0 views

Uploaded by p

etw

- HCS 438 Tutorial Education Expert - Tutorialtutorial.com
- MBA-Curriculam
- Basic Statistics
- Binomial Distribution
- Accurate 600series
- Sampling Distribution
- 4Channel_CW1_12_6
- INVESTIGACION CUALITATIVA ADMINISTRACION
- AJ DAVIS PART A
- Tle
- Lecture 1 Slides
- Basic Statistics Math
- 2011 IJC Prelims P2.pdf
- Standard Deviation and Variance
- Win Bugs
- Assignment 1 Statistics
- Chapter 1
- How to Calculate the Standard Deviation
- Regression analysis
- Hasil Data Titi

You are on page 1of 32

Descriptive Statistics

Mean, Median and Mode

1

Descriptive Statistics

Used to describe the basic features in a study

(graphical, tabular or summary statistics)

analysis of data

2

Distinguished from Inferential Statistics

pop

manageable form

3

Steps in Descriptive Statistics

Collect Data

Classify Data

Summarise Data

Present data

Proceed to inferential statistics (if there is

enough data to draw a conclusion)

4

Descriptive Statistics

A single value that summarises a set of data. It locates the

central value of a set of data.

Measures of Dispersion:

Measures the variation around the central value of a data

set.

Measures of Shape

The shape of the distribution.

5

Summary Measures

Summary Measures

Standard Deviation

6

Grouped and Ungrouped Data

Ungrouped data is data that has been

collected and has not been ordered or put

into more readable groups

form that is easier for the researcher to

analyse

7

Example of ungrouped data

30 people are randomly chosen in class and

asked how many books they own

2, 45, 27, 13, 43, 19, 32, 28, 23, 4,

8

Number of books owned by 30 students in class

Number of Midpoint Frequency

Books

0-10 5 7

11-20 15.5 10

21-30 25.5 4

31-40 35.5 4

41-50 45.5 3

51-60 55.5 2

Total = 30

Source: Authors own

9

Measures of Central Tendency

(Ungrouped Data)

Mean:

arithmetic average of data values.

Sum of all values divided by the total number of values.

Population Mean

μ

X

N

Sample Mean

n

x i

is the Arithmetic Average of data values:

x i i 1

n

10

Some Terms

N is the total number of observations in the

population

n is the total number of observations in the sample

N

i 1

Means the sum of the observations up to N

11

Example:

Calculate the mean for the following ungrouped data:

(6,7,6,8,5,7,6,9,10,6)

X

X

6 7 6 8 5 7 6 9 10 6

n 10

=7

The mean in our Book Data = 647 / 30

=21.56 but cannot interpret .56 when it comes to Books so

mean is 22

12

Properties of the Mean

Every set of interval and ratio level data has a

mean

All values are included when computing the mean

The mean is unique

The sum of the deviations of each value to the

mean = 0

3, 8, 4 MEAN = 5

∑X-Xbar) = 0

(3-5) + (8-5) + (4-5) = 0

-2 +3 -1

13

Weakness of the mean:

(only for interval and ratio level data)

(why not nominal and ordinal?)

It is affected by extreme values or outliers.

Example:

5 Sites, Average Price = €110,000

€70,000, €275,000, €80,000, €60,000, €65,000

Your Budget is €75,000. Should you look?

Mean can be unrepresentative of the data

14

Median:

In an ordered array, the median is the middle number.

If n is odd, the median is the middle number.

If n is even, the median is the average of the 2 middle

numbers.

Example:

Remember our Book data

Arrange the data ascending order

(0,2,4,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,13,14,15,17,19,19,19,20,21,23,27,

28,31,32,36,42,43,44,55,56)

n is 30 which is even, so the median is the average of the 2

middle numbers 19 and 19 which is 19!

