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Group-8 Presents

---is an opening or
a vent through
which magma and
the dissolved gases
in it are discharged.

Magma (a red-hot liquid rock inside the earth)

Subduction zones

Hot Spots
Subduction zones
− During subduction, the subducted
oceanic plate is heated as it plunges
into the mantle and at depth of 80-120
km, melting begins and volcanoes are
produced which are parallel to the
subduction zone.
Hot spots
− Magmas at hot spots
are derived from deep
within the mantle.
− The magmas are fed by
deep mantle plumes
which are stationary
relative to the drifting
tectonic plates.
Plate tectonics and
Global distribution of volcanoes
Less than 10 Degree
Shield volcanoes slope

Composite volcanoes Up to 30 Degree slope

Cinder cone volcanoes 30-40 Degree slope

Non-explosive Eruptions Explosive Eruptions
− Low gas content and low viscosity − High gas content and high
magmas viscosity
− basaltic magmas − Andesitic to rhyolitic magmas
− If the viscosity is low, non- − Explosive bursting of bubbles will
explosive eruptions usually begin fragment the magma into clots of
with fire fountains due to release liquid that will cool as they fall
of dissolved gases. through the air. These solid
− Lava flows are produced on the particles become pyroclasts
surface and these run like liquids (meaning - hot fragments) and
down slope. tephra or volcanic ash, which
refer to sand- sized or smaller
− If the viscosity is high, but the gas
content is low, then the lava will
pile up over the vent to produce a
lava dome or volcanic dome.
Size of eruption
Composition of eruption
Environment of eruption

Primary hazards: Secondary hazards:

• Lava flow • Lahars & landslides
• Pyroclastic flows / • Acid rain
surges • Tsunamis
• Ash and tephra fall
• Gases
• Volcanic earthquakes
− Destroy immobile object in path
(houses, roads)
− Deaths by lava flows are uncommon
(move slowly, don’t flows vent)
− Block roads and highways
− Bury homes and agricultural land
− Dam rivers, change river courses, kill
resident fish, act as a barrier to
migrating fish.
− Extremely destructive, destroy buildings, trees, or
any objects in their path by impact, burial or fire
− On margins of pyroclastic flows, death and serious
injury to people and animals may result from burns
and inhalation of hot ash and gases.
− Pyroclastic flows may also interact with snow and ice
to generate lahars.
− Transportation
− Buildings
− Communication
− Health
− Power facilities and distribution systems
− Agriculture
− Waste Water systems
Ash –Transportation
Roads & Highways
− Poor visibility
Airborne ash can obscure
sunlight to cause temporary
darkness and reduce visibility
to zero
During such conditions vehicle
headlights and brake lights are
often ineffective and barely
visible to other drivers
Ash –Transportation
Roads & Highways
− Slippery surface
When ash on roads become
wet, the mud-like mixture can
cause vehicles to lose traction
and drivers to lose control of
During such conditions, the
braking ability of vehicles may
be significantly reduced
Ash –Transportation
Roads & Highways
− Road markings covered
Ash deposits thicker than about 1 mm will obscure
or completely cover markings on roads that
identify lanes, road shoulders, direction of travel,
and instructions to drivers (for example, stop or
When such road markings are not visible, drivers
may become confused and disoriented.
Ash –Transportation
Roads & Highways
− Abrasive & clogging effect on vehicles
