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THE WRITTEN EXPRESSION

QUESTIONS
 Written expression questions are Questions 16 through 40 in the
Structure and Written Expression section of the PAPER TOEFL test.

 It measures your knowledge of the correct way to express


yourself in English writing.

 Each question consists of one sentence in which four words or


groups of words have been underlined. You must choose the letter of
the word or group of words that is not correct.

Example

Both of a Halibut’s eyes are on one sides of its head


A B C D
STRATEGIES FOR THE WRITTEN EXPRESSION QUESTIONS

• First look at the underlined word or groups of words.

• If you have been unable to find the error by looking


only at the four underlined expressions, then read the
complete sentence.

• Never leave any answers blank.


S K I LLS
Skill 11

AGREEMENT AFTER PREPOSITION PHRASES


1. If the subject of a sentence is singular, then the verb must
be singular.

Example:
The dog barks at night
s v

2. If the subject of a sentence is plural, then the verb must be


plural.

Example:
The dogs bark at night
s v
3. Prepositional sometimes cause confusion in TOEFL TEST. WHY?
Because its position is between SUBJECT and VERB.

Example 1:

Incorrect
The door (to the rooms) are locked
S V
Preposition

Correct:
The door (to the rooms) is locked
S V
Example 2:

Incorrect
The doors (to the room) is locked
S V
Preposition

Correct:
The doors (to the room) are locked
S V
SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT WITH PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

S (prepositional phrase) V
EXERCISE 11

__C__ 1. The subject (of the lectures) was quite interesting.

__I__ 2. The supplies (for the camping trip) needs to be packed.

__I__ 3. The chairs (under the table in the dining room) is quite comfortable.

__C__ 4. The players (on the winning team in the competition) put forth a lot of efforts

__I__ 5. The food (for the guests at the party) are on the long tables.

____ 6. The cost of the clothes was higher than I had expected.

____ 7. The rugs (in the front rooms of the house) are going to be washed today.

____ 8. The waiters (in this restaurant) always serves their job efficiently.

____ 9. The lights (in the corner of the room) need to be kept on all night.

____10. The meeting of the members of the council begins at 3:00 in the afternoon.
Skill 12

AGREEMENT AFTER EXPRESSION OF QUANTITY


Look at the following sentences

1. All (of the meal) was delicious. (Correct)


2. Most (of the meals) were delicious. (Correct)
3. Some (of the food) was delicious. (Correct)
4. Half (of the meals) were delicious. (Correct)
5. Part (of the food) was delicious. (Correct)

6. Most of nurses are handling the patients (Correct)

7. Most of nurse are handling the patients (Incorrect)

8. Most of nurses is handling the patients (Incorrect)


Look at the following sentences

All
Most
Some
(of the SINGULAR OBJECT ) V
Half
Part SINGULAR VERB

Example:

• Some of student is attending chemistry class


• Half of problem has got the solution.
Look at the following sentences

All
Most
Some
(of the PLURAL OBJECT ) V
Half
Part
PLURAL VERB

Example:

• Some of students are attending chemistry class


• Half of problems have got the solution.
EXERCISE 12

C 1. Half of the students in the class arrive early.

I 2. Some of the fruit are rotten.

3. All of the next chapter contains very important information.

4. Most of the people in the room is paying attention.

5. Part of the soup is left on the stove.

6. Some of the movie were just too violent for me.

7. All of the details in the report needs to be checked.

8. Most of the money is needed to pay the bills.

9. The first half of the class consists of lecture and note taking.

10. Some of the questions on-the test was impossible to answer


SKILL 13

AGREEMENT AFTER CERTAIN WORDS


Look at the following sentences

Everybody are studying English now (incorrect)

Everybody is studying English now (correct)

Nobody in the class have laptop (incorrect)

Nobody in the class has laptop (correct)


Look at the following Outline

anybody
anyone
Examples
anything
 Everybody studies TOEFL on Monday
Everybody
Everyone Singular Verb
Everything
 Everything runs well

somebody
Someone  Someone in Class has TOEFL

Something
 Each student has studied TOEFL for one month
Nobody
No one
 No one was lazy to study last week
Nothing
Problems in TOEFL TEST

 Everybody in the theater are watching* the films attentively

 Every student have to* do the TOEFL Test now

 Someone in Class were* our aunt

 Nobody know* who killed the man


Exercise 13

___I___1. Anybody are welcome at the party.

C 2. No one here is afraid of skydiving.

