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The American Nation

Chapter 11
The Nation Grows and
Prospers, 1790–1825

Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The American Nation

Chapter 11: The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825

Section 1: The Industrial Revolution

Section 2: Americans Move Westward

Section 3: Unity and Division

Section 4: New Nations in the Americas

Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1

• What was the Industrial Revolution, and


how did it take hold in the United States?
• Why was Lowell, Massachusetts, called a
model factory town?
• What was daily life like in early factories?
• What impact did the Industrial Revolution
have on American cities?
The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1

Industrial Revolution—a long, slow process, begun in Britain, that


completely changed the way goods were produced
• Gradually machines replaced hand tools.
• New sources of power such as steam replaced human and animal
power.
• The economy began a gradual shift toward manufacturing.
• New technology transformed the textile industry. For example, the
spinning jenny, which could spin several threads at once, replaced the
spinning wheel, which spun one thread at a time. A water-powered
loom that could weave cloth faster replaced older, hand-operated
looms.
• Instead of working alone in their homes, many workers went to work
where the machinery was—in large mills near rivers. This new system
of work is called the factory system.
• Large amounts of capital, or money, were needed to set up and
operate large mills. Capitalists—people who invest in a business in
order to make a profit—supplied the money.
How the Industrial Revolution Came to the United States
Chapter 11, Section 1

The First American Mill Interchangeable Parts


• Samuel Slater, a skilled • Skilled workers made goods by
mechanic in a British textile hand. Each item was slightly
mill, heard that Americans were different than every other item.
offering rewards for British • Eli Whitney had the idea of
factory plans. having machines manufacture
• Slater memorized the design of each part. All parts would be
machines in the mill. Then he alike, or interchangeable.
boarded a ship bound for New Interchangeable parts would
York City. save time and money. Whitney
• In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, he demonstrated his idea with
built the first successful textile muskets, but the idea of
mill in the United States interchangeable parts also
powered by water. applied to clocks and many
other goods.
Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town
Chapter 11, Section 1

• In Britain, one factory spun thread and another


wove it into cloth. Francis Cabot Lowell had the
idea of combining spinning and weaving under
one roof.
• After Lowell’s death, his partners built an entire
factory town, with streets of small, neat, white
houses.
• The company hired young women from nearby
farms. They came to be called the Lowell girls.
The company built boardinghouses for them and
made rules to protect them.
Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1

Child Labor Boys and girls as young as seven worked in factories.


Often, their wages were needed to help support their
family.
Long Hours Working hours were typically long—12 hours a day, 6
days a week year round.
Changes in Now, many family members left the home to earn a
home life living. In poorer families, women often had to go out to
work, but in middle-class families, women usually stayed
home.
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 1

The Industrial Revolution gradually changed the way people worked. After the
Industrial Revolution,
a) more people were able to work at home.
b) more skilled workers were British.
c) many workers produced goods in one place with machinery.
d) workers doing different tasks usually worked in separate buildings.

The Industrial Revolution had an impact on family life because


a) workers now left their homes to earn a living.
b) women stayed home to do the farming while men went to work in
factories.
c) factory workers worked shorter hours than farmers.
d) factories would not hire anyone younger than 18.

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Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 1

The Industrial Revolution gradually changed the way people worked. After the
Industrial Revolution,
a) more people were able to work at home.
b) more skilled workers were British.
c) many workers produced goods in one place with machinery.
d) workers doing different tasks usually worked in separate buildings.

The Industrial Revolution had an impact on family life because


a) workers now left their homes to earn a living.
b) women stayed home to do the farming while men went to work in
factories.
c) factory workers worked shorter hours than farmers.
d) factories would not hire anyone younger than 18.

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Americans Move Westward
Chapter 11, Section 2

• How did settlers travel west in the early


1800s?
• What steps did Americans take to improve
their roads?
• How did steamboats and canals improve
transportation for Americans?
How Early Settlers Traveled
Chapter 11, Section 2

Great Wagon across Pennsylvania


Road
Wilderness Road opened by Daniel Boone; through the
Cumberland Gap into Kentucky
Flatboats down into Indiana, Kentucky, and Illinois
the Ohio River
Southern trails westward from Georgia and South Carolina to
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
Northern trails from New England, New York, and
Pennsylvania into the Northwest Territory
Improving American Roads
Chapter 11, Section 2

Turnpikes • Private companies built gravel and stone roads. The


companies collected tolls from travelers. At points
along the road, a pike, or pole, blocked the road. After
the wagon driver paid a toll, the pike keeper turned the
pole aside.
• The best road in the United States was the Lancaster
Turnpike, linking Philadelphia and Lancaster,
Pennsylvania.
Corduroy roads • Roads made of logs. Looked like corduroy cloth. Made
a very noisy and bumpy ride.
The National • Ran from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, in
Road western Virginia.
• The first time Congress approved funds for a national
road-building project.
Steamboats Improved Transportation
Chapter 11, Section 2