15

Used instead of the mean when the data set contains

extreme outliers

Mean = €110,000

Median = €70,000

16

Properties of the Median

small values (ie, outliers)

ratio level data

17

Mode:

The value that occurs most often in a data set

Example:

Calculate the mode for the following ungrouped data:

(0,2,4,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,13,14,15,17,19,19,19,20,21,23,27,28,3

1,32,36,42,43,44,55,56)

Since 19 is the value that occurs most often this is the mode.

Not Affected by Extreme Values

Can be used for nominal and ordinal level data as well as ratio

and interval level data (advantage over mean and median)

18

Example: Nominal Level data

Survey of 100 TV viewers on the TV show they prefer

Show Sunday

Game

10 34 18 25 13

Disadvantages

There May Not be a Mode

There May be Several Modes (bi-modal, multi-model)

19

Measures of Central Tendency

(Grouped Data)

N

Mean: fxi

i i 1

Population Mean N

fx i

Sample Mean xi i 1

n

20

Mean of our grouped Data

n Books (X)

fx i 0-10 5 7 35

xi i 1

11-20 15.5 10 155

n

21-30 25.5 4 102

31-40 35.5 4 142

41-50 45.5 3 136.5

So = 681.5 /30 = 51-60 55.5 2 111

22.71 => 23

= 30 681.5

21

Median: n

fprec

Median Lmedian 2 * Cw

fmedian

Lmedian = lower limit of class interval containing the median.

(but not including) the one containing the median

containing the median and the lower limit on the following

class interval (always positive)

22

Number of Books owned by 30 students in class

Number of Midpoint Frequency

Books

0-10 5 7

11-20 15.5 10

21-30 25.5 4

31-40 35.5 4

41-50 45.5 3

51-60 55.5 2

Total = 30

23

Median of grouped Books data example

Books t y fprec

0-10 5 7 Median Lmedian 2 * Cw

fmedian

11-20 15.5 10

21-30 25.5 4

41-50 45.5 3

11 + [0.8 *10]

51-60 55.5 2

11 + 8 = 19

Median = 19

Total = 30

In an ordered array the 15th person owns

19 Books

24

Mode.

previous class.

following class.

f X X

2

SD( s)

n 1

25

Mode of grouped data example

Books t y

0-10 5 7

11 + [(10-7) / (10-7) + (10 -4) ] * 10

11 + [ 3 / (3+6)] * 10

11-20 15.5 10

11 + 3.33

21-30 25.5 4

14.33

31-40 35.5 4

14

41-50 45.5 3

The most common number of Books

51-60 55.5 2 owned, is 14

Total = 30

26

Pocket Money Example (MEAN)

fx i

xi i 1

So grouped mean = 758 / 57 => 13.29

27

Pocket Money Example (MEDIAN)

n

fprec

Median Lmedian 2 * Cw 10 + {[(28.5 – 15) / 19] * 5}

fmedian

10 + {[13.5 / 19] * 5}

Lmedian = 10

n/2 = 28.5 10 + {0.71 * 5}

Fmedian = 19

13.55 (INTERPRET) 28

Cw = 5

Pocket Money Example (MODE)

10 + {0.77 * 5}

Lmedian = 10

d1 = 19 -9 = 10 10 + {3.85}

d2 = 19 – 16 = 3 13.85 (INTERPRET)

