wt C ) €€€p K (2.Invariant Reactions in Fe-Fe3C system Peritectic Reaction E (0.1 wt % C )  Eutectic Reaction (0.

02 0.02 6.78 ! ! ! 0.117 6.8  0.67  0.02 6.8 0.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .65 Padaqa.67 725 o C cool Pearlite f pearlite F3C 0.The Eutectoid Reaction K € €€ p E  Fe 3 C 0.

Hypoeutectoid Steel Development of Microstructure Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Hypereutectoid Steel Development of Microstructure Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Microstructure of Steels Eutectoid steel E+Fe3C Hypoeutectoid steel E+Fe3C Hypereutectoid steel E+Fe3C Pearlite Pearlite + proeutectoid ferrite Pearlite + proeutectoid cementite Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Heat Treatment Padaqa.

Why Heat Treatment? To relieve internal stresses set up during cold-working. To improve machineability To change grain size To soften metals for further treatment as wire drawing and cold rolling To improve mechanical properties To modify the structure to increase wear. casting. welding and hot-working operations. heat and corrosion resistance To remove trapped gases To remove coring and segregation Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

What is Heat Treatment? Metals Handbook defines heat treatment as µA combination of heating and cooling operations. timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state in a way that will produce desired* properties¶ *structure and hence the desired mechanical Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Annealing Aim To refine the grain To induce softness To improve machineability in some cases Process Heat to 20-25 degree C above the UCT (A3) for hypoeutectoid steel and LCT (A3.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .1) for hypereutectoid steels Hold Cool in thermally insulated vessel or the furnace itself. Padaqa.


Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

Prolonged holding at a temperature just below the LCT Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just above and just below the LCT Heating to a temperature above LCT and then either cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below LCT Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

Spheroidised Structure

Padaqa- iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI

Normalising Aim To produce a harder and stronger steel than full annealing Process Heat to 35-40 degree C above the UCT Hold Cool in still air Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Normalising Effects of faster cooling Equilibrium diagram no more valid Lesser amount of proeutectoid constituent is formed Temperature of Eutectoid transformation is lowered and Pearlite becomes finer.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Normalised Structure Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Hardening Process Heat to 20-25 degree C above the UCT for hypoeutectoid steel and LCT for hypereutectoid steels Hold Cool rapidly in water / brine Padaqa.

Heating Range for various Processes Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .  Transformation proceeds during cooling and ceases if cooling is interrupted i. Cu-Al systems.e.  Maximum hardness from martensitic condition in steel is a function of carbon content only.  Transformation of a given alloy can neither be suppressed nor the Ms temperature be changed by altering cooling rate.Martensitic Transformation  Transformation is diffusionless with no change in Chemical composition. it depends only on decrease in temperature and independent of time.  It can be formed from austenite only. Cu-Zn.  It is a product in transition between unstable austenite and stable ferrite ± cementite mixture.  Also found in Fe-Ni. Padaqa.

Martensitic Transformation Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Martensitic Hardness Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Martensitic Structure Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Martensitic Structure Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . b] when it ends and c] what is the transformation product. and hardness Padaqa. of samples and austenitise them. Step 2: Transfer some of them to a furnace at sub-critical temperature Step 3: Take them out one by one at regular interval of time quench in iced water / brine. Why? Construction of IT Diagram Step 1: Take a large no.3 & 4 for various sub-critical temperatures. Step 4: Study them for microstructure and confirm by measurements. Step 5: Repeat steps 2. it is necessary to know at a particular temperature a] when transformation begins.Isothermal Transformation Diagrams Since austenite is unstable below LCT.

Isothermal Transformation Diagram Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Close to annealing CR2.Typically may be called as cycle-annealing CR3 .iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Padaqa.Close to Water Quench CR7 .Some Intermediate Cooling CR6 .Close to normalising CR4 .Critical Cooling Rate* CR6 + 8 ± Close to Austempering * Dependent on carbon and alloying element concentrations and austenitic grain size.Close to Oil quench CR5 .Cooling Curves on IT Curve CR1.

Surface Condition of the part. 1. hardness and strength resulting from a heat treatment process are dependent on the actual cooling rate by the quenching operation. Temperature of Quenching Medium 3.Factors for Actual Cooling Rate The structure. Size and Mass of the part Padaqa. Type of Quenching Medium 2. & 4.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

Surface Cooling Curves on IT Diagram Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Hardness Penetration Curves Padaqa.

Hardness Penetration Curves Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

regardless of size and shape of the work piece and quenching conditions. Converse of this statement is not necessarily true. Padaqa. wherever the actual cooling rate is the same.An important conclusion For a steel of fixed composition and austenitic grain size. the hardness must be the same.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

*depends upon the required microstructure and hence the properties. are followed by a process called TEMPERING for relieving residual stress and to improve ductility and toughness (which can be attained with the decrease in strength and hardness). the steel is not only too brittle but also contains lots of residual stresses and so such steel is not straight away applied in most of the application.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Quenched steel. held and cooled slowly. in general.Tempering In as quenched martensitic condition. The process consists of heating to a desired* temperature below the LCT (Eutectoid temperature). Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Effect of Tempering Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Effect of Tempering Temperature Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Tempering Products Padaqa.

Transformation Products of Austenite and Martensite Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Conventional Quenching & Tempering Padaqa.

best Ductility and Fatigue Strength as well as highest Toughness when medium Tensile Strength is desired.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Conventional Quenching & Tempering Advantage of µQuenching and Tempering¶ process lies in the best Yield Strength. Padaqa.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .Austempering Padaqa.

