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Shanto-Marium University of Creative Technology

Department of Interior Architecture
Research of MA in interior Design Program ,
Batch :05 II 3rd Semester II Summer 2018
Supervisor: Dr. Shahariar Talukdar
Co- Supervisor: Dr. Shamshad Chowdhury
Style Exists over Choto Sona Masjid in Chapai Nawabgonj

Analysis of Reflection of Architectural Ornamentation in Different school of

Research Fellow
Fellow: :Farhana Islam

Object, expected output & target beneficiaries:
The main objective of this study is to identify & understand the
attitudes of the style of Choto Sona Masjid by analyzing its form,
pattern & decoration.

Besides, this study is an attempt to find out the rationale and

Research Fellow : Farhana Islam
architectural philosophies those trigger to exercise the design and
ornamentations of Choto Sona Masjid at the sultanate Period of Bengal.

. Chapai Nawabganj. a part of Rajshahi Division is located at the north-western part of Bangladesh. Choto Sona Mosque is situated in Geographical topography & climatic context: Chapai Nawabjong. The map of Bangladesh is depicting the divisions The map is Depicting the position of Choto Sona Masjid at Nawabjong in Rajshahi Division.

. The map is representing the area of East Pakistan and West Pakistan including Gaur. The north and west part of Chapai Nawabganj is bounded by the river Padma and Malda & Nadia districts of India . in 1984 it became a separate district of Bangladesh. Malda and Rajmehel Hill. It was a sub-division of Malda Geographical topography & climatic context: district and was given to East Pakistan in 1947 as a sub division of Rajshahi district. After the liberation war. Rajshahi & Naogaon is on the east and India is on the southern site of Nawabgonj district.

the climate of both districts is quite similar. The waves of the main two rivers. Rajshahi Cadat College etc. are responsible for the alluvial soils and marshy swamps of this region. the Ganges and Mahananda. The most interesting places of Rajshahi with historical and archaeological background are Bagha Mosque. Chapai Nawabganj has an area Geographical topography & climatic context: of 1702. As Chapai Nawabgonj is adjacent to Rajshahi.55 km2. Puthia palace. The map is portraying the position of Choto Sona Mosque . Puthia temple. Rajshahi has a tropical wet & dry climate.

Bengal was known as Lakhnouti (later called Gaur) for more than forty years at the time of Hindu Maharaja and his descendents. . one of the fortified cities of Bengal. Bengal delta. The map is portraying Gaur. Then. Turks brought Islam to Bengal from their homeland in central Asia and dislodged the ruling Raja & establish Muslim power.  Despite the isolation from the Islamic culture.D 1204. the land of Hindus and Buddhists embraces Islam & Muslim tradition after the victory of Muhammad Bakt-yar-Khilji Early Muslim period of Bengal: at Nadia in A.

In the 13th century. skilled labor. the dome. materials and technology. they already possessed a highly developed mosque architecture distinguished by the arch. Throughout the history it is evident that. Wherever the Muslims went the construct mosque to meet their ritual supplication five times a day. this region also developed a rich architectural vocabulary of its own. . Muslims started building mosque influenced by local culture. On the other hand. climate. innovative ideas and social-economic as well as geographical factors played a vital role in practicing mosque architecture in Bengal. In the course of time. Early Muslim period of Bengal: the minaret & the mihrab. tradition. because of the long heritage of the Buddhist and Hindu periods and contemporary vernacular style (mud & thatch hut). Besides. when Muslims invaded Bengal.

A unique Bengali Muslim culture was flourished especially during the Ilyah Shahi dynasty (1433-86) and Husain Shahi Dynasty (1493-1538). The map is portraying the Sultanate of Delhi. The early Muslim period was a creative blend of foreign and local tradition. The cultural identity and the spiritual mould of today's Bengali Muslims are rooted in the independent Sultanate Early Muslim period of Bengal: period. The regional architectural style that expend during the independent sultan is known as the early Islamic architecture of Bengal. Bangladesh was a part of the sultanate as Bengal .

