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5 KINGDOMS CLASSIFICATION

What are Species?


 smallest classification group is the species.

 a species is defined as a group of organisms that share many features


and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
Hierarchical system of classification
BINOMIAL SYSTEM
 Linnaeus, a Swedish scientist introduced this system.

 (Binomial=‘two name’).

 The mountain’s zebra is Equus grevyi.

 The plain’s zebra is Equus burchelli.

 The first part of the name is the genus that the second part of the
name is the species
Use of DNA in classification
 Traditionally classification was based on:

1. Morphology – the study of external characteristics

2. Anatomy – the study of the internal body structure

 More recent basis for classification


3. DNA analysis and protein analysis
 AAAATTTTCCCCGGGG
 AAAATTTACCCCGGGG
 AAAATTTACCCGCGGG
 AACATCTTCCACGCTG
EVOLUTIONARY TREE/
CLASSIFICATION TREE
 The most closely related species have the shortest distance from a
branching point.
FEATURES OF ORGANISMS
1. Cell membrane

2. Cytoplasm

3. Genetic material in the form of DNA.

4. Ribosomes.

5. Enzymes.
ANIMAL KINGDOM
 Multicellular organisms

 Don’t have cell wall, chloroplasts and large central vacuole.

 Heterotrophic- ingest food and digest

 Cells store glycogen granules

 Locomotion.

 Reproduce using specialized reproductive cells (gametes).

 Divided into two groups-Vertebrates and Invertebrates.


Cladogram
Bacteria
 They are micro organisms, that do not have a true nucleus

[prokaryotic]

 DNA exists as a circular chromosome.

 Small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids are also present in

cytoplasm.

 They have cell walls containing murein (peptidoglycon).


 Some bacteria are surrounded by a sticky capsule.

 Some have a whip-like flagella or cilia, which allow them to move.

 Some bacteria can photosynthesize. Ex: Blue green bacteria;

others are decomposers, break down nutrients by extra cellular

digestion.

 Some can cause diseases, can decay food.

 Others are useful in making yoghurt,in recycling of nutrients, etc.


Protoctists:
 These organisms are either uni or multicellular, but all having a

proper nucleus.

 Algae : These are plant like organisms, have chloroplasts in their cells

and can photosynthesize. Ex: Chlorella.

 Some algae such as seaweeds are multicellular.

 Protozoans: They are single celled animal- like organisms, can ingest

food particles and digest them [ intra cellular digestion]. Ex: amoeba.
Fungi:
 They are multi cellular organisms with one or many nuclei. [Yeast is

unicellular]

 They have a cell wall made of chitin.

 They have a simple body form which maybe unicellular or made of long

threads called hyphae.

 They branch and make a network of threads called mycelium.


 They do not photosynthesize as they do not contain chlorophyll.

 A fungus feeds heterotrophically

 extra- cellular digestion.

 Hyphae secrete enzymes and break down complex nutrients into

simpler products. These are absorbed by diffusion / active

uptake.
Useful Fungi:
 recycling and decaying process;
 bread making [yeast]
 production of antibiotic penicillin
 as a source of food, mushroom.
 They are also harmful and decay food, cause diseases.
Viruses:
 They are nonliving agents
 They are smallest in size. They exist as parasites and
are mostly harmful
 They do not have a true cellular structure, consist
of only a protein coat (capsid) enclosing a strand of
nucleic acid[DNA or RNA].
 These are not a part of the living world as they do not
show any characteristic like respiration, nutrition and
reproduction except unless they are inside the cells
of other living organisms [hosts].