Austempering Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

‡Limitation lies. however.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . since the quench is not that drastic as in the conventional process. (<½ inch) Padaqa.Austempering ‡Austempered steel besides having greater Ductility and Toughness alongwith high Hardness has less distortion and danger of quenching cracks. in the section thickness.

Martempering Advantages include minimisation of residual stresses and great reduction in danger of distortion and cracking.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . Padaqa.

Heat Treatment Defects Types of defects and characteristics 1 . coarse crystallic martensite in hardened steel. Causes Heating for long periods at temperatures exceeding normal values Remedies (a) Normal annealing and normalizing for slight overheating (b) Repeated normalizing for about 6 times Overheating Causes coarse grained microstructure Widmanstatten structure in annealed steel. neutral or protective atmosphere in heating furnace (b) Heating in box with used carburizing agent © Heating in molten salt bath (a) Heating in furnace under reducing neutral or protective atmosphere (b) Heating in box with used carburizing agent or case iron chips © Heating in molten salt bath (d) Removing decarburized layer by machining if machining allowance is available 4 Decarburization Carbon content decreases in the surface layer of steel component. reduced ductility and low impact strength value 2 Burning Grain boundaries having (a) regions enriched in carbon in first stage of burning. Hardness and fatigue limits are lower Oxidizing atmosphere in heating furnace Padaqa. resulting in stone-like fracture and poor ductility. Heating for long duration at high temperature under oxidizing conditions or heating hear to melting point of steel (a) Homogenizing followed by double annealing for first stage of burning (b) Forging followed be annealing for second stage © Not remediable if third stage has occurred 3 Oxidation Thick layer of scale is seen on the surface of steel component Oxidizing atmosphere in heating furnace (a) To use reducing.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . (b) non-oxidized cavities and blow holes in second stage of burning and (c) iron oxide inclusions in the third stage of burning.

and insufficient soaking period at hardening temperature Padaqa. 8 Warping Asymmetrical deformation of component occurs during quenching (a) Change in volume in heating or cooling (b) Non-uniform heating or cooling of component © Internal stresses in the component before heat treatment (d) Lowering component into quenching bath in inclined position 9 Low hardness after Quenching Low hardening. followed by hardening with proper procedure 7 Deformation and Dimensional Changes After Hardening The Higher the hardenability of steel. more sever is the deformation in hardening.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . (a) Using steels which are slightly deformed by quenching (b) Cooling slowly in martensitic range © Apply surface hardening where possible (a) Using alloy steels which are only slightly deformed by quenching (b) Cooling slowly in martensitic range © Applying surface hardening wherever possible (d) Annealing. Excessive heating time and slow cooling after annealing Increase in volume of steel due to martensitic transformation Repeated annealing specified rate with cooling at 6 Heating the steel to high temperature and thorough forging. temperate cooling rate. normalizing or tempering at high temperature before hardening (e) Heating uniformly for hardening (f) Quenching as uniformly as possible (g) Keeping component in proper position in quenching bath (h) Using special quenching jigs Normalizing or annealing.Heat Treatment Defects 5 Excessive hardness of Hot ±worked Annealed steel Black Fracture Free carbon inclusions are seen in the steel Excessive cooling rate for simple annealing or insufficient soaking period for isothermal annealing.

iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . hardening and tempering at normal temperature (a) Using deoxidizing salt bath with ferro-silicon or borax (b) Proper positioning of component in salt bath (a) Careful control of salt composition (b) Deoxidizing the bath 14 Corrosion Pitting (a) High content of sulphuric salts (over 0.7-0.8%) in molten salt bath (b) Bath having become rich in oxygen or iron oxides (a) Internal stresses (b) Non-uniform cooling 15 Quench Crack External or internal and zig-zag in appearance Cannot be remedied but may be prevented by (a) avoiding sharp projections. followed by tempering immediately Padaqa. sharp corners and sudden change in size. (b) heating to minimum before hardening © heating to minimum suitable temperature for hardening (d) cooling slowly in martensitic range by using oil as the quenching medium and (e) quenching.Heat Treatment Defects 10 Soft Spots Certain portions on the surface of component with lower hardness (a) Presence of vapour blanket on the surface of component (b) Localized decarburization © Inhomogeneity of internal structure after solidification Low temperature or insufficient soaking time in tempering Low temperature or insufficient soaking time in tempering Chemical reaction and oxidation of components heated in molten salt baths (a) Using more effective quenchant (b) Annealing or normalizing before hardening for more homogeneous structure 11 12 13 Excessive Hardness after Tempering Insufficient Hardness after Tempering Erosion Reduction in size of component or in respect of form due to loss of material from its surface A second tempering with proper temperature and soaking time Annealing.

Sharma & Sharma etc. (d) Van Vlack. (c) V Raghavan. which he went through during his more than 26 years of tenure as Teacher. The speaker also acknowledges the efforts of his students and colleagues for downloading and / or making various drawings / pictures shown in the presentation. (b) SH Avner..iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI . (e) Rajan.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The speaker would like to acknowledge with gratitude the discussions with his senior as well as junior colleagues and their lecture-notes for preparing this presentation. Padaqa. The speaker would also like to acknowledge the various books authored by namely (a) Y Lakhtin.

Padaqa.iva&ana ivaBaaga ]nnat p`aOVaoigakI .

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