3. Everyone in the world needs love and respect.

4. Someone have to clean up the house.

5. Each plant in the garden appear healthy and strong.

6. You should understand that anything is possible.

7. Everything in the salad are good for you.

8. Nobody in the class have completed the assignment on time.

9. I am sure that -every detail have been considered.

10. Everybody know the rules, but somebody is not following them.
Exercise (Skills 11 – 13)

1. The receptionist in the entryway to the offices is able to answer your questions.

2. All of the information in the documents are important.

3. Anyone in one of the classes has to take the final exam.

4. The coordinator of community services are arranging the program.

5. Most of the car are covered with mud.

6. Nothing more is going to be completed today.

7. The drinks in the pitchers on the table in the ballroom is for everyone.

8. Everybody were told to be here at 8:00, but somebody is not here.

9. Some of the meetings at the conference are limited to ten participants.

10. The sauce on the vegetables in the yellow bowl taste really delicious.
TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 11- 13)

_____1. Nobody know when the process of glass-making was invented.


A B C D

_____ 2. Sugars like glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
A B C D

_____3. Part of the electricity used in the United States today come from hydroelectric sources.
A B C D

___ _ 4. The languages of the world presents a vast array of structural similarities and differences.
A B C D

_____ 5. The rise of multinationals have resulted in a great deal of legal ambiguity because
A B

multinationals can operate in so many jurisdictions.


C D
______ 6. All of the east—west interstate highways in the United States has even numbers while
A B

north - south interstate highways are odd-numbered


C D

_____ 7. When a massive star in the large Magellanic Cloud exploded in 1987, a wave of neutrinos
A B

were detected on Earth.


C D

______8. Some of the agricultural practices used today is responsible for fostering desertification.
A B C D

______ 9. Every open space in the targeted area that has grass and a few bushes are occupied by the
A B C D

white-crowned sparrow.

______ 10. Krakatoa is remembered as the volcano that put so much ash into the air that sunsets
A B

around the world was affected for two years afterward


C D
TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1 - 13)
1. _____ the earliest system of writing.
(A) The constitution of pictograms
(B) Pictograms in the constitution
(C) Constitute the pictograms
(D) Pictograms constitute

2. At temperatures _____ absolute zero, substances possess minimal energy.


(A) approach
(B) approaches
(C) approaching
(D) they approach

3. The Earth’s one-year revolution around the Sun changes how _____ on one hemisphere or the other.
(A) falling sunlight
(B) the fall of sunlight
C) sunlight in the fall
(D) sunlight falls

4. Though sporadic interest in regional dialects _____ for centuries, the first large-scale systematic studies
did not take
place until the nineteenth century.
(A) has existed
(B) it existed
(C) has it existed
(D) existing with it
____ 5. The waters of the Chattahoochee River fills Lake Lanier.
A B C D

____ 6. The first set of false teeth similar to those in use today it was made in France in the 1780s.
A B C D

____ 7. The term “Yankee” was originally a nickname for people from New England, but now anyone
A
from the United States are referred to as a Yankee.
B C D

____ 8. A network of small arteries, mostly sandwiched between the skin and the underlying muscles,
A B
supply blood to the face and scalp.
C D

____ 9. Mesquite is a small tree in the Southwest who can withstand the severest drought.
A B C D

____ 10. At the end of the Revolution, most of the army units of the young nation was almost entirely
A B
disbanded, leaving a total national military force of 80 men
C D
SKILL 14:

PARALLEL STRUCTURE
WITH COORDINATE CONJUCTIONS
COORDINATE CONJUCTIONS:

AND, BUT, OR

 Coordinate Connector is used to join together equal expressions.


In other words, what is on one side of these words must be
parallel to what is on the other side.

 Coordinate Connector can join nouns, or verbs, or adjectives, or


phrases, or clauses.

 They must join together the same structure


Look at the following chart outline:

And
Same Structure But Same Structure
Or

Noun Noun
Adjective And Adjective
Verb But Verb
Phrases Or Phrases
Clause Clause
Look at the following chart outline:

And
Same Structure, Same Structure But Same Structure
Or

Noun Noun Noun


Adjective Adjective And Adjective
Verb Verb But Verb
Phrases Phrases Or Phrases
Clause Clause Clause
Example:

• He discussed the problem with the nurse and the doctor


noun noun

• The Professor was knowledgeable but boring


adjective adjective

• She hikes, jogs, or rides her bicycles whenever she can


verb verb verb

• You can do the work because you want to do it later or


clause
because you have to do it
clause
Problems in TOEFL Test:

• The evening dress was beauty* but expensive


noun adjective

• The student reads each chapter, takes a lot of notes, and memories the material
verb verb noun

•The driver must drive carefully, calmly and serious


adverb adverb adjective

• Are reading a book, writing poems or watch TV your hobbies?


gerund gerund verb
Exercise 14

__I_ 1. The pastries in that shop are very expensive but quite deliciously

C 2. You can find some change to buy a paper in the drawer, on top of

the dresser, or in the jar

____ 3. The living room was decorated with expensive paintings and
elegance lamps.

____ 4. He knew that the financial problems were serious, that the situation
was not going to improve, and that he needed to get a job.