Cw = 5

29

In Class Work: Part time Wages

data

30

n

fx i

xi i 1

n

n

fprec

Median Lmedian 2 * Cw

fmedian

31

In Class Work

data

32

- HCS 438 Tutorial Education Expert - Tutorialtutorial.comUploaded byveeru3
- MBA-CurriculamUploaded byMakhdoomi Abdul Wahid
- Basic StatisticsUploaded byPooja Nanda
- Binomial DistributionUploaded bySpreadsheetZONE
- Accurate 600seriesUploaded bytricky777
- Sampling DistributionUploaded byTristan Ralf Quezon Pacheco
- 4Channel_CW1_12_6Uploaded byOscar Julian Perdomo Charry
- INVESTIGACION CUALITATIVA ADMINISTRACIONUploaded byinvestigacionuny
- AJ DAVIS PART AUploaded byJuliana Terrell
- TleUploaded bykps17101980
- Lecture 1 SlidesUploaded byAbhishek Kumar Singh
- Basic Statistics MathUploaded byMark John
- 2011 IJC Prelims P2.pdfUploaded bymath3matics3
- Standard Deviation and VarianceUploaded byPriyanka Puri
- Win BugsUploaded bymuralidharan
- Assignment 1 StatisticsUploaded byEmersonJParedes
- Chapter 1Uploaded byMARVIN
- How to Calculate the Standard DeviationUploaded bytutorvistateam
- Regression analysisUploaded byViplav Nigam
- Hasil Data TitiUploaded byananda
- 02._NASKAH_PUBLIKASIUploaded byMuntasir Aidil
- FREKUENSI KARAKTERISTIK RESPONDENUploaded bywidyafandri
- sensorii fixxxxx.docUploaded byRatna Clalu Cetia
- A Simple Way to Measure Daily Lifestyle RegularityUploaded byIjas Majeed
- 8ead2fefd975e7f33db536c4d3ea80886d8ad958Uploaded byZaza Zazaa
- Life expectancy of South American countries.docxUploaded byJulian Barrios
- 312 f 12 Numerical MleUploaded bynida pervaiz
- review journal auditingUploaded bySophy Sophy Blubblubblubblub
- Markov's Efficient Frontier calculationUploaded byalmighty08
- For CoversionUploaded byJahanzaib

- Inside the Mind of the Acoustic IanUploaded byMusic Council of Australia
- Qualitative analysis.docxUploaded byxirrienann
- Problems Chapter2 Stats QEM 2015Uploaded byDulguun Ganbat
- 16 SynopsisUploaded byAlbert Susanto
- Analysis of VarianceUploaded by03435013877
- Sample Paper 2 _HCI 2010_solutionUploaded byJames Han
- Reliability of Structures Chapter 2Uploaded byPhong Nguyen
- Basics epidemiologyUploaded bysuomwe
- STA220_Final_2012S.pdfUploaded byexamkiller
- Approximating the Shapiro-Wilk W-test for Non-normalityUploaded byOsman Hamdi
- Contemporary Social Problems by Harold a. Phepls, Ph.D.Uploaded byRaja Siraj
- cfem_20120314_0Uploaded byAlexandre Albizzati
- Tugas Mandiri KemometriUploaded byDyah Indra
- dileme eticeUploaded byAftene Ana Maria
- One Way AnovaUploaded byDennis Andrada
- Pairs Trading Strategy for BANKNIFTY (1)Uploaded byAmber Gupta
- Trading System for Limited InvestorsUploaded byGreg McKenna
- Gated Communities and Property ValuesUploaded byScott Schaefer
- 4482.1-2005Uploaded bysuranji
- Changes in Body Condition of High-yielding Dairy Cows - Ž. Novaković, Lj. Sretenović, D. Ostojić-Andrić, M. M. Petrović, S. Aleksić, V. Pantelić, D.NikšićUploaded byCk_psih
- Data AnalysisUploaded byshootfluffy
- FM5-2008Uploaded byforecastingmethods
- accuracy_assessment.pdfUploaded byavisenic
- SPSS TutorialUploaded byWillmarieDatilOstolaza
- Lecture 9Uploaded byBobby Ward
- Introduction to Probability and Statistics From a Bayesian Viewpoint_Part 2Uploaded bylovedigger
- Manual of Transportation Engineering StudiesUploaded byStivenStifler
- Detailed Course Outlines of Term IV_2019-20Uploaded byAmbuj Agrawal
- Topic 2 - ForecastingUploaded bySyafiq Mazlan
- PSQT- I.T.pdfUploaded byPrasad Pantham