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Solar Power Generation in Remote Areas

of Punjab (India)

Presented By: Deepinder Singh


Index

ØCurrent Status
ØDemand Analysis
ØEnergy efficiency
ØSystem Design
ØEvaluation-TBL
ØRecommendations
ØReferences

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India Facts & Figures

 •
• 72% of total population lives in rural
 areas.
• 80,000 village still remain un electrified.

• Rural telecom , rural banking, irrigation
pumps continue to falter due to lack of

stable power.





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Current Status of Punjab

 Punjab is a state in northwest of India , called as ” Food basket and


Granary of India", has been awarded National Productivity Award
for agriculture services for consecutively ten years(1990-2000) .
 Punjab has different source for power generation
üHydro-power generation
üThermal-power generation
 Still there is a shortage in electricity for the agriculture, industrial and
residential sectors.
 For that reason I am trying to implement a Solar power generation
plant in my own village located in district Fatehgarh sahib of
Punjab , focus towards the agriculture sector.

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Current Status of electricity in Punjab
 Agriculture sector:
üEnergy supply is only for 6-8
hours a day
üThere is low voltage in the
power supply
üFarmers use diesel generator to
complete the energy demand
üDecrease in production
üIncrease in poverty
üIncrease in suicide rate(Survey
report says that 2990 farmers
committed suicide between
2000 to 2008 )
ü

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Residential Sector
 During the summer season the power supply is only for 12 hrs a day.
 Due to higher load and theft of electricity the demand is not full filled.
 There is less maintenance of the distribution lines and thus the power
supply is cut off during bad wether conditions.

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Demand Analysis
Residential sector
Appliance/Light Quantity Watts Total Power Hrs/Day Watt Hrs/Day
Kitchen
Exhaust fan 1 50 50 4 200
Refrigerator 1 200 200 5 1000
Microwave 1 800 800 0.25 200
Lounge room 0 0
Incandescent Lamp 2 60 120 4 480
LCD TV LG 1 350 350 3 1050
Cd Player 1 35 35 2 70
Digital Box 1 35 35 3 105
Iron 1 1200 1200 0.2 240
Air Conditioner 1 1850 1850 3 5550
Bedroom 1
Incandescent Lamp 1 60 60 5 300
Fan 1 25 25 12 300
Phone charger 1 7 7 2 14
Bedroom 2 0 0
Incandescent Bulb 1 60 60 5 300
Desert Cooler 1 300 300 2 600
Phone charger 1 7 7 2 14
Fan 1 25 25 12 300
Bedroom 3 0 0
Incandescent Bulb 1 60 60 8 480
Phone charger 1 7 7 2 14
Fan 1 25 25 12 300
Washroom/Laundry 0 0
Incandescent Bulb 1 60 60 2 120
Washing machine 1 500 500 0.5 250
Laptop charger 1 50 50 6 300
Phone charger 1 7 7 2 14
Fan 1 25 25 2 50
Cd Player 1 35 35 2 70
Total Power Consumed/Day 12.32 KW

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Agriculture Sector

Appliance/Light Quantity Watts Total Power Hrs/Day KW Hrs/Day Comments

Tube well 1 5590 5590 8 4472 During the paddy


season
Incandescent Lamp 1 60 60 2 120

Average 4.59 KWh/Day


Power
usage

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Energy Efficiency  Design of my homes in Punjab

üEnergy rating is 2.5 star



üNo insulation is used so
its to hot in summer
üMore energy demand

üUse of incandescent
lights , energy wastage
üUse of low rating
appliances such as TV ,
refrigerators, microwave
etc
üHigher green house gas
emissions

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System Design

 There are mainly two types of PV system design


1.Simple arrangement

PV Array Current Battery Bank Inverter Load
Regulator

 2. Hybrid Arrangement
1.

Engine AC Generator

Battery Charger

PV Array Current Battery Bank Inverter Load


Regulator

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Sun Radiation data of Punjab

Month Daily solar Peak sun Electric energy


radiation in hours produced by
MJ/m²/d BP17180 module

Jan 8.31 2.31 147.84


Feb 13.13 3.98 254.72
Mar 17.6 4.89 312.96
Apr 18.36 5.10 326.4
May 19.26 5.35 342.4
Jun 21.52 5.98 382.72
Jul 22.5 6.25 400
Aug 18.18 5.05 323.2
Sep 16.74 4.65 297.6
Oct 13.71 3.81 243.84
Nov 9.31 2.59 165.76
Dec 7.16 1.99 127.36
Average 15.48 4.32 277.1

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Calculations

 Residential Sector  Agriculture Sector


Total power consumed 12.32kW

 Total power consumed 4.59kW
Assumption 50% of total energy

 Assume 50% of total consumed
consumed
 No of modules to generate this
No of modules to generate this power

power
6.16x1000/277.1=22(approx.) 2.29x1000/277.1=8(approx.)

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TBL evaluation
Economic evaluation

Device Rate Total


PV module for both Total 30 PV 307,200=$7680
agriculture and
3-phase inverter- Panels
I watt = .25 250,000=$6250
residential
3-phase sector
10kW 1 Panel=64w
Rs=$0.625
1Watt =20 Rs=$0.5 200,000=$5000
Transfarmer-10kW
Subtotal 1 watt=Rs160=$4 $18930
Multiply by 20% of 20%=0.2 $3786
subtotal
Total to get $41,646
balance for wire ,
Diesel Generator EDA 5000E, 12 $4902
fuse
Grandand switches
total Litres $46,548
etc

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Social Evaluations

Thermal PV+ Battery PV + Battery+


Power Diesel
Service - I2 hrs supply + High Generator
+High in both
for residential summer and
sector
- Effected in winter
Safety and Poor +High +High
specially in bad wether
Standards
summer and winter -Noise

User attitude --Need


6-8 hrs
to for -Less -complex
agriculture
change or full Knowledge of
sector
fill the demand new
technology

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Environmental Evaluations

Green House Gas Total Annual


Different Options Emissions Emissions
Kg of Co2/kWh Tones of Co2-e
per year
Thermal Power Generation 0.928 1.6704

PV + Battery 0 0

PV+ Battery+ Diesel generator 3.1 5.7

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Recommendations

 Change the designs of home and use higher rating appliances .


 Government should implement certain rules to schedule the power
supply time from current power station and from PV station i.e.
During summer 8 hrs of supply is from PV and rest is from thermal
power station .
 Special arrangements should be done for the people of community
who are below the poverty line.
 Community Rural Electrification should be considered as much
essential as road, education, health and security for the people of
the country.
• Government rebates on PV system and energy tariffs .



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References

 Book: Design of RAPS systems by prof. Akbarzadeh


 P.Sritakaew & A.Sangswang, “On the Reliability Improvement of Distribution Systems Using PV rid-
Connected Systems”. IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and systems. pp. 1354 - 1357,
2006.
 Allen M. Barnett, “Solar electrical power for a better tomorrow”. Photovoltaic Specialists IEEE
Conference, Page(s): 1 – 8, 1996.
 N. Jenkins, “Photovoltaic systems for small-scale remote power supplies”, IET Journals. Volume: 9
 Lecture notes ,RMIT.

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