____ 5. All day long during the trip to the mountains, they were skiing,
sledding, or played in the snow.
____ 6. The car needs new tires but not a new engine.

____ 7. He stops working when he gets too tired to continue or when he has
finished.

____ 8. To get to the office, you should go through this door, turn to the left,
and continuation down the hall.

____ 9. For dessert we could serve lemon pie, fruit tarts, chocolate cake, or
butter cookies.

____ 10. The sick child needs some medicine, some juice, and to rest.
SKILL 15

PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED


CONJUNCTIONS
Paired conjunctions are

Not only …………….…but also …………

Neither…………………nor …………..……

Either…………………..or……………..……

Both…………………….and……..…………
noun noun
Not only But also
Noun phrase Noun phrase
Neither Nor
adjective adjective
Either or
Adverb Adverb
Both and
Verb tense Verb tense

Same structure
Examples:

The lecture was both informative and enjoyable


adjective adjective

Either the history exam or the physics exam is on Tuesday.


Noun Phrase Noun Phrase

The missing papers are neither on his desk nor in the file
adverb adverb

He visited not only his cousin but also his grandmother.


possessive possessive
Problems in TOEFL TEST:

 He lent me both some paper or* a pencil

 Either breakfast nor* lunch is included in the price.

 He doesn’t only get the highest score and also* became the student

 Neither the doctor nor the nursing* have no time to do the surgery.

 They like both playing football and do weight training*.


Exercise 15

I 1. He either lied or telling an unbelievable story

C 2. The music at the concert was neither well played nor well liked.

_____ 3. He regularly studies both in the morning or in the evening.

_____ 4. The play that we saw last night was not only rather delightful but also quite meaningful.

_____ 5. He married her neither for her ability to cook nor her ability to clean house.

_____ 6. The discussion was both exciting and interest.

_____ 7. He withdrew all the money not only from the checking account but also from the
savings account.

_____ 8. Neither the teacher or the students are ready to leave the classroom.

_____ 9. You can meet with me either in the next few minutes or at 4:00.

_____ 10. John is an adventurous person who enjoys not only skydiving but

also goes parasailing.


Exercise (skill 14 - 15)

_____ 1. The advertisements appeared in the newspaper and on the radio.

_____ 2. She is trained as both an accountant and in nursing.

_____ 3. We can take either my car or yours to the party.

_____ 4. The coffee is too hot, too bitter, and too strength.

_____ 5. He not only passed the test but also receiving the highest score in the class.

_____ 6. Your ideas are neither more important or less important than the ideas of the others.

_____ 7. The meeting lasted only an hour but still seeming too long.

_____ 8. The novel was both emotional and description.

_____ 9. Either the counselor or her secretary can help you with that problem.

_____ 10. The leaves from the tree fell in the yard, in the pool, the driveway, and on the sidewalk.
TOEFL Exercise (Skill 14- 15)

_____1. Ballpoint pens are less versatile but more population than fountain pens
A B C D

_____ 2. Riddles vary greatly in both grammatical and phonology form


A B C D

_____ 3. Blood pressure is measured by feeling the pulse and apply a force to the arm.
A B C D

_____ 4. The Moon has no atmosphere, no air, and no watery


A B C D

_____ 5. The first matches were too hard to ignite, a mess or too dangerously easy to ignite.
A B C D
______6 . A 1971 U.S. government policy not only put warnings on cigarette packs but
A B
also banning television advertising of cigarettes.
C D

_____ 7. Demand, beauty, durability, rare, and perfection of cutting determine the value of a gemstone.
A B C D

_____ 8. The Harvard Yard, which was Harvard’s original campus, is still a major attraction for both
A B C

students and visiting


D

_____ 9. In 1862, the American Confederacy raised the Merrimack, renamed it the Virginia, covered it
A B
with iron plates and an outfit it with ten guns.
C D

_____ 10. The liquid crystals in a liquid crystal display (LCD) affect the polarized light so that it is
A B C

either blocked and reflected by the segments of the display.


