Continuous Improvement for Libraries Session Nine: Measures (again

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Sara Laughlin Ray Wilson Denise Shockley

Five Elements of Continuous Improvement
Constancy of Purpose: The Aim Mission, Vision, Values, Measures Leadership, Information, Communication, and Governance With Customer Focus
Customer Research Design/Redesign Distribution Customers

Suppliers

Level 1

Orientation
Production of Products & Services

Supporting Processes

Strategic Planning Key Success Factors/Key Processes Charters Attractive Quality Creation

Continuous Improvement Process Mastering Rapid Cycle Improvement Quality in Daily Work

While We¶ve Been Gone«

What did you try? What worked and what didn¶t? What questions do you have?

Measures: New Models, New Tools, New Insights ‡ Library Balanced Scorecard ‡ Deming¶s 14 Points ‡ Lean Library

With your team, make a list of the measures you currently use.

. ‡Laws ‡Re ulations ‡Funders requirements The direct products of program activities for example« ‡Number of classes taught ‡Number of counseling sessions conducted ‡Number of educational materials distributed ‡Number of hours of service delivered ‡Number of participants served Benefits for participants during and after program activities for example« ‡New knowledge ‡Increased skills ‡Changed attitudes or values ‡Modified behavior ‡Improved condition ‡Altered status .United Way ³Logic Model´ INPUTS ACTIVITIES (= Processes) What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its mission for example« ‡Feed and shelter homeless families ‡Provide job training ‡Educate the public about signs of child abuse ‡Counsel pregnant women ‡Create mentoring relationships for youth OUTPUTS OUTCOMES Resources dedicated to or consumed by the program for example« ‡Money ‡Staff and staff time ‡Vol nteers and vol nteer time ‡Facilities ‡Equi ment and supplies Constraints on the program for example.

sort your measures into: 1 = input 2 = activity (process) 3 = output 4 = outcome .With your team.

Balanced Scorecard: A Useful Way of Identifying What to Measure .

Balanced Scorecard .

Financial Measures ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Funding/cost Magnitude Resources produced/unit cost Percent change from last period Risk assessment Deming #4: Cost benefit Cease doing business on price tag alone. .

expert ‡ These are leading indicators: dissatisfied customers will quickly find other suppliers .Customer Measures ‡ Customer/potential customer groups (market segments) aligned with services used ‡ Satisfaction: prompt. courteous.

. Deming #5: Continual improvement of process. accurate.Process Measures ‡ How well are internal processes running? ‡ Do products/services conform to customer requirements: dependable. Deming #11: Eliminate numerical quotas. complete ‡ Designed by those who know processes most intimately ‡ Mission-oriented and support processes Deming #3: Cease dependence on mass inspection.

training. people are the main resource ‡ Individual and institutional learning: hiring. mentoring and development ‡ Communication Deming #6: Institute training on the job.Learning/Growth Measures ‡ In a knowledge organization. technical tools. Deming #13: Institute a program of self-improvement. Deming #7: Institute leadership. .

Example: DePauw University Completed admission applications FTE enrollment Multicultural/international students Graduation rate Student/faculty ratio Fundraising (annual fund) Endowment Endowment/student Library holdings Full-time faculty Tuition Room and board Financial aid from DePauw .

Example: DePauw University Process Output Output Outcome Input Output Output Outcome Process Input Input Input Output Completed admission applications FTE enrollment Multicultural/international students Graduation rate Student/faculty ratio Fundraising (annual fund) Endowment Endowment/student Library holdings Full-time faculty Tuition Room and board Financial aid from DePauw .

Example: DePauw University Process Output Output Outcome Input Output Output Outcome Process Input Input Input Output Completed admission applications FTE enrollment Multicultural/international enrollment Graduation rate Student/faculty ratio Fundraising (annual fund) Endowment Endowment/student Library holdings Full-time faculty Tuition Room and board Financial aid from DePauw Process Process Process Customer Process Financial Financial Financial Financial Learning Financial Financial Financial .

Balanced Scorecard With your team. sort your sticky note measures into these four categories: ‡ Where do you have good measures? ‡ Where do you need additional measures? .

rework. response. estimated. waste . downtime ‡ Cost: per transaction. wait. complaints.Process Measures ‡ Errors. losses ‡ Accuracy ‡ Time: actual vs. savings. elapsed.

Chartrunner Software .

Output. work with your team on your own Pr ce Me ure « .Balanced Scorecard Process Measures Measure Name Type of Measurement (Input. Process. Outcome) Measurement (What and how) Frequency Measured Person(s) Responsible Thinking about your COP and Key Success Factors.

Process.Balanced Scorecard Customer Measures Measure Name Type of Measurement (Input. Outcome) Measurement (What and how) Frequency Measured Person(s) Responsible Thinking about your COP and Key Success Factors. Output. work with your team on your own Cu t mer Me ure « .

Learning/Growth Measures Moving from Individual to Individual and Institutional .

.Learning/Growth Measures Level 1: Awareness Level 2: Knowledge Level 3: Context Level 4: Implementation Level 5: Customer results Thomas Guskey. Evaluating Professional Development. Corwin Press. 2000.

what kinds of tools have you used? Which of Guskey¶s levels are they measuring? .Learning/Growth Measures (continued) Thinking about your experience with evaluating individual and institutional learning.

Balanced Scorecard Learning/Growth Measures Measure Name Type of Measurement (Input. work with your team on your own Le rnin Me ure « . Outcome) Measurement (What and how) Frequency Measured Person(s) Responsible Thinking about your COP and Key Success Factors. Output. Process.

