11 views

Uploaded by Ankita Jaiswal

parametric and non parametric test

- Basics of Statistics
- The Dummy’s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS
- NCSSUG1
- 2__Effect of Students' Self Concept
- the great recession a statistical analysis of its effects on unemployment
- Introduction on R
- SPSS
- Statistics
- Cal.Vida.Familiar.DisCapaciDad
- 영적안녕과 영적사정척도1
- 0
- 25.pdf
- tmpDE35
- 168 Sample Chapter
- Chapter10 Stats
- journal 123456789
- 6 1 and 6 2 ib version notes
- Key to Research Methodology
- 12 Chi Square and Odds Ratios
- Chapter 07

You are on page 1of 36

AND

NON PARAMETRIC

TEST

PARAMETRIC TESTS

assumptions about the parameters of the

population distribution(s) from which one’s data

is drawn.

APPLICATIONS

• Used for Quantitative data.

interval or ratio scales of measurement.

Types of Parametric tests

1. Z-test

2. t-test

• t-test for one sample

• t-test for two samples

i. Unpaired two sample t-test

ii. Paired two sample t-test

3.ANOVA (Analysis of variance)

* One way ANOVA

• Two way ANOVA

4. Pearson’s r correlation

1. Z- Test:

distribution is applied and is basically used

for dealing with problems relating to large

samples when the frequency is greater than

or equal to 30.

2. It is used when population standard

deviation is known.

Contd…

Assumptions:

• Population is normally distributed

• The sample is drawn at random

Conditions:

• Population standard deviation σ is known

• Size of the sample is large (say n > 30)

Contd..

Let 𝑋1 , 𝑋2 ………𝑋𝑛 be a random sample size of n

from a normal population with mean µ and

variance 𝜎 2 .

Let x̅ be the sample mean of sample of size “n”

Null Hypothesis:

Population mean (µ) is equal to a specified value µο

𝐻0 : µ = µο

2. T- test:

Derived by W S Gosset in 1908.

Properties of t distribution:

i. It has mean 0

ii. It has variance greater than one

iii. It is bell shaped symmetrical distribution about mean

i. Sample must be random, observations independent

ii. Standard deviation is not known

iii. Normal distribution of population

One Sample t-test

Assumptions:

• Population is normally distributed

• Sample is drawn from the population and it

should be random

• We should know the population mean

Conditions:

• Population standard deviation is not known

• Size of the sample is small (<30)

Contd..

• In one sample t-test , we know the population

mean.

• We draw a random sample from the

population and then compare the sample mean

with the population mean and make a statistical

decision as to whether or not the sample mean

is different from the population.

Two sample t-test

• Used when the two independent random

samples come from the normal populations

having unknown or same variance.

population means are same i.e., µ1 = µ2

Contd…

Assumptions:

1. Populations are distributed normally

2. Samples are drawn independently and at random

Conditions:

1. Standard deviations in the populations are same

and not known

2. Size of the sample is small

Paired t-test

Used when measurements are taken from the

same subject before and after some

manipulation or treatment.

in blood pressure before and after

administration of an experimental pressure

substance

Assumptions & conditions:

Assumptions:

1. Populations are distributed normally

2. Samples are drawn independently and at

random

Conditions:

1. Standard deviations in the populations are

same and not known

2. Size of the sample is small

3.Pearson’s ‘r’ Correlation

relationship between two quantitative,

continuous variables.

measure of the strength of the association

between the two variables

Types of correlation

Type of correlation Correlation

coefficient

• Perfect positive r = +1

correlation

• Partial positive correlation 0 < r < +1

• No correlation r=0

• Partial negative correlation 0 > r > -1

• Perfect negative correlation r = -1

4.ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

statistical models used to analyse the

differences between group means or variances.

• Developed by R.A.Fischer

ANOVA ( ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE)

One way ANOVA

data are categorized in one factor

Ex:

1. Comparing a control group with three different

doses of aspirin

2. Comparing the productivity of three or more

employees based on working hours in a company

Two way ANOVA

• Used to determine the effect of two nominal

predictor variables on a continuous outcome

variable.