mosque provides a sense of spirituality. The first house of worship is the holy Kaaba in Mecca which is also known as Al-Masjid-Al –Haram or Baytullah (the house of God). Prophet (SAW) established the first mosque at Antiquity: Madinah in a simplest possible manner.e. In pre-Islamic time. divinity and unity along with social identity of a locality. Apart from the religious purpose. A mosque is a place for Muslims to meet their pivotal religious need i. congregational worship five times a day. . During the inception of Islam. Diagram reconstruction of the Prophet's (SAW) House Over the course of time Mosque becomes an indispensible part of Muslim community. Kaaba was considered as the sanctuary for Muslims. any open space oriented towards the Kiblah is suitable for salat. to convey Allah’s (SWT) commandment to the whole humanity and to render service to the society.

as a place of congregational prayer for Muslim community. Mosque developed gradually all over the world following different customs Adina Mosque with an open court yard at Sultanate Period & traditions of different Islamic dynasties. which are as follows. Therefore. style and decoration vary greatly. layout. some features and functions of Mosque are common all over the world. pattern. However. Shan (Courtyard) The Enclosed type The Rectangular type The Rectangular Multi-Unit type The Rectangular type with wider central aisles The Rectangular type with fore room Pillars and pilasters Antiquity: Squinches and Pendentives Domes & Vaults .

Tara Mosque The British colonial period (A. Bengal mosque architecture can be classily into four following phases.  The pre-Mughal or Sultanate period Baitur Rauf Jame Mosque (A.1576. By the course of time mosque architecture of Bengal formed a provincial style which primarily rooted on the western and central Asian building tradition. 1204-1576.1757-1947).1757).D.D .  Based on the Architectural forms. and Antiquity: The contemporary period (A.D.D.  The Mughal period (A. The Lalbagh Fort Mosque elements and building materials. layout.1948 to present) .).

Patterns of Ornamentation in Bengal mosque  Ornamentation highlighted and enhances the spatial attributes of any architectural composition. domes.  The main reason of ornamentation in mosques is to feel the existence of Allah. foliage and very artistic embodied architecture patterns . pendentive etc. the almighty. In Islamic world . different geometric and abstract forms. columns. Muslim architecture practices surface ornamentation by calligraphy .This work is from Choto sona Mosque which reflects the Badshahi(royal) and the Byzantine style. the aesthetic quality of a space can be achieved by the structural elements. The wall decoration piece reflects the ornamental pattern of hanging chained Bell motif. lotus type flowers. creepers. such as arches. vegetal patterns. Apart from that. .

designers employed terracotta.Patterns of Ornamentation in Bengal mosque Islam never prescribed any particular forms of art however.Assorted architecture pieces of different designs of glazed texture tiles are used in the interior surfaces of the This figure is portraying the Arabic mosque calligraphy of a Mughal mosque. calligraphy etc to express the respective design. . foliage. The mosque architecture of Bengal uses different motifs of floral. creeper pattern. stucco. . ceramics. stone carving. The exterior & interior surface of the star mosque is designed by Chink- tikri tiles . this ornaments reflects the local tradition with a mixture of foreign influences. hanging bell motif. as human representation is insolence to god. petals of rosette & lotus with various colors to convey the particular style & to create the spiritual atmosphere. Most of the time. glazed tiles. mosaics.

Before the supplication. The Choto sona Masjid is stands on an open piece of land in the southern side of Architectural design & ornamentation of a big tank. this 20 feet high fifteen domes mosque is measures 82 feet by 52 feet externally and 70 feet 4 inches by 40 feet 9inches internally. The mosque. people usually perform ablution with the water of this tank. Choto sona Masjid Gateway of Choto Sona Mosque Choto Sona Mosque Premises . isolated from its present neighborhood . Richly embellished with gilding stone. with a gateway in the middle of the east side covers an area of 42m from east to west and 43m from north to south.

the walls are enrich with black basalt stone. From inside up to the bottom of the arches and from Main entry from East outside up to the edge of the Cornice. Each of the doors surrounded with a rectangular frame. The exterior façade of the Choto Sona Masjid is lavishly decorated with curved stone. The eastern part of the mosque is the main entry. The small golden Masjid cased in black basalt Architectural design & ornamentation of stone is basically a brick building portraying the stone cutter art of Sultanate dynasty. Front elevation of Choto Sona Mosque . The panels of the middle doorway are ornate with creepers and the interior is embellished with various forms of hanging patterns adopted from the chain and bell motif of the Hindu period. furnished with scroll work except the Perspective view middle one . having five arched doorway with multiple Choto sona Masjid cusps & decorated with notable rosettes.