Development of the Steamboat


• John Fitch showed how a steam engine could power a
boat. He opened a ferry service on the Delaware River,
but few people used it, and he went out of business.
• Robert Fulton launched his own steamboat, the
Clermont, on the Hudson River. It carried passengers
from New York City to Albany in record time.
• Soon, steamboats were carrying passengers up and
down the Atlantic coast. Steamboats carried
passengers and goods on the Mississippi, Ohio, and
Missouri rivers.
• Henry Shreve designed a flat-bottomed steamboat for
shallow western rivers.
Canals Improved Transportation
Chapter 11, Section 2

The Erie Canal


• Some New Yorkers had the idea of building a canal
linking the Great Lakes with the Mohawk and Hudson
rivers. The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship
their goods to New York.
• New York governor DeWitt Clinton persuaded the
state legislature to put up money for the Erie Canal.
• Work began in 1817 and was finished in 1825. The
cost of shipping goods dropped to about one tenth of
what it had been and helped make New York City a
commercial center.
• The success of the Erie Canal led other states to build
canals, too.
Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 2

The first time Congress ever put up funds for a national transportation
project, the money was for the
a) Erie Canal.
b) Wilderness Road.
c) Corduroy Road.
d) National Road.

Supporters argued that the Erie Canal would


a) provide a route around waterfalls on the Hudson River.
b) let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York.
c) connect the Great Lakes for travel from one lake to another.
d) eliminate sandbars.

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Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 2

The first time Congress ever put up funds for a national transportation
project, the money was for the
a) Erie Canal.
b) Wilderness Road.
c) Corduroy Road.
d) National Road.

Supporters argued that the Erie Canal would


a) provide a route around waterfalls on the Hudson River.
b) let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York.
c) connect the Great Lakes for travel from one lake to another.
d) eliminate sandbars.

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Unity and Division
Chapter 11, Section 3

• What role did sectionalism play in the


nation during the Era of Good Feelings?
• How did Congress help American industry
after the War of 1812?
• What was Henry Clay’s American System?
• How did the Supreme Court give more
power to the Federal government?
The Era of Good Feelings
Chapter 11, Section 3

James Monroe
• A Republican; defeated the Federalist candidate
for President in the election of 1816.
• A popular, easygoing President, he hoped to
create a new sense of national unity. One
newspaper wrote that the United States was
entering an “era of good feelings.”
• When he ran for a second term, no candidate
opposed him.
Rise of Sectional Interests
Chapter 11, Section 3

Voices for Different Sections of the Country

John C. Calhoun—the South


• Supported the War of 1812
• Defended slavery
• Opposed strengthening the power of the federal government
Daniel Webster—the North
• Opposed the War of 1812 and refused to vote for taxes to pay for the war.
• Wanted the federal government to take a larger role in building the
nation’s economy
• Thought that slavery was evil
Henry Clay—the West
• A War Hawk who promoted the War of 1812
• Favored a more active role for the central government in promoting the
country’s growth
Congress Helps American Businesses
Chapter 11, Section 3

Problem Solution What it did


The charter of the first Bank Congress chartered a The bank lent
of the United States ran out. second Bank of the money and
Individual states issued United States. regulated the
money. They put too much nation’s money
money in circulation. Prices supply.
rose.
After the War of 1812, A protective tariff—the The Tariff of 1816
American businesses faced Tariff of 1816 greatly raised tariffs
British competition. Because on imports. This
the British had a head start in made imported
industrializing, they could goods more
make and sell goods more expensive than
cheaply than Americans American-made
could. goods.
Henry Clay’s American System
Chapter 11, Section 3

A problem
• Sectionalism—loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the nation as
a whole. Clashes over the tariff were an example of sectionalism.

Henry Clay’s plan


• With his American System, Henry Clay wanted to promote economic
growth for all sections.
• High tariffs on imports would help northern factories. Northerners could
then buy farm products from the West and the South.
• Use the money from tariffs for internal improvements—roads, bridges, and
canals. Improved transportation would help western and southern farmers
ship goods to market.

The opposition
• Southerners already had many rivers so they opposed paying for roads
and canals.
The Supreme Court Under John Marshall Strengthens
the Power of the Federal Government
Chapter 11, Section 3

The Case The Issue The Decision


McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland tried to tax the The Court ruled that
(1819) Bank of the United states had no right to
States. The Bank cashier interfere with federal
refused to pay. institutions within their
borders.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) A New York law tried to The Court ruled that a
control steamboat travel state could regulate
between New York and trade only within its
New Jersey. borders, but only the
federal government had
the power to regulate
interstate commerce, or
trade between different
states.
Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 3

During the Era of Good Feelings, sectionalism began to grow. Sectionalism is


a) favoring raising tariffs in one section but not in the others.
b) loyalty to one’s state or section over loyalty to the nation as a whole.
c) protecting a country’s industries from foreign competition.
d) having different money in different sections of the country.