Summing Up: Working with Measurements Choose measurements which:  Relate to customer requirements or desires  Are practical to implement  Are easy to understand  Will drive desired behavior  Are developed by consensus of your work group  Are specific  Generate a lot of data fast  Can be easily plotted on a process behavior chart  Won¶t cause harm .

Summing Up: Working with Measurements (continued)  Determine who. and how measurements will be taken. when. what.  Don¶t make decisions based on the data until you have put it into a process behavior chart format .  Create Operational Definitions.

6. and targets Eliminate numerical quotas Allow pride in workmanship Institute a program of selfimprovement Do it . 7. 3. 2. 11. 5. 13. 12. 14. 10. Drive out fear Break down barriers between departments Eliminate slogans. 4. 9.Deming¶s 14 Points 1. Constancy of Purpose Adopt the new philosophy Cease dependence on mass inspection Cease doing business on price tag alone Continual improvement of process Institute training on the job Institute leadership 8. exhortations.

look for Deming¶s 14 Points« .As you watch the video about the Lawrenceburg Public Library.

LEAN LIBRARIES Definition: A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste (non-value-added activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product or service at the pull of the customer. .

‡ Non-value added activities are those that do not add market form or function for the customer ± those that should be eliminated. . ‡ Non-value added but necessary ± those that add no value to the customer but must be done.LEAN Operational Definitions ‡ Value added activities are those that increase the market form or function of the product or service ± what the customer wants.

LEAN Operational Definitions (continued) ‡ Value Stream: All of the activities. . currently required to bring a product or service from concept and/or raw materials into the hands of the customer. both value-added and non-value-added.

LEAN Operational Definitions (continued) Value Stream Mapping: ‡ Investigating the current and possible future state of the system or process. (Total time vs. . total value-added time from beginning to end) ‡ Typically value-added time is five percent of the total time.

Value Stream Map .

Value Stream Map .

Non Value-added Activities ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Over-production Waiting Transportation Non-value added processing Excess inventory Defects Excess motion Underutilized people .

earlier than required. or faster than required Causes: ± ± ± ± ± just-in-case long process setup unlevel scheduling unbalanced workload redundant inspections .Non-Value-added Activity #1: Over-production Making more than required.

Non-Value-added Activity #2: Waiting Idle time waiting for « ? Causes: ± ± ± ± ± ± unbalanced workload unplanned maintenance upstream quality problems unreliable suppliers poor scheduling IT problems .

etc.. Causes: ± ± ± ± poor layout poor process flow larger than necessary facility locations of suppliers and customers .Non-Value-added Activity #3: Transportation Transporting materials. from suppliers. and to customers. information. around the facility.

Non-Value-added Activity #4: Non-value-added Processing Effort that adds no value to the product or service from the customer¶s viewpoint Causes: ± ± ± ± ± ± poor communication bad directions redundant approvals excess information extra copies unclear customer requirements .

± unlevel scheduling. ± need for buffer against inefficiencies and unexpected problems ± reward system ± unreliable supplier shipments ± interdepartmental issues .Non-Value-added Activity #5: Excess Inventory Any supply in excess of what is needed for the next customer Causes: ± poor forecasting.

Non-Value-added Activity #6: Defects Mistakes and rework Causes: ± weak processes ± poor quality ± deficient planned maintenance ± inadequate/poor training ± poor equipment ± bad house-keeping ± poor morale .

Non-Value-added Activity #7: Excess Motion Any movement of people or machines that does not add value to the product or service. Causes: ± unfavorable facility layout ± poor workplace organization and housekeeping ± inconsistent work methods .

creative. and physical abilities Causes: ± ± ± ± ± poor hiring practices high turnover strategy old-guard thinking poor leadership risk taking punished .Non-Value-added Activity #8: Underutilized People Not fully using people¶s mental.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS Pull/K nb n Cellul r/Flow TPM Qu lit t Source POUS Quick Ch n eover St nd rdized Work B tch Reduction Te m 5S System Vi u l Libr r L ut .

.LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS Facility Layout ± Layout facility and processes for most efficient flow of products and services.

They are efficient. . self-regulating.LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Visual Controls ± Simple signals that provide an immediate understanding of a situation or condition. and worker managed.

set inventory limits) ± Shine (Clean everything inside and out) ± Standardize (Create the rules for maintaining the first 3 S¶s) ± Sustain (Ensure adherence) .LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) 5S System ± Sort (Get rid of everything you don¶t need) ± Set in Order (Properly locate necessary stuff.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Standardized Work ± Operations safely carried out with all tasks organized in the best known way and using the most effective combination of people. materials. methods. and machines. .

.LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Batch Reduction ± The best batch size is one-piece flow. Everything is focused on the desires of the next customer.

. People support each other and are cross trained.LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Teams ± Everyone understands he/she is part of the system.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Quick Changeover ± The time between the last successful effort and the next. .

.LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Point of Use Storage (POUS) ± Material is stored at location it is used.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Quality at the Source ± Internal and external suppliers are responsible for meeting required quality. . ± Data is collected about quality. ± Processes are standardized and documented.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Pull/Kanban ± Push System . . or guesses. as consumed.Resources are provided to the customer based on forecasts. schedules. ± Pull System ± Resources flow to the customer on demand.

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Cellular/Flow ± Group work around line-of-sight cell ± Sequence tasks in an orderly sequence ± Balance work among stations ± Cross-train cell team members .

LEAN BUILDING BLOCKS (continued) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) ± Eliminate losses associated with equipment use. ± Chart and analyze equipment performance to eliminate unscheduled breakdowns and to foster just in time preventive maintenance. ± Enlist the participation of all employees in maintaining equipment to prevent unscheduled breakdowns. .

What kind of waste do you find most troubling in your library? Which lean building block approach might you employ? .

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