D
TOEFL Review Exercise (Skill 1 - 15)

1. Most cells in multicelled organisms perform _____ functions.


(A) specialize
(B) specialized
(C) they specialize
(D) specialization

2. The big island of Hawaii, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, ____ by five volcanoes
(A) creation
(B) it was created
(C) creating
(D) was created

3. The Sun uses up over 4 million tons of hydrogen per second, ____still has enough hydrogen to last for the next 5
billion years.
(A) it does not
(B) it
(C) but it
(D) to it

4. For Katherine L. Bates, who _____ the top of Pikes Peak in 1893, the view provided the inspiration for her hymn
America the Beautiful.
(A) reached
(B) she reached
(C) reaching
(D) she was reaching
5. Coal, petroleum, and natural gaseous are all fossil fuels
A B C D

6. The mass of neutron stars generally range from one-tenth to twice the mass of the Sun.
A B C D

7. Grasses grow in ways that help them to survive being nibbled, chilly or dried.
A B C D

8. Most of Hemingway’s novels glorifies heroic exploits such as bullfighting or boxing


A B C D

9. Paleographers study ancient and medieval handwriting in order to establish not only its age
A B C

and also its background.


D

10. The sounds produced by bullfrogs and toads vary greatly because each species have its own
A B C

particular call.
D
SKILL 16

PAST PARTICIPLE AFTER HAVE


HAVE

HAS
Past Participle (V3)
HAD

HAVING

Example

• The students have studied TOEFL for six months


• She has lived in her apartment
• They had finished their home works when the teacher came
• I am having my hair cut after class.
Problems in TOEFL

• We had complete* the work

• They have went* to the market

• My sister has buy* some fruit yesterday

• He is having his shoes polish* after class.


Exercise 16

I 1. We have already hearing the good news.

C 2. She has ridden her bicycle to school every day.

____ 3. I have always believe you.

____ 4. He has find the missing car keys.

____ 5. They have put their money in a savings account.

____ 6. Their parents have allowed them to stay up late.

____ 7. She has never ran away from home before.

____ 8. Have you ever saw a ghost?

____ 9. They have taken three tests already this week.

____ 10. He has offer me a high-paying job.


SKILL 17:

PRESENT PARTICIPLE OR PAST PARTICIPLE AFTER BE


AM
IS
ARE
WERE Present Participle (V-ing)
WAS Past participle (V3)
BE
BEEN
BEING

Example

• We are completing the work


• The work is completed
• Breakfast is prepared by mother everyday
• They are visiting their parents’ house
• He is being visited by his family.
Problem in TOEFL Test

They are turn* on all the lamps

The office door is lock* in the morning

The lunch is preparing* by the chef

They are visited* their parents’ house


Exercise. 17

I 1. She was study the textbooks all night long.

C 2. The pie was cut into six equal pieces.

____ 3. Today the teacher is allow the students to leave class a few minutes early.

____ 4. The class is teach every other semester.

____ 5. Tom is bringing some drinks to the party.

____ 6. The sick child was taken to see a doctor.

____ 7. The children are swim in the backyard pool.

____ 8. The diamond jewelry is always keep in a safe place.

____ 9. The teacher is preparing a difficult exam for the students.

____ 10. Dinner is served from 6:00 to 8:00.


SKILL 18:

BASE FORM AFTER MODALS


CAN
COULD
WILL
WOULD
MAY BASE FORM OF VERB (V1)
MIGHT
SHOULD
SHALL
MUST

Example

• We can complete the work on time


• They will go to Jakarta Tomorrow
• My sister may buy some fruit
• He should visit the doctor
Problems in TOEFL Test

 She can playing* football well

 They will went* to Jakarta Tomorrow

 My brother may bought* some fruit

 He should visits* the doctor


Exercise 18

C 1. You should try to respond politely.

I 2. Everyone must leaves the room immediately.

____ 3. I could sat on the beach for hours.

____ 4. She will asking you many difficult questions.

____ 5. You can look at the book, but you cannot borrow it.

____ 6. He may lies to you because he is not very truthful.

____ 7. He knew that he would forgot the phone number.

____ 8. The weatherman said that it might snowing tonight.

____ 9. Perhaps we could bought a new car this year.

____ 10. This course will satisfy the graduation requirement.


Exercise (Skills 16-18)

____ 1. We have became good friends in the last year.

____ 2. Your name will be list in the new directory.

____ 3. The new movie is receive good reviews.

____ 4. She must have feel sorry about her bad behavior.

____ 5. They have always given their family many presents.

____ 6. We may be taking a vacation next week.

____ 7. We could have taking a vacation last week.

____ 8. The package might had been deliver by an express mail service.

____ 9. I have not wrote very many letters to my friends.

____ 10. The car should not have be drive anymore today.
TOEFL Exercise (Skill 16-18)

____ 1. By the 1920s, many radio transmitters had been build


A B C D

____ 2. Fish farming has rose in the United States in recent years.
A B C D

____ 3. In areas of volcanic activity, beach sand may contains dark minerals and little quartz.
A B C D

____ 4. Cro-Magnon man was names after the caves in southwest France where the first remains
A B C
were discovered.
D
____ 5. Lassie, the famous collie who made her first screen appearance in 1943, has always
A B
be played by a male dog.
C D

