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Presented by
R NITIN (U15EC131)

Introduction • The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilometers using an Arduino board. . Resistance can vary with respect to the length of the cable. We are mainly focusing that resistance. • Many time faults occur due to construction works and other reasons. • Cables have some resistance.

This value displayed by display unit. it is necessary to know where the cable is located and what route it takes. the value of the resistance will also increase. knowing the exact route is even more critical. • That fault point represents the standard of distance (kilometre) from the base station. we will call that is fault point and finding that place through Arduino technology. • If any deviation occurs in the resistance value. . If the fault is on secondary cable.• If the length of the cable fault increases. • Before attempting to locate underground cable faults on cable.

most of all. experience. it will very likely become even more complex as more and more underground plant is installed. and perhaps. skill. • Success in locating or tracing the route of electrical cable and metal pipe depends upon knowledge. it makes sense to master cable locating and tracing and to do a cable trace before beginning the fault locating process. . It is just as important to understand how the equipment works as it is to be thoroughly familiar with the exact equipment being used. • Although locating can be a complex job.• Since it is extremely difficult to find a cable fault without knowing where the cable is.




• Used to locate the fault location. • Industrial Applications.APPLICATIONS • It is basically use for underground wire fault detection. .

• Resistances and switches. • Relay Driver. • Power supply. . • Relay.Components used: • Aurdino with ATmega328p microcontroller. • Liquid Crystal Display(LCD).

• 14 digital input/output pins.Aurdino: • Microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. • A USB connection. a power jack. • High Performance. • 16 MHz quartz crystal. • 6 analog inputs. and a reset button. .

• If the logic at input 1B is high then the output at its corresponding pin 1C will be low.Relay Driver • Mainly suited for interfacing between low-level circuits and multiple peripheral power loads. . • The Relay driver functions as an inverter. • A Darlington pair is two transistors that act as a single transistor but with a much higher current gain.

Relay • Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. . • The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram.

LCD • Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. the data written to the LCD & When RW=0. the data reading to the LCD. • This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines. When RW=0. respectively. . • R/W=Read/Write .

Power supply .

Block Diagram .

R13 and R14.R15. • • Fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same.R19.Working : • The project uses a set of resistances in series i.R16.R12. R14 & R18 being the 3 phase cable input.R20.R17. R10. .R11. • • 3 relays are used to common point of their contacts are grounded while the NO points are connected to the input of the R10. as shown in the circuit diagram. & R18.e.R21. one set for each phase. • • Each series resistors represents the resistance of the underground cable for a specific distance thus 4 such resistances in series represent 1-4kms. • • The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is displayed on a LCD interfaced to the Arduino board.

Circuit Simulation: .

Code Algorithm .

• Open circuit distance can be calculated by using fault capacitor. • Used in neural network structure for fault selection and location estimation. .Future scope • Can integrate with Wi-Fi Module or GSM Module.