• It analyses the effect of the independent

variables on the expected outcome along with

their relationship to the outcome itself.

Ex: Comparing the employee productivity based

on the working hours and working conditions

Assumptions of ANOVA:

• The samples are independent and selected

randomly.

• Parent population from which samples are

taken is of normal distribution.

• Various treatment and environmental effects

are additive in nature.

• The experimental errors are distributed

normally with mean zero and variance σ2

Contd..

• ANOVA compares variance by means of F-ratio

𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠

F=

𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑡h𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠

• It again depends on experimental designs

Null hypothesis:

Hο = All population means are same

• If the computed Fc is greater than F critical value,

we are likely to reject the null hypothesis.

• If the computed Fc is lesser than the F critical

value , then the null hypothesis is accepted.

ANOVA TABLE

Sources of Sum of Degrees of Mean squares (MS) F-

variation squares(SS) freedom (d.f.) 𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒔 Ratio

𝒅𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒆𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒇𝒓𝒆𝒆𝒅𝒐𝒎

samples or of squares 𝑇𝑟𝑆𝑆 𝐸𝑀𝑆

groups { TrSS } (𝑘 − 1)

(treatments)

Within samples Error sum of (n-k)

or groups squares (ESS) 𝐸𝑆𝑆

{errors} (𝑛 − 𝑘)

squares(TSS)

S.N0. TYPE OF GROUP PARAMETRIC TESTS

Paired t-test

2. Comparison of two unpaired UNPAIRED TWO

groups Unpaired two sample t- SAMPLE t-test

test

3. Comparison of population and One sample t-test

sample drawn from the same

population One sample t-test

4. Comparison of three or more Two- way ANOVA

matched groups but varied in two

factors Two way ANOVA

5. Comparison of three or more One way ANOVA

matched groups but varied in one

factor One way ANOVA

6. Correlation between two variables Pearson correlation

Pearson Correlation

Nonparametric Test

• Techniques that do not rely on data belonging

to any particular distribution

underlying distribution of parameter.

lack parameters but that the number and nature

of the parameters are flexible.

Why Nonparametric Test?

i.e. too many variables involved.

USAGE

• Decision making/ forecasting.

order (such as movie reviews receiving one to

four stars)

• Simple analysis.

Parametric v Non-parametric

• Parametric tests => have info about population, or

can make certain assumptions

– Assume normal distribution of population.

– Data is distributed normally.

– population variances are the same.

assumptions made about population distribution

– Also known as distribution free tests.

– But info is known about sampling distribution.

Types of Non-parametric test1

1. One sample test

• Chi-square test

• One sample sign test

2. Two samples test

• Median test

• Two samples sign test

3. K-samples test

• Median tets

• Kruskal Wallis test

Types of Non-parametric test

• Chi-square test (χ2):

– Used to compare between observed and expected data. 1. Test of

goodness of fit

2. Test of independence

3. Test of homogeneity

• Kruskal-Wallis test-

– for testing whether samples originate from the same distribution.

– used for comparing more than two samples that are independent,

or not related

– Alternative to ANOVA.

• Wilcoxon signed-rank-

– used when comparing two related samples or repeated

measurements on a single sample to assess whether their population

mean ranks differ.

• Median test-

– Use to test the null hypothesis that the medians of the

populations from which two samples are drawn are identical.

– The data in sample is assigned to two groups, one

consisting of data whose values are higher than the median

value in the two groups combined, and the other consisting

of data whose values are at the median or below

• Sign test:

– can be used to test the hypothesis that there is "no

difference in medians" between the continuous distributions

of two random variables X and Y,

• Fishers exact test:

– test used in the analysis of contingency where sample sizes

are small

Thank you!!!