____ 6. A blue bigwig lizard stakes out a territory and will defending females within it against
A B C
courting males.
D
____ 7. President George Washington was inaugurates on the steps of the Federal Building in New
A B C D
York City

____ 8. By 1627, Plymouth had became a viable and growing community of 50 families, 25 goats,
A B C
15 cows, and more than 50 pigs.
D

____ 9. Tobacco was the crop on which the eminence of Williamsburg and the prosperity of Virginia
A B C
were base.
D

____ 10. Because there may be scores of genes in each suspect DNA region, scientists
A
must identifying and sequence the actual genes contributing to Type I diabetes.
B C D
TOEFL Review Exercise (Skill 1 -18)

1._____ the deepest valleys and canyons on the Earth.


(A) In the Pacific Ocean with
(B) In the Pacific Ocean
(C) The Pacific Ocean
(D) The Pacific Ocean has

2. In the United States, the participation of females in the labor force _____ from 37
percent in 1965 to 51 percent in 1980.
(A) it jumped
(B) jump
(C) jumping
(D) jumped
3. Some composers, such as Richard Wagner, have felt that _____ the action of the
opera too much and have written operas without them.
(A) arias interrupt
(B) interrupt arias
(C) the interruption of arias
(D) areas of interruption
_____4. Water stored behind a dam can used to drive turbines.
A B C D

____ 5. Our universe may continue to expand as it gets colder, empty and deader.
A B C D

____ 6. Every form of matter in the world are made up of atoms.


A B C D

____ 7. The lens and cornea are supply with nutrients and oxygen by the aqueous fluid.
A B C D

____ 8. Dodge City, laid out in 1872, owed both its prosperity and its famous to the buffalo in its
A B C
early years
D

____ 9. The amount of the two kinds of cholesterol in the blood have been shown to have an effect
A B C D
on the risk of heart attack.

____ 10. By the time Noah Webster reached his mid-twenties, he had already publish an elementary
A B C D
speller.
SKILL 19

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS


EACH

EVERY

SINGLE SINGULAR NOUN

ONE

Example

• Each student should study hard

• She likes being a single mother

• One building has been built in this city


BOTH

TWO

MANY PLURAL NOUN


SEVERAL

VARIOUS

Example

 Many students study hard to get higher scores

 There are several women over the mountain

 They found various types of rocks


Problems in TOEFL Test

 He just finished several book*

 She studied each chapters*

 My mother likes watching various movie*

 The woman is a single mothers*


Exercise 19

__ I 1. She talked to each people in the room.

C 2. There is not a single bit of food in the refrigerator.

____ 3. You need two piece of identification to cash a check.

____ 4. Both classes started on time.

____ 5. We took a new routes to the beach house.

____ 6. He gave many different reasons for his actions.

____ 7. You must answer every questions on the test.

____ 8. She tried several times to call me.

____ 9. He offered me only one glass of water.

____ 10. We had various kind of drinks with the meal.


SKILL 20

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUN


MANY

NUMBER
COUNTABLE NOUNS
FEW

FEWER

Example
Example:

1. There are a number of problems that need solving

2. A few students do not like travelling

3. Many birds are flying over the sky this year


MUCH

AMOUNT
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
LITTLE

LESS

Example
Example:

1. There is amount of water that is flowing here

2. A little happiness can cure him

3. She doesn’t have much money now


Problems in TOEFL Test

1. They have taken much* trips recently

2. There was not many* water in the pool

3. She is keeping a number* of money

4. Government solve fewer complicated problem*.


Exercise 20

_ C 1. She will visit in a few months.

I 2. Many are unnecessary.

____ 3. You need to show a little kindness.

____ 4. You have a number of choice.

____ 5. There was a large amount of apples in the bowl.

____ 6. We have fewer opportunities now.

____ 7. How much money is left?

____ 8. He caused less problems this time.

____ 9. They need a little times to finish their work.

____ 10. He visited many exotic places.


Exercise (Skills 19-20)

____ 1. She enjoys food from many culture.

____ 2. He could not give me much good reasons.

____ 3. Each owner must register his or her car.

____ 4. They came up with a number of ideas.

____ 5. Various new law go into effect on the first of the year.

____ 6. The car now uses less oil.

____ 7. The meal did not cost a single cents.

____ 8. You need to make fewer mistake.

____ 9. You can take one course or both courses.


TOEFL Exercise (Skill 19-20)

____ 1. Cone shells live in much different seas and feed mainly on small fish and worms
A B C D

____ 2. The leaves of the common sunflower are rough to the touch on both side.
A B C D

____ 3. Hemoglobin enables the red blood cells to carry oxygen and small numbers of carbon dioxide.
A B C D

____ 4. Those with narcolepsy experience the uncontrollable desire to sleep, perhaps several time in
A B C
one day.
D

____ 5. Another great artists of the time and possibly the most gifted silversmith in the colonies was
A B C D
Paul Revere.
____ 6. Alzheimer’s disease afflicts two in ten person over the age of seventy in the
A B C D

United States.

