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Conditioning

Gerry Maroulis
Sales Manager Latin America
CPM/Roskamp Champion
Waterloo, Iowa, USA
Conditioning
The most important part
of the pelleting process
Conditioning

WHY??
Results/Benefits are:
Reasons for conditioning
• Better conversion rate for bird/animal
• Better physical pellet quality

• Consumption of electrical energy


• Higher pellet mill capacity

• Increased life of dies & rolls

• Sterilization
Pellet Durability Factors
Cooling
5%
Die Spec
15%

Formulation
40%

Conditioning
20%

Particle Size
20%

Note: 60% Occurs prior to the pelleting process


What is conditioning?
Conditioning is a combination of the
following treatments:
• Thermal treatment (increasing temperature)
• Moisture addition (steam and/or water)
• Mechanical treatment (Kneading and shearing)
Conditioning methods
• Water conditioning
• steam conditioning short term
• steam conditioning long term
• mechanical conditioning
Gelatinization
Rupture of the starch granules is a function
of:

–Temperature
–Moisture
–Time
–Pressure
–Shear
Water or steam conditioning
Gelatinization
Rupture of the starch granules is a function
of:

–Temperature
–Moisture
–Time
–Pressure
–Shear
Water addition in conditioner
Moisture
• lubrication
• softening
• overcome shrinkage
• gelatinization of starch

• Very basic system


• no heat added other than friction in pellet mill.
• Not efficient!
Steam conditioning
Steam is cheapest source of energy
Easy to mix

Heat Moisture
• gelatinization of • lubrication
starch
• Plasticize protein • softening
• sterilization • overcome shrinkage
• gelatinization of
starch
Steam conditioning
rule of thumb
• 1% Saturated Steam will temp ~30 deg. F
• Max steam addition 5 – 6% on high grain
formulas
• Max steam addition 0-1.5% on high protein
supplements
• Max moist. for pellet mill =17% (18% with
expander) before choke/roll slip
CONDITIONING FACTORS
(What affects conditioning?)
• PARTICLE SIZE

• STEAM ADDITION (quality/quantity)

• INGREDIENT CHARACTERISTICS
(bulk density/heat sensitive, etc.)
Ingredient Protein and Density help predict
pellet mill throughput and pellet quality*
P
r
o
High Protein = Good quality pellets t
e
Low Protein = Lower quality pellets i
n
Pellet Quality

High Bulk Density = High Throughput (tph)


TPH
Low Bulk Density = Lower Throughput (tph)
Bulk density

*(Rule of thumb – some exceptions)


UNDERSTANDING INGREDIENT
CHARACTERISTICS
FACTORS THAT EFFECT
PELLETINGQUALITY, CAPACITY AND
CONDITIONING
• BULK DENSITY
• PERCENT OF PROTEIN
• PERCENT OF FAT
• PERCENT OF MOISTURE
• FIBER CONTENT
• BINDERS PRESENT
• ABILITY TO ABSORB MOISTURE
• PROBLEM INGREDIENTS—
Urea, Sugar, Whey, Milk Products, etc.
THE FIVE BASIC FEED
FORMULAS
Group I – High Grain

• Complete Hog & Poultry


• Easy running
• 180 to 200 deg. F
• Lack of natural binders
• Added moisture 51/2 to
6%
• 16 to 17% Moisture
Group II – Low Protein
• Complete Dairy 6-8%
Molasses
• Medium running
• Low bulk density
• Lacks natural binders
• 120 to 140 deg.
• 15 to 15.5% moisture
(includes 1.5 to 2% from
molasses)
Group III – High Protein

• Natural Protein Supplement


• Medium running
• 30 to 45% Protein (no urea)
• Good Natural Binders
• 140 to 150 Degrees
• Added moisture 2½ - 3½ %
• 15 to 16% Total Moisture
• Cattle Supplements
Group IV – Low Protein Heat Sensitive
Feeds
• Sugar, whey, dried milk – 10
to 30% of formula
• Hard running, thin die, need
water or fat added
• Good pellet quality
• 90 to 100 degrees
• 1-2 % added moisture (up to
3% if water is added)
• 15 - 16 % total moisture
Example: Baby Pigs
Group V – High Protein Cattle
Supplements
• 6 to 15% Urea
• 10 to 30 % minerals
• Hard running
• Heat and moisture sensitive
• 70 to 100 degrees
• Urea acts as binder
• Thin dies ( 3/16 x 1 ¼)
• Added moisture 0 – 1 ½ %
• Total moisture 11 - 12 ½ %
Conditioning allows the use of more
difficult ingredients

• Usually cheaper ingredients are


more difficult to pelletize.
• With good conditioning methods
you can still make a good pellet
with less expensive ingredients
Fines reduction

• Quality pellets means less fines


• Less fines = less waste
• Less fines = improved
conversions

• Proper conditioning = $
Reduced consumption of electrical
energy

• Steam (water) lubricates


• Steam softens the feed
• Steam creates less friction
• Less friction = lower pellet mill
amps
• Lower amps = lower energy bill
Thermal energy addition in
pelleting process:

• Every % of steam addition in the mixer


means a temperature rise of ca. 12 ºC.

