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AND ENERGY SAVING USING MODULATED POWER

FILTERS AND CAPACITOR COMPENSATORS

POWER QUALITY-PQ

UNB-ECE Dept

Canada

1

What is Power quality ?

Definition : “Power quality problem is any power problem manifested

in voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in failure or

misoperation of customer equipment”.

Power quality can be simply defined as shown in the interaction

diagram:

Utility

•Voltage Swells •Waveform Distortion

•Blackouts/Brownouts

Voltage Power •Arc Type

Current

•Transient Quality Quality

Quality •Temporal

•Converter Type

•Inrush

Nonlinear Loads •Saturation Type

•Overcurrent

Industrial/Commercial/Residential

•NLL-Analog/Digital

•Flickering Consumers

Switching

2

Why are we concerned about PQ

The Main reasons behind the growing concern about

PQ are:

North American industries lose Tens-of-Billions of Dollars every year in

downtime due to power quality problems. (Electrical Business Magazine)

Load nonlinearities in rising and is expected to reach 50 to 70% in the year

2005 (Electric Power Research Institute) [Computers, UPS, fax machines,

printers, fluorescent lighting, ASD, industrial rectifiers, DC drives, arc

welders, etc).

The characteristics of the electric loads have changed.

Harmonics are continuous problem not transient or intermittent.

3

Power Quality Issue and Problems

Harmonics (sub, super and interharmonics);

Voltage swells, sags, fluctuations, flicker, and transients

Voltage magnitude and frequency deviation, voltage imbalance (3ph sys.)

Hot grounding loops and ground potential rise (GPR)–Safety & Fire

Hazards

Monitoring and measurement.

4

Power Quality PQ Issue

The harmonic issue (waveform distortion) is a top priority

Utilities (New IEC, ANSI, IEEE Standards).

I

2

n

PF

1

DPF

THDi n2

1 THDi2

I1

5

SYSTEM MODELS

Electric

Electric System+Transformer+Feeder Equivalent

Utility (Plant) Load

Transformer

Load Bus

Vs Rs Ls VL

Pow er Filter or Static Arc Type

Capacitor Compensator Dynamic

* Smart-controllers are Cyclical

based on specif ied control Ripple

objectives SMPF Inrush

YF(s) Temporal

Different N

Topologies Motorized on/of f

Control L SMPS

is

Signals L ASD

Smart on/of f or Saturation Type

Vs Controller PWM Nonlinear

Ps *

Load

eight designs

(Dr. A.M. Sharaf ) YF (TAF, C-Type, HPDF, Special Topology)

6

Nonlinear Load Models

Vs Rs Ls VL

Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)

is

D1 D2

E1

E2 Arc Nonlinear

Load/ Cyclical

Symmetrical R1 R2

Asymmetrical

E1 different from E2

R1 different from R2

Arc Type

iS Ls Rs

iL

RL

Vs Nonlinear

Load

LL

Cyclical

Load

7

Nonlinear Load Models

Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)

Cyclical nonlinear Load

Z s ( stator )

iS Ls Rs iL Rs Ls istator ist

ir

irotor

imagnetizing im

VL1 VL2 Lr

Vs Lm Z r (rotor)

Rr

VL

Zm

Industrial

( magnetizin g )

Motorized

Load

Alpha: Slip Measure of Loading

Cyclical Motorized

Id

Lf

Vs is Rs Ls Rac

Vd Rdc

Lac

Modulated

Converter- Fanning

Modulated Loadt

Rectifier Modulated Rectifier Circuit Xac

Effect

Modulated Rac

8

Nonlinear Load Models

Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)

SMPS-Computer Netw ork

Diode-

Bridge L1

Vs is Rs Ls

idc

C1 Vc R1

Limiter

Type

Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS)

Fluorescent Lamp

iS Ls Rs

iL Ballast

Starter L

RLamp

Vf eeder Magnetic Saturation-

VL Transf ormer

Vs type Nonlinear Load FL-Starter

Ballast

Nonlinear

9

Nonlinear Load Models

Nonlinear Load

Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)