____ 7. The red cardinal spends many of its time feeding on the ground.
A B C D

____ 8. In the 1920s, Tulsa had a higher number of millionaire than any other U.S. city
A B C D

____ 9. Because Washington is a district and not a state, its residents have less rights than other
A B C D

citizens.

____ 10. Implosive consonants occur in many different language but they are particularly common in
A B C D

American Indian and African languages.


TOEFL Review Exercise (Skill 1-20)

1. _____ the second most common metal in the Earth’s crust, and it always occurs
in combination with other substances.
(A) Iron
(B) Iron is
(C) With iron
(D) With iron is

2. In most parts of the globe, the _____ not exceed roughly 31 degrees centigrade.
(A) ocean surface
(B) ocean has a surface
(C) ocean surface does
(D) ocean has surfaced
3. ____ which climatologists have determined is the wettest place on Earth not
under water is a spot on the island of Kauai.
(A) The place
(B) It is the place
(C) The place is
(D) In the place is
____ 4. A single protein molecule may being composed of tens of thousands of atoms
A B C D

____ 5. Less plants grow in the poor taiga soils beneath the trees.
A B C D

____ 6. Vast reserves of oil and gas is located in the Gulf of Mexico.
A B C D

____ 7. Helium is a colorless, odorless, taste element often used to inflate balloons.
A B C D

____ 8. The common was the heart of every New England villages built in the eighteenth century
A B C D

____ 9. Some of the regulations that bind U.S. institutions allows foreign banks to package loans at
A B C
hard-to-beat interest rates.
D

____ 10. In angioplasty, a catheter is thread through an artery and guided through the body to the
A B C
blocked area.
D
SKILL 21

SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUN


SUBJECT PRONOUN OBJECT PRONOUN

I ME
YOU YOU
THEY THEM
WE US
IT IT
SHE HER
HE HIM
Example:

1. My parents have taken many trips recently

They have taken many trips recently

2. Mary saw the film with Barry

She saw it with him

3. The students are finishing their school projects

They are finishing theirs.


Problem in TOEFL Test

1. Me* and my friend are taking a trip

2. Our neighbors are going with you and I*

3. My family will visit he* next week.

4. The teachers have taught in that school for five years


and them* look very happy
Exercise 21

C 1. You should do it for her.

I 2. They helped she with the work.

____ 3. Her and Bob came over to visit me.

____ 4. I brought it for you and them.

____ 5. He opened the refrigerator and took some food from it.

____ 6. She lent it to you and I.

____ 7. She spent all the money on them.

____ 8. You forgot to give it to they.

____ 9. We offered she a place to stay.

____ 10. They watched us play with it.


SKILL 22

POSSESSIVES
POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS

MY MINE
YOUR YOURS
THEIR THEIRS
OUR OURS
ITS ---
HER HERS
HIS HIS
Example

1. Beth gave us her television

2. Beth gave us hers

3. The students are doing their homework.

4. The teacher is checking theirs.


Problem in TOEFL Test

1. The students turned in theirs* papers.

2. I would like to borrow your*

3. He loves her idea and their*.

4. Ours* country is a developing country.


Exercise 22

__I 1. She cut hers hair recently.

C 2. We will take our car or theirs.

____ 3. Please lend me yours notes from the history lecture.

____ 4. I like his ideas and hers.

____ 5. The tree fell on its side during the storm.

____ 6. My desk is located near hers.

____ 7. Theirs suggestion was unrealistic.

____ 8. Our appointment is just after your.

____ 9. Your friends and my friends are coming to our party

____ 10. You don’t have yours gloves with you, but I have mine.
SKILL 23

PRONOUN REFERENCES
SUBJECT PRONOUN
OBJECT PRONOUN Agree with their referent
POSSESSIVE

Example

1. The students are doing their homework hard so they look tired

2. My mother went to Bali to visit her family

3. He loves his sister, that is why he always buys present for her.
Problem in TOEFL Test

1. The cookies are for you, so please take it*.

2. Each person has to sign their* application letter.

3. The students have studied with the teachers, but them

still don’t understand.


Exercise 23

I 1. If my friend calls, please tell them that I will return the call.

C 2. I don’t like the idea because it is too costly.