The Mosque has four polygonal corner towers comprises the rectangular prayer Architectural design & ornamentation of hall. Each part contains six drum less hemispherical domes rests on pendentives. . surrounded by a 1.  Corner towers are highly decorated with creeper patterns and hanging chain and flower motifs. the central nave is covered with three special form of vault called Chau-chala or four segmented hut shaped roof. creeper patterns and the domes and vaults the aisles and pillars hanging motifs. In total these semi circular domes are twelve in number. Two rows of chamfered pillars split the hall into three aisles and five bays. Choto sona Masjid The chau-chala vault decorated with stone carving The Plan indicating the entrances and Interior space depicting panels .78 m thick wall. Separated into three rectangular areas. inspired from the bamboo frame work of Bengal huts.

There is a raised stone gallery supported by slender black basalt stone pillars and horizontal stone beams for the Royal ladies (Zenana gallery). The Northern and the Southern walls of the Architectural design & ornamentation of mosque are punched with three arched doorways leading to the aisles.  A flight of steps leading to the two storied Entrances from the South entrance porch for the gallery is attached to the North-west part of the mosque. The North-West raised Porch . Choto sona Masjid In the Western wall opposite to the front doorways there were five mihrabs and there is an extra small mihrab for the gallery at the second story. At the back of the projected wall of the central mihrab niche there are two octagonal buttressed turrets .

The alcove is surrounded by carved hanging motif and small panels consisting of chain & bell motifs. exhibits a triple Cornice. The mihrab comprised of a deep alcove & fronted with an arched niche . Choto sona Masjid The choto Sona Masjid. the entire artwork is bordered by a frame. & wavy creepers . The rain water disposes through the four spouts in each side of the mosque and there the panel is embellished with are eight spouts in total.  The surface of the arch have a tree motif twisted The interior of the mosque a rosette within its branches. Only the foundation of these corner turrets is in Architectural design & ornamentation of situ as the remaining parts have lost. Embellished with Portraying the Mihrabs on the west scroll work. The sloped roof of the mosque in north –south and east-west direction is quite helpful to remove rain water. The battlements and the triple cornice are in curvilinear forms . ornamental creeper patterns.

 The top of the corner tower is crowned with flower. foliage and geometrical forms. The top part of the polygonal pillar of Choto Architectural design & ornamentation of The corner Towers decorated with Hanging chain motif and Sona mosque is embellished with a combination of flower. Hanging chain motif adorn with two upper sided lotus type flower are designed within every rectangular pattern that carved on stone facing pillar.around the pillar which provided additional beauty to the Choto sona Masjid monument. foliage and geometric form designed stone moulding . The bottom part of the pillar is decorated in segmented patterns with carving stone moulded & lotus formation around the pillar. .  The lower bottom part of the tower is constructed almost in plane surface.

belong to Choto sona Masjid Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir (died: 14 December 1971) and Major Nazmul Hoque Tulu (died: 27 September 1971). The department of archaeology has Architectural design & ornamentation of excavated the colorful tiles that once used in the paved court yard. . and other tombs are from later period. two admired martyrs who sacrifice their lives fighting against the Pakistani Army near Nawabganj town during the Two tomb sarcophagi from sultanate period Liberation war of Bangladesh. in a stone stage there are two tomb sarcophagi in the mosque premises Within the mosque premise there are two modern graves.

the use of brick & stone as a material embellish the exterior and interior façade etc reflects the Byzantine style over choto sona mosque. Therefore we see here a style that is rooted with local architectural traditions along with the influence of the Byzantine and Ottoman (Badshahi) style. the mosque has an influence from Byzantine & Kufiq architecture as well. borrowed much of its vocabulary from the traditional Bengal thatched & bamboo huts.Analysis of the development & s style of Through the analysis and examination of architectural forms. Unlike Mughals the mosque was decorated with stone curving & terracotta glazed brick. Curvature cornice. octagonal & polygonal turrets. not the plaster work. Brick surface having motifs on it connects the sultanate mosque with the pre-Islamic Buddhist and Hindu temples. . The twelve drum less domes rest on pendentives. it can be remarked that. The Chau-chala roof that covered over the Choto Sona Masjid is inspired from the rural huts. the distinguish features of mosque architecture reflects over Chot Shona Masjid. layout. pointed arched etc of Choto Sona Mosque depicts the Ottoman Style (Badshahi style) that Turks brought along with them in Bengal. Choto sona Masjid absence of minaret. Again. materials and ornamentation of Choto Sona Mosque.

Thank You .