Adjustable Speed Drive

VLL

Pin

Vs PCC

is Rs Ls

C M

PCC:point of common coupling AC Motor

Rectifier Inverter

10

Switched Modulated Power Filters and Capacitor

Compensators

A N

VF

VF VF (Vn)

iF2 iF1 iF GTO or (IGBT

C2 w ith bridge) C1

C1 VF

C

Cf Cf

L2 L1 C1 C2

L

C2

R2 R1

L1 L2 R

R S2

Lf S2=S1 L

R1 R2

S1

S Rf

on/of f or

PWM

S1 S2 Parameters: (Cf, Lf, Rf) S

V >0 V <0

SPF/SCC

TAF Dual-Tuned-

Arm Filter ATAF TAF + Static C-Type

Tuned-Arm

Capacitor

Filter (TAF) Asymmetrical Tuned- C-Type

Compensator

Arm Filter (ATAF) Filter

11

Switched Modulated Power Filters and capacitor

Compensators

L

L

CS1

diode Bridge M1

CP Switched

S

CS2 PWM

Fixed on/of f M2

S1

phase 2 wire loads)

L CT M1

Motorized Inrush Loads

S2=S1

CL • Water Pumps

To Load

CS

•A/C

S2

•Refrigeration

M2

N

Motorized loads)

12

Novel Dynamic Tracking Controllers (Family of Smart

Controllers Developed by Dr. A. M. Sharaf)

1. Dynamic minimum current ripple tracking

2. Dynamic minimum current level

3. Dynamic minimum power tracking

4. Dynamic minimum effective power ripple tracking

5. Dynamic minimum RMS source current tracking

6. Dynamic maximum power factor

7. Minimum Harmonic ripple content

8. Minimum reference harmonic ripple content

Electric Power/Energy Savings

Improve Supply PQ by reducing Harmonics and improve power

factor and enhance waveforms as close as possible to sine wave

13

Novel Dynamic Controllers

iL

iRef =0 Vc iF iS

e

Kp + K i /s PWM Filter

PI

I(k)

RMS

Detector

I(k-1)

Delay

iL

ihref 0 e Vc iF iS

Kp + K i /s PWM Filter

PI

ih

Notch

Abs

Filter

Reject 60Hz

14

Switching Devices (on/off or PWM)

on/off

PI Controller

To GTO g(t)

10V on/off

ton

error Vc SSR/Triac

Kp + K i /s Controller g(t)=1 switch closed

error -e0 e0

generated by 0

g(t)=0 switch open

the Controller

e0:Deadband/Bias

Vc=(0-10V ) (a)

Bias 1 tof f

Ts/w

ton ton switch S1 0

Vc To GTO

PWM

S2=S1 SSR/Triac ton ts

NOT

Controller

0 S2 TS/W

0<t on<T s/w

Ts/w=1/f s/w (b)

MOSFET/bridge, SSR, TRIAC) turns “ON” when a pulse g(t) is applied to

its control gate terminal by the activation switching circuit. Removing the

pulse will turn the solid-state switch “OFF”

TS/W=1/fS = (ton + toff) 0<ton<TS/W

15

Switching Devices – PWM Circuits

(1)

(2)

16

Concept of Modulated Power Filters (MPF)

VF v

u(t)

IF

C

VF

-u(t-to) t

L to

TAF

u(t)-u(t-to)

R

on/of f or PWM to t

GTO, MOSFET,

Triac, IGBT

Tune Arm two Unit Step Functions to

Filter layout describe a Pulse of Amplitude

1 and duration t0.

17

Modulated Tuned Arm Filter (Sym. & Asym.)

Load is either: VL

Vg Vs

NLL 3

SMPS-

is NLL 2 Computer

f eeder

•SMPS Transformer

NLL 1

Netw ork

iL-total

iF

•Adjustable Speed Drives VF

•Asymmetrical Arc-type C

L1

~ C

R1

L

Dynamic Controller: R1= constant or variably

sw itched

R Sample SMPS Load

-Min. effec. Power

-RMS current tracking

-Min. Harmonic Content

Arm Filter

18

Modulated Tuned Arm Filter with (SMPS) Load

19

Modulated Asymmetrical Tuned-Arm Filter

Utility Transf ormer

R T LT Vs Rf Lf VL

f eeder iL

Rs=RT+R f

Ls=LT+Lf

iF VL

iL

VF iL1 iL2

DA DB

Without (THD=42%) With (THD=14%) D1 D2 R1 R 2 R1 (1 )

C1 C2

E1 E2 E1 (1 )

Nonlinear

L1 L2 Asymmetrical

(ATAF) Load

R1 R2

( S 2 S1)