The expression “internal improvements” refers to


a) gaining wealth from industry within a state.
b) taxing federal institutions within a state.
c) increased trade within the borders of one state.
d) improvements in roads, bridges, and canals.

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Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 3

During the Era of Good Feelings, sectionalism began to grow. Sectionalism is


a) favoring raising tariffs in one section but not in the others.
b) loyalty to one’s state or section over loyalty to the nation as a whole.
c) protecting a country’s industries from foreign competition.
d) having different money in different sections of the country.

The expression “internal improvements” refers to


a) gaining wealth from industry within a state.
b) taxing federal institutions within a state.
c) increased trade within the borders of one state.
d) improvements in roads, bridges, and canals.

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New Nations in the Americas
Chapter 11, Section 4

• How did the Latin American nations win


independence and become republics?
• How did the United States gain Florida
from Spain?
• What was the purpose of the Monroe
Doctrine?
Latin American Nations Win Independence
Chapter 11, Section 4

Area Leaders What Happened


Mexico Miguel Hidalgo Father Hidalgo and Father Morelos led
José Morelos peasent movements for independence
from Spain. Both were captured and
executed by the Spanish.
Creoles—people born in Latin America
to Spanish parents—began to join the
revolutionary movement. In 1821,
revolutionary forces won control of
Mexico.
Republic of Great Simón Bolívar In 1819, Bolívar led an army from
Colombia—made Venezuela into Colombia and defeated
up of present-day Spanish forces there. He became
Venezuela, president of the Republic of Great
Colombia.
Colombia,
Ecuador, and
Panama
Latin American Nations Win Independence
Chapter 11, Section 4

Area Leaders What Happened


Argentina José de San San Martín led Argentina to freedom in
Martín 1816, then helped Chile, Peru, and
Ecuador win independence.
United Provinces In 1821, peoples of Central America
of Central declared independence from Spain.
America—made up Two years later, they formed the
of present-day United Provinces.
Nicaragua, Costa
Rica, El Salvador,
Honduras,
Guatemala
Brazil Prince Pedro, Brazilian revolutionaries demanded
son of the independence. Prince Pedro
Portuguese supported them. He became emperor
king of the independent Brazil.
The United States Gains Florida
Chapter 11, Section 4

Many Americans wanted Florida.


• Southerners worried about the Creek and Seminole
Indians of Florida raiding Georgia settlements.
• Many enslaved African Americans escaped to Florida.
About 1,000 African Americans lived in settlement on
the Apalachicola River known as Negro Fort.
• In 1818 Andrew Jackson led American troops into
Florida. Spain protested but was busy with
revolutions in Latin America.
• In the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain agreed to give
Florida to the United States for $5 million.
The Monroe Doctrine
Chapter 11, Section 4

The Background
• In 1815, Prussia, France, Russia, and Austria formed
an alliance aimed at crushing any revolution in
Europe. They seemed ready to help Spain take back
its colonies in Latin America.
• Russia claimed lands on the Pacific coast of North
America.
• The British feared their trade would be hurt if Spain
regained control of its former colonies. Thus, Britain
suggested the United States and Britain issue a joint
statement guaranteeing the freedom of the new
nations.
The Monroe Doctrine
Chapter 11, Section 4

Monroe’s Foreign Policy


• President Monroe acted independently of Britain. He issued
a foreign policy statement known as the Monroe Doctrine.
• The United States would not interfere in the affairs of
European nations or their existing colonies.
• At the same time, European nations should not try to regain
control of the newly independent nations of Latin America.
• The United States would oppose any attempt to build new
colonies in the Americas.
• Several Presidents have called on the Monroe Doctrine to
challenge European intervention, or direct involvement, in
Latin America.
Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 4

One reason the United States wanted Florida was that


a) New England merchants wanted to trade there.
b) southerners wanted to keep enslaved African Americans from
escaping to Florida.
c) American hunters wanted the opportunity to trap alligators.
d) Father Hidalgo had called for freedom.

The Monroe Doctrine states that


a) European nations should not build new colonies in the Americas.
b) Spain should sell Florida to the United States for a reasonable price.
c) wealthy creoles should give up land to peasants.
d) American trade should favor the British.

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Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 11, Section 4

One reason the United States wanted Florida was that


a) New England merchants wanted to trade there.
b) southerners wanted to keep enslaved African Americans from
escaping to Florida.
c) American hunters wanted the opportunity to trap alligators.
d) Father Hidalgo had called for freedom.

The Monroe Doctrine states that


a) European nations should not build new colonies in the Americas.
b) Spain should sell Florida to the United States for a reasonable price.
c) wealthy creoles should give up land to peasants.
d) American trade should favor the British.

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