- Basics of StatisticsUploaded bynirmal kumar
- The Dummy’s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSSUploaded bymegdahn
- NCSSUG1Uploaded byMonii Peñarrieta
- 2__Effect of Students' Self ConceptUploaded bysaqibch44
- the great recession a statistical analysis of its effects on unemploymentUploaded byapi-339272240
- Introduction on RUploaded byRusselle Abrantes Arrienda
- SPSSUploaded bypepephyo
- StatisticsUploaded byRebecca Ferolino
- 영적안녕과 영적사정척도1Uploaded bybingyamiracle
- Cal.Vida.Familiar.DisCapaciDadUploaded byHeriberto Rangel
- 0Uploaded bysahil5624
- 25.pdfUploaded byHell Heaven
- tmpDE35Uploaded byFrontiers
- 168 Sample ChapterUploaded byAnonymous jTY4ExM
- Chapter10 StatsUploaded byPoonam Naidu
- journal 123456789Uploaded byGea Mae Estacio
- 6 1 and 6 2 ib version notesUploaded byapi-343368893
- Key to Research MethodologyUploaded byutcm77
- 12 Chi Square and Odds RatiosUploaded byNurul Huda Kowita
- Chapter 07Uploaded byChing Mordeno
- Seminar 1 Exercise 2 With AnswersUploaded byIrina Franghiu
- OutputUploaded bySydney Ashley Padillo
- imt hajiUploaded byMuhammad Nashrullah Ilham
- Two-Sample T-Test for Microarray DataUploaded byscjofyWFawlroa2r06YFVabfbaj
- An Empirical Study of Efficacy of International Executive Development Programmes of NI-MSMEUploaded byBONFRING
- Stat ResearchUploaded byMylady Ramos
- u08d1 Independent Samples tUploaded byarhodes777
- data-analysis-using-spss-t-test-1224391361027694-8.pptUploaded byRahman Surkhy
- ephyquantarticle1Uploaded byEphraim Elston
- An OvaUploaded byShweta Singh

- strategic management with eg.Uploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- Mcq Time Series With Correct AnswersUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- m4-1fUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- m4-1fUploaded byMayurRawool
- Derivative MktUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- CcsUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- questionnaire.pptxUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- LTU-SHU-EX-03132-SEUploaded bycristnyk
- 1-Critical Thinking and Analysis Practice 2018Uploaded byAnkita Jaiswal

- 02 TestsUploaded byValentin Adam
- Exams Catalogue Spain 2014Uploaded byjav1973
- PIAGGIO REPORTUploaded byBurhan Aryan
- characteristics of a good psycological testUploaded byapi-249970840
- Chapter 11Uploaded byMohamed Med
- Solution-Manual-for-Introductory-Statistics-9th-Edition-by-Mann-Chapters-1-13.pdfUploaded bya400958246
- The GMAT Exam Brochure.pdfUploaded byDESMALANILS48
- JKCET 2018 Answer Key OfficialUploaded byyasir
- T test for a meanUploaded byCha-Cha Lagarde
- Learn HypothesisUploaded bySAEID RAHMAN
- An OvaUploaded byiamELHIZA
- Polit & Beck Chapter 17 QUIZUploaded byNicole Lee
- Aptitude Tests and the Legal Profession Final ReportUploaded byelavio
- Brandon LAB 5.docxUploaded byZack Chong
- P Values Are Not Error ProbabilitiesUploaded bynilton_ufcg@gmail.com
- August VersionUploaded byDanyel Olaru
- IGC Exam tipsUploaded byAppalaraju
- 1420_CQFINALMERITLIST201819MBBSBDSUploaded byNeepa
- Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods_Lavrakas_2008.pdfUploaded byhelton_bsb
- Tests of HypothesisUploaded byHazel Papagayo
- TBR CBT Exam 1-9 ScalesUploaded byJessMorelli
- measure.docxUploaded byLileng Lee
- An OvaUploaded byVivekanandhan Sindhamani
- SPSS2 Guide Basic Non-parametricsUploaded byrich_s_moore
- Psychological-Testing.pdfUploaded byLouriel Nopal
- Some Stats and SPSS PointersUploaded byrm7029
- UGCUploaded bykumkumjo
- The Sampling Distribution Would Have Less Dispersion. an Extended ExampleUploaded byHector Holmes
- “Projective Personality Rorschach Inkblot”Uploaded byAssignmentLab.com
- Comparison of Classical Test Theory AndUploaded byAjay Dhamija