S2 dual-

S1 complementary

ton2

ton1 sw itching

G

With (THD=7%)

Without (THD=18%)

Nonlinear Temporal Load Parameters:

R1=R01+R11sin(wr1*t); E1=E01+E11sin(wr2*t);

R2=R02+R22sin(wr1*t); E2=E02+E22sin(wr2*t);

Dynamic Controller: Dual loop of RMS current tracking R2= R1(1+) R01=8 R02=12 R11=2 R22=6 wr1=15

and Min. Harmonic Content E2= -E1(1+) E01= 46 E02=70 E11=12 E22=35 wr2=5

20

A Low-cost Voltage Stabilization and Power

Quality Enhancement Scheme for a Small

Renewable Wind Energy Scheme

UNB-ECE Dept

Canada

OUTLINE

Introduction

System Description

Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

Modulated Power Filter Compensator

Simulation Results

Conclusion

22

Introduction

Fossil fuel shortage and its escalating prices

Reducing environmental pollution caused by

conventional methods for electricity generation

23

Introduction

Load excursion

Wind velocity variation

Conventional passive capacitor compensation

devices become ineffective

24

System Description

Transformers and short feeder

Hybrid loads: linear load and non-linear load

The modulated power filter compensator (MPFC)

25

Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

26

Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

The voltage stabilization loop

The load bus dynamic current tracking loop

The dynamic load power tracking loop

Using proportional, integral plus derivative (PID)

control scheme

Simple structure and fast response

27

Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

Objective:

To stabilize the voltage under random load and

wind speed excursion

Maximize power/energy utilization

guided trial and error method to minimize the

objective function, which is the sum of all three

basic loops.

28

The Functional Model of MPFC

The capacitor bank and the

RL arm are connected by a

6-pulse diode to block the

reverse flow of current.

selected as 40%-60% of

the non-linear load KVAR

capacitor.

29

Proposed MPFC Scheme and Its Functional

Model

30

Simulation Results

MATLAB 7.0.1/SIMULINK

Sequence of load excursion:

From 0s to 0.2s: Both Linear Load 200 kVA (50%)

and nonlinear Load 200 kVA (50%) connected

From 0.2s to 0.4s: Linear Load 200 kVA(50%)

connected only

From 0.4s to 0.6s: No load is connected

31

System Dynamic Response Without MPFC

32

System Dynamic Response With MPFC

33

Error plane of the dynamic error driven

controller

Ep*r

0

-1

2

1

0 0

Ev*r -2 -1

Ei*r

34

Conclusions

The digital simulation results validated that the

proposed low cost MPFC scheme is effective in

voltage stabilization for both linear and nonlinear

electrical load excursions.

in renewable wind energy standalone units in the

range from 600kW to 1600kW.

35

Reference

[1] A.M.Sharaf and Liang Zhao, ‘A Novel Voltage Stabilization Scheme

for Standalone Wind Energy Using a Facts Dual Switching Universal

Power Stabilization Scheme’, 2005

[2] M.S. El-Moursi and Adel M. Sharaf, 'Novel STATCOM controller for

voltage stabilization of wind energy scheme', Int. J. Global Energy

Issues, 2006.

and Energy Enhancement Using Low Cost Dynamic Capacitor

Compensation Scheme’, 2004.

[4] A.M. Sharaf and Liang Yang, 'A Novel Efficient Stand-Alone

Photovoltaic DC Village Electricity Scheme’, 2005

36

Reference

[5] Pradeep K. Nadam, Paresk C. Sen, 'Industrial Application of Sliding

Mode Control', IEEE/IAS International Conference On Industrial

Automation and Control, Proceedings, pp. 275-280, 1995

Future', IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.37, No.6,

pp.562-575, December 1990

[7] Edward Y.Y. Ho, Paresk C. Sen, 'Control Dynamics of Speed Drive

System Using Sliding Mode Controllers with Integral Compensation',

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.21, NO.5, pp 883-892,

September/October 1991.

37

A FACTS based Dynamic Capacitor Scheme

for Voltage Stabilization and Power Quality

Enhancement

38

Abstract

Power Quality voltage problems in a power system may be either at

system frequency or due to transient surges with higher frequency

components.

during opening or closing a switch and can be severe in certain cases.

compensator DCC- scheme for voltage compensation and power quality

enhancement.

power low cost compensators developed by the First Author.