____ 3. The tables at the restaurant are so large that it can seat 12 people.

____ 4. The soup needs more salt because he does not taste very good.

____ 5. The girls ran too fast, and she fell down.

____ 6. In the autumn, the tree lost its leaves.

____ 7. The windows were open, so I closed it.

____ 8. The travelers lost their way in the storm.

____ 9. The boy got the box, and he opened it carefully.

____ 10. The woman left their earrings at home, so she wasn’t wearing them.
Exercise (Skill 21 – 23)

____ 1. They sold the car to you and I.

____ 2. Please tell your brother that I need to talk to him.

____ 3. The bicycle lost it front wheel.

____ 4. Martha was happy when her boss gave her a pay raise.

____ 5. Just between us, I am not sure if we can trust them.

____ 6. The mother talked to her son about his behavior.

____ 7. I told his the truth, but he didn’t believe me.

____ 8. You and she should look for they.

____ 9. The student left his notebooks in the class, so he went back to get it.

____ 10. If they don’t have their car, we will lend them ours
TOEFL Exercise (Skill 21-23)

____ 1. Animals like frogs have waterproof skin that prevents they from drying out quickly in air,
A B C
sun, or wind
D

____ 2. Because of its ability to survive close to human habitations, the Virginia deer has actually
A B C
increased their range and numbers.
D

____ 3. John D. Rockefeller was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, and he was the richest
A B
man in the world at the time of her retirement.
C D

____ 4. The aorta arches out of the heart, and then its moves down toward the lower body.
A B C D

____ 5. Global average temperatures are now .6 degrees Celsius warmer than we were 100 years ago
A B C D
.
____ 6. During the Civil War, Clara Barton became known as the “Angel of the Battlefield” for hers
A B C
fearless care of wounded soldiers.
D

____ 7. Our Sun is a medium-sized star orbiting near the edge of a collection of stars that our call the
A B C D
Milky Way.

____ 8. Francis Scott Key wrote the words to “The Star-Spangled Banner” as they stood alone
A B C D
watching the British bombardment of Fort McHenry.

____ 9. Some scallops can open and close theirs valves and swim away rapidly when they are disturbed
A B C D

____ 10. Pearl S. Buck began her first novel, East Wind, West Wind, in 1925, while her was traveling
A B C D
between the United States and China.
TOEFL Review Exercise (Skill 1-23)

1. Although knives and forks ____ of prehistoric origin, spoons are relatively new.
(A) are
(B) they are
(C) are they
(D) which are

2. Neptune’s ____ the planet in the direction opposite to the other seven moons.
(A) moon Triton orbiting
(B) moon Triton orbits
(C) moon Triton in orbit
(D) moon is in Triton’s orbit

3. A dip pen’s nib is split into two halve_____ at the point of the nib.
(A) who meet
(B) which meet
(C) they meet
(D) meet
Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

4. In 1785 Henry Knox was appoint the new republic’s first secretary of war.
A B C D

5. Biophysics is one of the various branch of physics


A B C D

6. Unlike many great writers, Longfellow was an enormously popular poet in him day.
A B C D

7. After Lincoln’s assassination, Ford’s Theater was closed and parts of it was converted to
A B C
government office space
D

8. Most of the Earth’s ice is found either in the two great ice caps of Antarctica and
A B C
Greenland and on the tall mountains of the world.
D
9. Except for a few species, such as the spotted salamander, the courtship of salamanders are
A B
secretive and not often observed.
C D

10. Unlike most mollusks, crustaceans outgrow their shells and need to build several
A B C
completely new casings throughout they lives.
D
SKILL 24

ADJECTIVE AND ADVERBS


Sometimes in the Written Expression section of the PAPER TOEFL test,
adjectives are incorrectly used in place of adverbs, or adverbs are
incorrectly used in place of adjectives.

 Adjectives and adverbs have very different uses in sentences.

ADJECTIVE

• Adjectives have only one job: they describe nouns or pronouns.

It is a delicious meal.
ADJ. NOUN

It is delicious.
PRON. ADJ.
ADVERB

 Adverbs have three different uses: they describe adjectives, verbs, or other
adverbs

He writes letters quickly.


VERB ADV.

It is a quickly written letters.


Adv Adj. Noun.

It is an extremely quickly written letters.


Adv Adv. Adj. Noun.
Problems in TOEFL Test

They were seated at a largely* table.


ADV. NOUN

The child talked soft* to her mother.


VERB ADJ.

We read an extreme* long story.


ADJ. ADJ.

She speaks unbelievable* quickly.


ADJ. ADV.
Exercise 24

I 1. Her hair was an unusually color of red.

C 2. The weather is really comfortable.

