A SEMINAR ON IPv4 & IPv6

Presented by Intramantra Global Solution PVT LTD, Indore http://intramantra.com

TOPICS OF INTERACTION 
    

INTRODUCTION IPv4 ADDRESSING IPv6 COMPARISON OF IPv4 AND IPv6 CONCLUSION

Introduction 
    

Network layer protocol IP connectionless Unreliable Best effort delivery Datagrams

IP ADDRESS 
   

IPv4 has been in use for 20 years. 32 bit hierarchical scheme having class type, network and host id. In theory 2^32 or approx. 4.3billion address. In practice only 250 million address are available. Class A-C are assigned on net size. A-     

Class A has one byte for class type and net id and three for host id. Class B has two byte for class type and net id and two for host id. Class C has one byte for class type and net id and three for host id. Class D is reserved for multicast addresses. Class E address is reserved for future use.

Class Address

Range of Classes

Representation of classes

Decimal Dotted Representation

Decimal Representation

Subnet Mask

Subnetting

Hierarchical Scheme 
     

Improve managebility of network. Wastefull To conserve IP address Classless inter domain routing (CIDR). Single IP address can be used to designate many unique address. Reduces the size of routing table and make more address available within organization. Network address translation (NAT) allow use of a pool of IP s for external communication.

IPv6 
Why

Change?

New Computer and Communication Technologies. New Applications. Increase in size and load. Processor Performance, Memory size, Network bandwidth.

THE ROAD TO NEW VERSION OF IP 
 



IETF formulated new version of IP. SIP becomes the basis for SIPP and eventually emerged as the design for new IP. IPv5 ST Protocol IAB published IPv7.

FEATURES OF IPv6 
     

Larger address space. Extended Address Hierarchy. Flexible Header Format. Improved Options. Provision for Protocol Extension. Support for Auto configuration and Renumbering. Resource Allocation.

GENERAL FORM OF IPv6 DATAGRAM
BASE + EXTENSION HEADER HEADERS(IF ANY) 
 

+

DATA

Less Information in Header! Base Header is of fixed length. Extension Headers are optional.

6 for IPv6 1 byte

IPv6 Header
1 byte 1 byte 1 byte Flow Label Next Header Hop Limit

VERS TRAFFIC CLS Payload Length

Source Address (128 bits - 16 bytes)

Dest. Address (128 bits - 16 bytes)

IPv6 EXTENSION HEADERS 

Compromise between generality and efficiency. Extension Headers are similar to Options of IPv4. 

IPv6 ADDRESSING 
  

Address occupies 16 Octets Address space is so large that every person on the planet can have sufficient addresses to have their own internet as large as current internet !!! Earth surface = 5.1 * 108 Km2 1024 addresses per m2 of earth surface 16 Octet integer can hold 2128 values which equals to 3.4 * 1038 i.e., 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 !!! it will take 1020 years to assign all addresses

ADDRESSING 
 

No Class Represented in Hexadecimal Colon Notation. 128 bit address, each digit represents one nibble
FDEC:BA98:0074:3210:000F:0000:0000:FFFF Unabbreviated Address. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

Leading zeros of a section can be omitted: Ex:FDEC:BA98:0074:3210:000F:BBFF:0000:FFFF
=>FDEC:BA98:74:3210:F:BBFF:0:FFFF  

Consecutive sections with zeros can be replaced by double semicolons: Ex:FDEC:0:0:0:0:BBFF:0:FFFF =>FDEC::BBFF:0:FFFF Partial Addresses: Ex:FDEC:0:0:0:0:BBFF:0:FFFF =>FDEC::BBFF/96

TYPES OF ADDRESSES 

1. 2. 3.

A Destination address on a datagram falls under three categories: Unicast Anycast Multicast

IPv4 and IPv6
Vers 4

IHL

Type of Service

Total Length Flags Frag Offset

Vers 6

Traffic Class

Flow Label Next Hdr Hop Limit

Identification
Time to Live

Payload Length

Protocol

Header Checksum Source Address

Source Address Destination Address

IP Options

v4 Header = 20 Bytes + Options v6 Header = 40 Bytes

Destination Address

IPv4 
  

IPv6 
   

 

More complex Variable in length 14 fields No provision for larger packet. Have checksum field Processing time is more. S/D add. 32 bit

Simplified version Fixed in length 8 field Payload length field No checksum field Processing time is less S/D add. Length 128 bit 

 

CONCLUSION  

IPv6 is not compatible with IPv4. IPv4 mapped IPv6 address.
Allows a host that supports both IPv4 and IPv6 to communicate with host that supports IPv4 only.

CONCLUSION CONTD.. 

80 bits of 0 s followed by 16 bits of ones, followed by a 32 bit IPv4 address:

VIRTUES OF IPv6   



IPv6 s multicast and anycast messages add flexibility and reduce traffic load. Assured services, Enhanced security, Improved reliability. Provides QOS. Reduces packet latency for real time AV.

SHORTCOMINGS  

Use NAT causes much less demand on the pool of addresses, so address waste is less of an issue. At the rate that technology moves now, today's raved about IPv6 solutions may just be the problems of tomorrow.

REFERENCES 

Referred Books:
Stallings W.: Cryptography and Network Security ,PHI,1999. Peterson L.,Davie B.: Computer Networks ,MKP,2003. Comer D.: Internetworking with TCP/IP ,PHI,2000. 

Referred Links:
www.ipv4.org www.ipv6.org 

Referred RFC s:
RFC 791 for IPv4 RFC 18883 & RFC 2460 for IPv6

ANY QUESTIONS

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