39

Introduction

The growing use of nonlinear industrial type or inrush type electric

loads can cause a real challenge to power quality for electric

utilities around the world, especially in the current era of the

unregulated power market where: competition, supply quality,

security and reliability are key issues for any economic survival.

either at system frequency or due to transient surges with higher

frequency components.

because lightning surges rarely reach the impulse withstand voltage

of the system equipment, e.g. 400 kV circuit breakers are impulse

tested with an impulse 1425 kV , (1 us wave front to peak voltage

and 50% of peak voltage). In EHV systems, switching surges thus

become relatively more important [1].

40

Cont. / Introduction

The problem of the dynamic switching overvolatges affects also voltage

stability of large non linear / motorized loads. It can increase the

transmission line losses, and decrease the overall power factor [8].

Solid state AC controllers are widely Solid state AC controllers are widely

used to convert AC power for feeding number of electrical loads such as

adjustable speed drives, arc furnaces, power supplies etc.

because they generally draw a non- sinusoidal current from AC sources.

The paper presents a new low cost FACTS based dynamic compensator

scheme (DCC) for improving the voltage stability and enhancing power

quality for hybrid linear/nonlinear and motorized load.

41

The System under study

Fig.1 (a) depicts the single line diagram of the sample radial 138 kV (L-L) AC Power System.

42

MATLAB Sim-Power System Model

Fig.1 (b) shows the MATLAB block diagram.

43

The MATLAB Sim-Power System functional

model of the hybrid (linear, non linear and

motorized) load is shown in Fig.2.

44

New Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC) scheme

comprising a switched power filter

45

Controller Design

Fig.4 shows the proposed novel Tri-loop (PI) Proportional plus Integral, dynamic

error driven sinusoidal SPWM switching controller.

46

Cont. / Controller Design

The Tri-loop dynamic controller is used to stabilize the load bus voltage

by regulated pulse width switching of the two IGBT solid state switches.

The three regulating key loops are:

Loop 1 – the main loop for the dynamic voltage error using the RMS

voltage at the load bus; this loop is to maintain the voltage at the load

bus at a reference value by modulating the admittance of the

compensator.

Loop 2 – the dynamic error is using RMS dynamic load current. This loop

is an auxiliary loop to compensate for any sudden electrical load

excursions.

Loop 3 – the Harmonic ripple loop is used to provide an effective

dynamic tracking control to suppress any sudden current ripples and

compensate the AC system power transfer capability even under

switching excursions.

47

The following Figures show the load voltage, current, and active

power, reactive power, the active vs. reactive power, and the

transmitted power loss; without the proposed low cost FACTS

Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC).

48

The following Figures show the load voltage, current, and active

power, reactive power, the active vs. reactive power, with the

proposed low cost FACTS Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC).

49

Conclusions

The paper presents a low cost FACTS Based Capacitor Compensator (DCC)

for a radial 138 kV L-L sample test system. Digital simulation and comparison

between without and with figures validated the following:

The receiving load bus voltage without the FACTS Based Capacitor

Compensator (DCC) was about 0.66 pu when reaching steady state. Using

the FACTS (DCC) compensator it is increased to about 0.96 pu (which is

acceptable -5% from 1 pu).

The receiving load bus current is increased from 0.36 pu to 0.62 pu with the

FACTS Based Capacitor Compensator (DCC).

The received active power at the hybrid load bus is increased from 0.36 pu

to 0.95 pu.

The received reactive power at the hybrid load side is decreased from 0.2 pu

to -0.5pu.

The receiving end power factor is also increased from 0.832 lag to 0.95 lag.

The transmitted power loss is decreased from 0.042 pu to 0.017 pu (about

40% less).

50

References

[1] Guile, & Paterson, Electrical Power Systems: vol.2, Pergamon international

library of science, 1977.

[2] A.M.Sharaf, “Harmonic interference from distribution systems”, IEEE Winter

Meeting, New York, 1982.

[3] A.M.Sharaf, H.Huang, “Flicker control using rule based modulated passive

power filters”, Electric Power System Research Journal 33 (1995) 49-52.

[4] A.M.Sharaf, C.Gua, and H.Huang, “A Smart Modulated Filter for Energy

Conservation in Utilization Network”, IACPSS, April 6-8, 1997, Al-Ain, UAE, pp 211-

212.