Brakes and moving parts of vehicles are vulnerable
to abrasion and clogging from ash. Also, the tiny ash
easily clog air-filtration systems on vehicles, which
can lead to overheating and engine failure
Ash –Transportation
− Deposition of material on hot-section components.
− Erosion of compressor blades and rotor-path
− Blockage of fuel nozzles and cooling passages.
− Contamination of the oil system and bleed-air supply.
− Opacity of windscreen and landing lights.
− Contamination of electronics.
− Erosion of antenna surfaces.
− Plugging of the pitot-static system which indicates
the airspeed of the aircraft
− Damage to buildings and
building systems from
volcanic ash can range from
complete or partial roof
collapse leading to
widespread injuries and
deaths to less catastrophic
damage of exterior materials
and interior rooms,
including appliances and
computers, floor coverings,
and electrical and
mechanical systems
− Electrically charged ash can cause interference to
radio waves and render radio and telephone systems
− Any ash entering telephone exchanges can cause
abrasion, corrosion, or conductivity damage to
electrical and mechanical systems
− During most natural disasters i.e.volcanic eruption
telephone and radio communications are susceptible
to overloading by public and emergency services use.
− nasal irritation
throat irritation and sore throat, sometimes accompanied by dry
people with pre-existing chest complaints have developed severe
bronchitic symptoms which lasted some days beyond exposure to ash
(for example, hacking cough, production of sputum, wheezing, or
shortness of breath)
airway irritation of people with asthma or bronchitis; common
complaints of people with asthma include shortness of breath,
wheezing, and coughing
breathing becomes uncomfortable
− Eye symptoms
eyes feel as though there are foreign particles in them
eyes become painful, itchy or bloodshot
sticky discharge or tearing
corneal abrasions or scratches
acute conjuctivitis or the inflammation of the conjuctival sac that
surrounds the eyeball due to the presence of ash, which leads to
redness, burning of the eyes, and photosensitivity
− Free crystalline silica in volcanic ash
Volcanic ash may contain varying proportions of free crystalline
silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) in the form of quartz, cristobalite, or
tridymite minerals. Exposure to respirable particles of free
crystalline silica can lead to silicosis, a disease resulting in scarring
of the lungs and impairment of their function.
− Ash falls destroy pastures i.e. no food will be available to the
− Natural water sources and man-made ponds may be
temporarily contaminated by ash, and water-pumping
equipment can be damaged by the abrasive rock particles.
− Ash falls may be poisonous to livestock and result in clinical
diseases, including hypocalcaemia, fluorosis, forestomach
and intestinal damage, and secondary metabolic disorders
− Ash from Etna
volcano on the
surface of citrus fruit
made it
uneconomical to
produce juice
because it was too
expensive to clean
the fruit (image
courtesy of La Sicilia).
− Waste water systems (sewage and storm water)
are vulnerable to damage from volcanic ash
because the tiny rock fragments can block pipes
and canals, increase wear on pumps and other
machinery, and interfere with water-treatment
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of
precipitation that is unusually acidic,
meaning that it possesses elevated levels of
hydrogen ions (low pH).