____ 3. We attended a poor planned conference.

____ 4. He talked slowly and carefully.

____ 5. The composition was careful prepared.

____ 6. She had an incredible story about her long trip.

____ 7. He sent me a quickly written note.

____ 8. The cat meowed sad.

____ 9. The children are hungry and tired.

____ 10. The lecturer spoke extremely loud..


SKILL 25

ADJECTIVE AFTER LINKING VERBS


Look at the following sentences

 He spoke nicely

 He always sings beautifully

 He looks nice

 She always appears beautiful


Regular verbs:

• play
• sing
• dance
• study ADV ERBS
• watch
• do
Example:

1. The children played the football happily


Reg.Verb

2. Agnes Monica always sings professionally


Reg.
Verb
3. Please, do your tasks seriously
Reg.
Verb
Linking verbs:
• appear
• feel
• seem
• become
• prove
• taste ADJECTIVE

• be
• look
• smell Example:

1. The children look happy


Link.Verb

2. Agnes Monica always feel energetic when singing


Link.Verb

3. Does the food smell delicious?


Link.Verb
• After linking Verb is ADJECTIVE, but
• Linking verb isn’t always directly followed by ADJECTIVE,
it can be follow by ADVERB

Example

1. The cakes taste extremely nice


ADV. ADJ

2. He seems unusually nice


ADV. ADJ

3. They became very happy after getting money


ADV. ADJ
Problems in TOEFL TEST

1. The Test looks easily* to me

2. Sally feels unbelievable* happy about the news

3. The ice cream tastes too coldly*


Exercise 25

I 1. Kathy looks gorgeously in that dress.

C 2. The children have grown considerably.

____ 3. Steve walked rapid to the corner to catch the bus.

____ 4. The boys became sick with the flu.

____ 5. The mother closed the door careful.

____ 6. Tom appeared rather unhappily at what had happened. -

____ 7.The choir members sang enthusiastically.

____ 8. The soup tastes too salty.

____ 9. The book seemed easily for the students.

____ 10. In the late afternoon, the sun set slow in the west.
Exercise (Skills 24-25)

____ 1. The chef prepared a delicately sauce.

____ 2. Matthew feels terribly angry about the issue.

____ 3. The swimmer swam powerful across the pool.

____ 4. The receptionist answered the phone carefully.

____ 5. The dishes in the sink were dirty.

____ 6. The physics exam seemed quite simply to me.

____ 7. He acted unbelievably rude.

____ 8. The burned toast did not taste very good.

____ 9. His decision was absolutely necessary.

____ 10 The job applicant dressed carefully for the important interview.
TOEFL Exercise (Skill 24-25)

____ 1. Sounds quieter than 10 decibels are impossibly for the human ear to hear
A B C D

____ 2. Often the best farmland is next to a river that floods periodical
A B C D

____ 3. The planet Mercury has a moderately elliptically orbit.


A B C D

____ 4. An 18-watt fluorescent bulb seems as brightly as a 75-watt incandescent bulb.


A B C D

____ 5. The telephone works by changing the voice’s sound waves into electrically signals.
A B C D
____ 6. In the northern United States, two European species of small white birch are extensive planted
A B C
as ornamentals.
D
____ 7. Fifty million Americans continue to smoke despite abundant evidence that smoking is
A B
extremely unhealthfully
C D

____ 8. The U.S. Military Academy sits on scenic heights overlooking a strategically bend in the
A B C D
Hudson River.

____ 9. The Erie Canal became so successfully at providing cheap transportation that it was greatly
A B C
enlarged between 1835 and 1862.
D

____ 10. The Infra-Red Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, contained a special coded
A B C
reflecting telescope that detected infrared rays.
D
TOEFL Review Exercise (Skill 1-25)

1. On December 17, 1903, the Flyer ____ near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, with Orville Wright
as pilot.
(A) took off
(B) it took off
(C) taking off
(D) took it off

2. Comets are relatively small celestial bodies ______ up chiefly of dirt and icy materials.
(A) make
(B) made
(C) they make
(D) make them

3. Researchers have long debated about _____ moon Titan contains hydrocarbon oceans or lakes.
(A) Saturn’s
(B) whether it is Saturn’s
(C) whether Saturn’s
(D) whether Saturn is a
4. The abrasively action of the wind wears away softer layers of rock.
A B C D
5. There are two way of making a gas condense: cooling it or putting it under pressure.
A B C D

6. Researchers have discovered that the application of bright light can sometimes be uses to
A B C
overcome jet lag.
D
7. Salmon migrations may include having to jump up waterfalls, swim up rapids, or climbing
A B C
fish ladders at dams.
D
8. If a strike is called in violation of an existing contract between labor and management, its a
A B C D
wildcat strike.
9. Snapping turtles are easily recognized because of the large head, the long tail, and the shell
A B C
that seems insufficiently to protect the body.
D
10. The long string of genes making up a chromosome have been likened to a string of pearls.
A B C D
End of Written expression
STRUCTURE
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