[5] A.M.Sharaf, S.S.Shokralla and A.S.Abd El-Ghaffar, “Efficient Power Tracking

using an Error Driven Modulated Passive Filter”, AEIC’ 95, AL-AZHAR Conference,

December 16 – 19, 1995.

[6] A.M.Sharaf, P.Kreidi, “Power Quality enhancement and harmonic reduction

using dynamic power filters”, ELECTRIMACS 2002. Montreal, Quebec, Canada,

August 18-21, 2002.

[7] A.M.Sharaf, P.Kreidi, “Power Quality enhancement using a unified compensator

and switched filter “, ICREPQ’ 2003, Vigo-Spain, April 9-11, 2003.

[8] Uzunoglu, M., Kocatepe, C. and Yumurtaci, R. (2004) “Voltage stability analysis

in the power systems including non-linear loads”, European Transactions on

Electrical Power, January–February, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.41–56.

[9] B.Singh, V.Verma, A.Chandra and K.Al-Haddad, “Hybrid filters for power quality

improvement”, IEE Proc.Gener.Transm.Distrib., Vol. 152, No.3, May 2005. 51

A NOVEL MAXIMUM POWER TRACKING

CONTROLLER FOR A STAND-ALONE

PHOTOVOLTAIC DC MOTOR DRIVE

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of New Brunswick

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

Introduction

System Model Description

Novel Dynamic Error Driven Self Adjusting Controller

(SAC)

Digital Simulation Results

Conclusions

Future Work

53

Introduction

Clean and green energy source that can reduce

green house gases

Highly reliable and needs minimal maintenance

Costs little to build and operate ($2-3/Wpeak)

Almost has no environmental polluting impact

Modular and flexible in terms of size, ratings and

applications

54

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

voltage (I-V) relationship, requiring an online search and

identification of the optimal maximum power operating point.

DC/AC inverter system inserted between the PV array and its electric

load to achieve the optimum characteristic matching.

necessary to maximize the photovoltaic energy utilization in stand-

alone energy utilization systems (water pumping, ventilation)

55

I-V and P-V characteristics of a typical PV array at a fixed ambient temperature and solar irradiation condition

56

The performance of any stand-alone PV

system depends on:

Switching

Ambient/junction temperature (Tx)

Solar insolation/irradiation variations (Sx)

57

System Model Description

Key components:

PV array module model

Power conditioning filter:

♦ Blocking Diode

♦ Input filter (Rf & Lf )

Storage Capacitor (C1)

Four-Quadrant PWM converter feeding the

PMDC (Permanent Magnet Direct Current)

motor (1-15kW size)

58

Photovoltaic powered Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor drive system

59

Novel Dynamic Error Driven Self Adjusting

Controller (SAC)

The motor reference speed (ωm-reference)

trajectory tracking loop

The first supplementary

motor current (Im) limiting loop

The second supplementary

maximum photovoltaic power (Pg) tracking loop

60

Dynamic tri-loop self adjusting control (SAC) system

61

The global error signal (et) comprises

3-dimensional excursion vectors (ew, ei, ep)

│Re│ is the magnitude of the hyper-plane error

excursion vector at time instant k

62

The loop weighting factors (γw, γI and γp)

and the parameters k0 and β are assigned to

minimize the time-weighted excursion index J0

where

N= T0/Tsample

T0: Largest mechanical time constant (10s)

Tsample: Sampling time (0.2ms)

t(k)=k·Tsample: Time at step k in seconds

63

Digital Simulation Results

drive system model using the

MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems software

64

Test Variations of ambient temperature and solar irradiation

Variation of Variation of

ambient temperature (Tx) solar irradiation (Sx)

65

For trapezoidal reference speed trajectory

For trapezoidal reference speed trajectory

(Continue)

For sinusoidal reference speed trajectory

For sinusoidal reference speed trajectory

(Continue)

The digital simulation results validate the tri-loop dynamic

error driven Self Adjusting Controller (SAC), ensures:

a small overshoot/undershoot and minimum

steady state error

The motor inrush current Im is kept to a specified

limited value

Maximum PV solar power/energy tracking near

knee point operation can be also achieved

70

Conclusions

requires only the PV array output voltage and current

signals and the DC motor speed and current signals

that can be easily measured.

The low cost stand-alone photovoltaic renewable

energy scheme is suitable for village electricity

application in the range of (150 watts to 15000

watts), mostly for water pumping and irrigation use

in arid developing countries.