H2O (l) + CO2 (g) H2CO3 (aq)

H2O (l) + H2CO3 (aq) HCO3− (aq) + H3O+ (aq)

Soil biology and chemistry can be seriously damaged by
acid rain. Some microbes are unable to tolerate changes
to low pHs and are killed. The enzymes of these microbes
are denatured (changed in shape so they no longer
function) by the acid. The hydronium ions of acid rain
also mobilize toxins such as aluminium, and leach away
essential nutrients and minerals such as magnesium.
Forests and other vegetation
High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as
they are often surrounded by clouds and fog
which are more acidic than rain.
Effect on food crops is minimized by the
application of lime and fertilizers to replace lost
In cultivated areas, limestone may also be added
to increase the ability of the soil to keep the pH
Other adverse effects
Acid rain can also damage buildings and
historic monuments, especially those made
of rocks such as limestone and marble
containing large amounts of calcium
carbonate. Acids in the rain react with the
calcium compounds in the stones to create
gypsum, which then flakes off.
The different volcanic gases effect the earth, people and
animals in different ways.

Some are discussed below:

− Carbon dioxide
− Sulfur dioxide
− Chlorine
− Fluorine.
Carbon dioxide
(Greenhouse effect)
− Carbon dioxide can add to the effects of global warming which
contributes to the greenhouse effect.
− Carbon dioxide behaves like a glass shield over the earth.
− The sun's rays penetrate the carbon dioxide gas but the carbon
dioxide shield prevents heat from escaping into the atmosphere .
− Volcanoes contribute about 110 million tons of carbon dioxide per
Sulfur dioxide(Haze effect)
− Volcanic eruptions enhance the haze effect to a greater
extent than the greenhouse effect, and thus they can
lower mean global temperatures by sulfur dioxide gas.
− In the cold lower atmosphere, it is converted to sulfuric
acid by the sun's rays reacting with stratospheric water
vapor to form sulfuric acid aerosol layers.
− The aerosol remains in suspension long after solid ash
particles have fallen to earth and forms a layer of
sulfuric acid droplets between 15 to 25 kilometers up.
Chlorine (ozone depletion)
− Chlorine is emitted from volcanoes in the form of
hydrochloric acid (HCl), which breaks down into chlorine
and chlorine monoxide (ClO) molecules.
− The sulfate aerosols furnish sites for chemical reactions
that release the chlorine atoms.
− The reactive chlorine atoms proceed to destroy ozone,
with each chlorine atom being recycled many times.
Fluorine (Fluorisis)
− Fluorine gas can condense in rain or on ash particles and
coats grass and pollutes streams and lakes with excess
− Animals that eat grass coated with fluorine-tainted ash
are poisoned.
− Small amounts of fluorine can be beneficial, but excess
fluorine causes fluorisis, an affliction that eventually kills
animals by destroying their bones.
− As magma is pushed into a volcano from the magma
chamber below via the magma conduit, the volcano inflates
causing slopes to become oversteepened and unstable; this
can result in larger, more explosive eruptions than would
otherwise be expected.
− Ground shaking associated with stream venting and magma
ascent can also trigger a collapse.
− Landslides generated during volcanic eruptions at snow and
ice-covered volcanoes can be especially dangerous: As a
landslide moves downslope, the large blocks break into
smaller and smaller pieces, which, when combined with
water from melting snow or ice, can transform the landslide
into a debris avalanche, carrying it farther than a similar-
sized rock avalanche.
− Volcanic earthquakes may be small events detectable only by
instruments, or larger events associated with explosive
− They may serve as a useful indicator that a volcano is coming to
life, and can be used to help predict when a volcano may erupt.
− Earthquakes large enough for humans to feel may damage
− Volcanic eruptions along coastlines can generate tsunamis
(often inaccurately called “tidal waves”) due to seismic activity
or landslides into water. For example, an 1883 eruption of
Augustine volcano in Alaska involved a collapse of a portion of
the volcano into Cook Inlet, resulting in a localized tsunami
that was about 15 m high. Far greater damage, including about
36,000 deaths, was caused by the 1883 eruption of the
Indonesian volcano Krakatau, which caused massive tsunamis
to strike the coasts of nearby Java and Sumatra. Fortunately
for Canada, all our volcanoes are located inland, and none of
them pose a tsunami hazard.
Positive Effects of Volcanoes
− Geothermal resources
− Fertile soil
− Spectacular scenery
− Tourism
Geothermal resources
− Volcanoes provide resources for energy
extraction, also called geothermal
− Heat from the earth's crust is being
converted to energy.
− The big advantages to this type of energy
are that it is very clean and the resources are
nearly inexhaustible.
Fertile soil
− When a volcano erupts it throws out a lot of ash.
− At short notice this ash can be very harmful to the
environment, but on the long term the ash layer, which
contains many useful minerals, will be converted to a very
fertile soil.
− Nearly everywhere volcanoes are located people use the
rich soil for farming.
− Even after an eruption people still return because of the
fertile soil around the volcano.
Spectacular scenery
− Volcanoes can produce very
spectacular scenery like the
beautiful sunsets caused by
explosive eruptions.
− Other features include
stunning eruptions,
beautiful lava fountains etc.
− A big economical advantage
of volcanoes is that they
generate tourism.
− A country such as Hawaii is
getting a lot income from
Hazard management
− Awareness of whether the volcano in their
regions are dorment or active
− effective warning and evacuation procedure
− carefully monitored
− look out for temperature increase
− magma releases gases
− movement of magma produces earthquakes
and vibrations
− swelling of volcano's slope
− Tiltmeter - measures the
expansion of the volcano
− Seismograph - determines
− Correlation spectrometers -
measures amounts of sulfur
− Remote sensing and GPS
Reduce the impact of a volcano
− The most obvious; don't build any sort of town around a
Spray the oncoming Lava flow with seawater. This was done in
Iceland during an eruption in 1983.
− Military bombings to divert Lava flows
− Build walls in the way of the lava to block the flow
− Cool lava by breaking down the roof and sides of the tube
feeding the lava flow. (Not tested yet)
− Have an evacuation plan.
− Educating the community.
− Dig trenches away from nearby towns/villages.