• 1 % of steam addition is equal to 6 kWH/T.

• 1 kWH/t steam energy heats the mash 2 ºC.


Pellet Quality Vs Particle Size
Small uniform particles help pellet quality

Large particles cause fractures


Particle Size Vs Steam Penetration

Steam Steam

Steam Steam Steam Steam

Steam Steam

Steam penetrates small Steam unable to penetrate large


particles to the core particles, leaving center dry
Sterilization
Proper conditioning will destroy
unwanted bacteria such as:

• Salmonella
• E-colli
REASONS FOR THE ABILITY TO REACH HIGH
TEMPERATURES IN THE CONDITIONER ON
SOME DAYS BUT NOT ON OTHERS, WHEN
PROCESSING HIGH GRAIN FORMULAS SUCH
AS POULTRY AND PIG FEEDS
• THE TOTAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE
FORMULATED FEED PRIOR TO THE PELLETING
PROCESS IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING
• THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE RAW
INGREDIENTS (SUCH AS CORN) CAN VARY FROM
10% TO 15 ½ %
• HIGH TO LOW HUMIDITY CONDITIONS CAN CAUSE
FEED MATERIALS TO ABSORB VARYING AMOUNTS
OF MOISTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE
EXAMPLE
• USING A DIE WITH A CHOKE POINT OF
17% MOISTURE
• USING AN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF
22°C (72°F)
• USING A STEAM SYSTEM CAPABLE OF
RAISING THE TEMPERATURE 11°C (20°F)
FOR EACH 1% MOISTURE ADDED
EXAMPLE
CONTINUED…
TOTAL MOISTURE
CONTENT OF 11% 12% 13%
FORMULATED FEED
PRIOR TO THE
PELLETING PROCESS

AMOUNT OF MOISTURE
CAPABLE OF BEING 6% 5% 4%
ADDED TO THE FEED
BEFORE CHOKE POINT
IS REACHED
EXAMPLE
CONTINUED…
APPROXIMATE 88°C 77°C 66°C
CORRESPONDING (190°F) (170°F) (150°F)
TEMPERATURE AT
CONDITIONER
NOTES: THE IDEAL CONDITIONING TEMPERATURE
FOR HIGH GRAIN RATIONS IS 85°C TO 90°C (185°F TO
195°F) IN ORDER TO PRODUCE THE BEST PELLET
QUALITY A THE MAXIMUM CAPACITY.
STEAM SYSTEMS PRODUCING A BETTER QUALITY
STEAM THAN THAT REFERED TO IN THE EXAMPLE
ABOVE, ARE CAPABLE OF RAISING THE
TEMPERATURE OF THE FEED IN THE CONDITIONER
16°C (29°F) FOR EVERY 1% MOISTURE ADDED, THUS
ALLOWING HIGHER CONDITIONING TEMPERATURES
BEFORE THE CHOKE POINT OF THE DIE IS REACHED.
THE THREE TYPES OF STEAM
WET SATURATED SUPERHEATED

TEMPERATURE SATURATION SATURATION HIGHER THAN


(212°F @ ATM (212°F @ATM SATURATION
PRESSURE) PRESSURE)
ENERGY 956 BTU/LB @ 1150 BTU/LB @ 1384 BTU/LB @
CONTENT 212°F (80% 212 F 700 F
STEAM
QUALITY)
PHASE LIQUID & VAPOR VAPOR ONLY VAPOR ONLY

CONDENSATION IMMEDIATE IMMEDIATE MUST COOL


FIRST
TEMP. RISE PER LOW MEDIUM HIGH
PERCENT
MOISTURE
ADDITION
STEAM QUALITY
26.8 CU. FT.
V 20.1 CU. FT.
O
13.4 CU. FT.
L
U 6.7 CU. FT. 1 CU. FT=62.3
M LBS
E

0% 25% 50% 75% 100%


QUALITY of STEAM
TODAY’S CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

A. USE SATURATED STEAM ONLY


B. BASED ON TEMPERATURE CONTROL
C. STEAM JACKETS USED TO ATTAIN HIGHER
TEMPERATURES AND AVOID CONDENSATION