71

Future Work

utilization schemes

New control strategies

72

Future Work (Continue) Novel Dynamic Error Driven

Sliding Mode Controller (SMC)

The motor reference speed (ωm-reference)

trajectory tracking loop

The first supplementary

motor current (Im) limiting loop

The second supplementary

maximum photovoltaic power (Pg) tracking loop

73

Dynamic tri-loop error-driven Sliding Mode Control (SMC) system

74

A Low Cost Dynamic Voltage Stabilization

Scheme for Standalone Wind Induction

Generator System

Outline

1.Introduction

2.Standalone Wind Energy System

3.Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Compensation

including two parts: Digital Simulation Models and

Dynamic Simulation Results

4.Conclusions

5.Future Work

References

76

1. Introduction

alternative energy resources.

Most wind turbines(15-200kw) use the three phase

asynchronous induction generator for its low lost,

reliable and less maintenance.

However, the voltage stability of a wind driven

induction generator system is fully dependent on

wind gusting conditions and electrical load

changes[1-3].

New interface technology is needed such as

DSSC and other MPF/CCcompensation scheme

[1-3]. 77

1. Introduction: What is DSSC?

DSSC is a low cost dynamic series switched

capacitor (DSSC) interface compensation scheme.

Capacitance in parallel or series of the DSSC

scheme are interfaced with the output feeder

lines.

DSSC scheme can be used to improve the

induction generator voltage stability and ensure

dynamic voltage stabilization under varying wind

and load conditions, thus prevent loss of severe

generator bus voltage excursions.

78

2. Standalone Wind Energy System

Hybrid Load and Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Compensations

79

2. Standalone Wind Energy System

Stabilization Scheme using Gate Turn off GTO switching Device

80

2. Standalone Wind Energy System

81

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

generator system (WECS) is modeled using the

Matlab/ Simulink/ Sim-Power Block-set software

environment.

82

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

83

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

Figure 5 shows Tri-loop Error Driven PID Controlled PWM Switching Scheme

84

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

Figure 6 in next slide depicts the digital simulation

dynamic response to both in linear and nonlinear load

excursion.

From time interval 0.1s to 0.3s, we applied 50%

(100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we applied

60% (120kVA) non-linear load.

So the DSSC can stabilize for both linear and

bus stabilization

85

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

Compensation Compensation

Figure 6

86

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

Figure 7 in the next slide shows the dynamic simulation

response to the induction motor load excursions.

From time 0.2s to0.4s, we applied about 20%

(20kVA) induction motor load.

From the figure we can see that DSSC did not

compensate for this inrush motor load excursions

adequately.

87

3. Dynamic Series Switched

Capacitor Compensation

Without DSSC With DSSC

Compensation Compensation

Figure 7

88

3. Dynamic Series Switched

Capacitor Compensation

Under wind excursion

simulation response to wind excursions

From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased

to 6m/s from initial value 10m/s.

From figure 8 we can see that DSSC did

compensate wind excursion, the voltage at

generate bus keeps 1.0pu.

89

3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor

Compensation

Compensation Compensation

Figure 8

90

4. Conclusions

The low cost DSSC compensation scheme is very

effective for the voltage stabilization under linear,

non-liner passive load excursions as well as wind

speed excursions.

But it can not compensate adequately for large

inrush dynamic excursions such as induction motor.

The proposed low cost DSSC voltage compensation

scheme is only suitable for isolated wind energy

conversion systems feeding linear and non-linear

passive type loads.

91

5. Future Study

compensate for a large inrush induction motor

excursion will be studied in my future research.

That scheme will be very effective for bus

voltage stabilization under linear, non-liner,

inrush motor load excursions and wind

excursions.

92

Reference

[1]. K.Natarajan, A.M Sharaf, S.Sivakumarand and

S.Nagnarhan, “Modeling and Control Design for Wind

Energy Conversion Scheme using Self-Excited Induction

Generator”, IEEE Trans. On E.C., Vol.2, pp.506-512,

Sept.1987.

