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Preventive measures

“ In terms of volume, aggregate is


constituent of concrete. Therefore,
subject to high hydrogen sulphide
limestone or dolomite aggregates is
the most important
in sewage systems
loading, the use of
a measure that can
decrease the rate of deterioration.

At higher hydrogen sulphide levels, ordinary


concrete in closed sewage structures must be
protected and one protective measure is to increase
the cover. At an average degradation rate of 3
mm/year, an extra cover of 60 mm will be required
to warrant 20 years of service without the main
structure being affected. However, there are many

alternative protective measures, as discussed in
Section 3.8.
Manure silos

“ Table 3.3.4 shows the conclusions from a field investigation


with respect to concrete deterioration in manure silos.
Deterioration occurs above the manure level; below this level
no significant damage has been observed. It is frequently
recommended that concrete exposed to this kind of very
aggressive environment should be protected with an organic
coating. However, the reliability of coatings as a durable
protection of concrete against degradation by sulphuric acid
is doubtful, partly because of the reasons discussed in

Section 3.8.4.4 (blistering of coating due to gypsum for-
mation beneath the coating).
Contents of liquid manure constituents
aggressive to concrete are given in
Table 3.2.4 The constituents of the
manure itself are not especially aggres-
sive, but as in the sewage systems,
hydrogen sulphide can be formed by
sulphate-reducing bacilli. An
investigation into existing manure silos
has shown that in low-quality concrete a
similar degradation can occur as in
sewage systems.
3.2.1.2 Aggressive Water

A special case of acid attack is exposure to low-hardness aggressive water containing carbon dioxide. This water is able to convert calcium
carbonate into soluble calcium bicarbonate. The European Standard EN 206-1 speci- fies the criteria for aggressive water containing
carbon dioxide as shown in Table 3.1. The reaction of this aggressive water then reads as follows:

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ∫ Ca(HCO3)2


3.2.1.3 Organic acids

In general, organic acids are weaker than mineral acids. Nevertheless, acids such as acetic and lactic can seriously degrade concrete due
to their lime- complexing ability. Concrete attack by the highly acid extracts of corn has also attracted much attention over the past years.
The general pattern of this acid degradation of concrete is that it slowly dissolves the cement paste starting from the surface. The
aggregates usually degrade less quickly than the cement paste. After some time, these aggregates are no longer embedded in the cement
paste. Sometimes, the aggregate itself is also degraded.

Ekstrak Jagung

Asam Laktat

Asam Asetat
3.2.2 Degradation of cements by salts
3.2.2.3 Fertilizers/nutritients
Greenhouse foundations are mostly made of
3.2.2.1 Ammonium Salts
concrete. They consist of small precast
The ammonium ion (NH+4) is quite innocent concrete piles embedded in concrete poured
in itself. However, the cation is always found in situ as shown in Fig. 3.2.
in combination with an anion and this anion
usually reacts with cement hydrates. As Steel
column
calcium salts are formed, the ammonium ion Evapora
tion
4
Plant
changes to and is released as gaseous nourish-–

ammonia. The release of ammonia shifts the Deterior
ment+
NH4 NO –
solution
K+ 3
reaction to the right, as shown, for instance, ated Mg++ SO4
Ground
zone
in the reaction with ammonium nitrate: level Pile

Pour
CSHgel + 2NH4NO3 Æ Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH3≠ + SiO2 + H2O
±
400

3.2.2.2 Magnesium Salts A temperature of 20 to 25 °C is maintained


Magnesium salts react first with calcium in greenhouses. Nourish- ment solutions
hydroxide, forming low soluble magnesium are sprayed onto the soil continuously or at
hydroxide. However, magnesium is also able regular inter- vals and they have the
to react with calcium silicate hydrate gel, as composition shown in Table 3.4.
shown in the following reaction:

CSHgel + Mg2+Æ Mg(OH)2 + Ca2+ + SiO2 + H2O


3.2.3 Expansive salts

Sulphate Attack

Thaumasite

Delayed Sulphate Degradation

Salt Weathering
3.2.3.1

3.2.3.2

3.2.3.3

3.2.3.4
3.2.3.1 Sulphate Attack Foundations of high voltage poles
The environment of the affected concrete foundations appears to be
fairly aggressive, mainly due to the use of liquid manure which, as
Mechanism discussed in the previous section, can contain rather high quantities
of salts. A possi- ble cause of damage can be suction of water
When sulphate ions penetrate pore systems
containing sulphates originat- ing from liquid manure. The water
by absorption of water containing sulphate or
containing salt is transported through the capillary pores to the
by diffusion, they can react with the free lime
ground level where the water evaporates and the salts remain, as
present in the concrete and form gypsum
shown in Fig. 3.4.1 Ettringite can be formed because of sulphate
according to the following reaction
accumulation. However, in some cases there were also signs that
simultaneous degradation of the cement paste could occur due to
cations exchanging with those ions in the
Subsequently, this gypsum reacts with calcium silicate hydrate gel. Furthermore, an
calcium aluminate hydrates to form ettringite: alkali–silica reaction of the aggregates was
also suspected in some cases (see Section
3.2.4).

Sulphate attack in sea water


Evaporati
Rai on
Sulphate resistance has long been n
Manur
e
advocated as an essential quality of marine
structure durability. However, in the case of Porous
coating
the joint presence of chlorides and Ground
level
sulphates, strong evidence was found that
the hazards of sulphates are negligible.
Although ettringite is found, it appears not to
Ground
be expansive. water
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