[2]. S.P.Singh, Bhim Singh and M.P.Jain, “Performance

Characteristic and Optimum Utilization of a Cage Machine as

a Capacitor excited Induction Generator”, IEEE Trans. On

E.C., Vol. 5, No.4, pp.679-685, Dec.1990

[3]. A.Gastli, M.akherraz, M. Gammal,

“Matlab/Simulink/ANN Based Modeling and Simulation of A

Stand-Alone Self-Excited Induction Generator”, Proc. of the

International Conference on Communication, Computer and

Power, ICCCP’98, Dec.7-10 1998, Muscat, Sultanate of

Oman, pp.93-98

93

94

ULTRA HIGH SPEED PROTECTION OF SERIES

COMPENSATED TRANSMISSION LINES USING

WAVELET TRANSFORMS

95

Presentation Outline

Introduction

Wavelets

Background Theory

Proposed Scheme

Study System: Single Line Diagram

Study System: Test Cases

Incremental Voltages and Currents

Relaying Signals

Wavelet Approximation

Fault Direction Determination

Travelling Waves

Wavelet Thresholding

Conclusion

96

Introduction

System Protection.

Protection of series compensated transmission lines can

be best accomplished by a UHS relaying system.

But, UHS distance protection implementation methods

are fraught with difficulty.

In this paper, a novel non-unit UHS distance protection

scheme using wavelet transforms is proposed.

97

Wavelets

Today, Wavelets are employed in a variety of

applications, from detecting High Impedance Faults to

compression of fingerprint files.

A signal can be decomposed using Wavelet Transform

as follows,

where

98

Proposed Scheme

to obtain the modal components .

Incremental voltage and current signals are obtained.

Relaying signals a(t) and b(t)are obtained.

Wavelet transform of relaying signals is obtained to

remove the high frequency travelling waves from the

relaying signals. The resultant signals are denoted as

“Approx.a(t)” and “Approx.b(t)”.

A forward fault is indicated if Approx.b(t) crosses a set

threshold before Approx.a(t) does. Similarly, a reverse

fault is indicated if Approx.a(t) crosses the threshold

before Approx.b(t).

99

Proposed Scheme

using Wavelet transform. The DWT first level coefficients

are then used to reconstruct a signal which has power

system frequency components and the decaying DC

component removed from the original signal.

Noise and reflections from other points can cause relay

mal-operation. Therefore, the travelling waves are

thresholded.

The fault distance is given by x=(valpha/ (2*tau)) where

valpha is alpha -mode propagation velocity, close to

2.99x108 m/s and tau is the time from positive (negative)

peak to the next positive (negative) peak.

Study System: Single Line Diagram

Local source of 10GVA and a remote source of

6GVA.

101

Study System: Test Cases

Voltage and current signals measured near the local

AC source G1.

Fault inception time t = 28.5ms.

Ground resistance 3 ohms.

102

Incremental Voltage (Case 1)

cycle subtraction.

Incremental Current (Case 1)

cycle subtraction.

Incremental Voltage (Case 2)

cycle subtraction.

Incremental Current (Case 2)

cycle subtraction.

Relaying Signals (Case 1)

shown in Figure 4. The value of Rs =200 ohms.

Relaying Signals (Case 2)

shown in Figure 5. The value of Rs =200 ohms.

Wavelet Approximation (Case 1)

In order to utilize the relaying signals for fault direction

determination, travelling waves are removed using

Wavelet Transform.

End for Case 1.

Wavelet Approximation (Case 2)

In order to utilize the relaying signals for fault direction

determination, travelling waves are removed using

Wavelet Transform.

End for Case 2.

Fault Direction Determination

in previous slides, b(t) starts increasing before a(t) ,

indicating a forward fault.

Travelling Waves (Case 1)

Wavelets transform is utilized to obtain the travelling

waves from the incremental voltage signals. The

“Mother Wavelet” chosen was Daubechies “db3”.

End for Case 1.

Travelling Waves (Case 2)

Wavelets transform is utilized to obtain the travelling

waves from the incremental voltage signals. The

“Mother Wavelet” chosen was Daubechies “db3”.

End for Case 2.

Wavelet Thersholding (Case 1)

hard thresholding. Thresholding level = 25kV.

End for Case 1.

Wavelet Thresholding (Case 2)

hard thresholding. Thresholding level = 25kV.

End for Case 2.

Conclusion

Fault distance is calculated using the travelling waves

present in the incremental voltage signal directly.

The scheme is able to utilize the first backward

travelling wave entering the relay as opposed to utilizing

the synthesized relaying signals for distance calculation,

which is prone to error.

Cross-correlation function is not used to determine the

fault distance.

The relaying signals are processed using the Wavelet

transform instead of conventional filtering methods.

116

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