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What is Biodiversity???

 Biological diversity
 Simply means the
diversity, or variety, of
plants and animals and
other living things in a
particular area or region
 Also means the number, or
abundance of different
species living within a
particular region
Okay, So Why Is It Important?
 Everything that lives in an ecosystem is part of the web
of life, including humans
 Each species of vegetation and each creature has a place
on the earth and plays a vital role in the circle of life
 Plant, animal, and insect species interact and depend
upon one another for what each offers, such as food,
shelter, oxygen, and soil enrichment
 "It is reckless to suppose that biodiversity can be
diminished indefinitely without threatening humanity
itself." -Edward O. Wilson (Father of Biodiversity)
Early Classification
 To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to
name organisms and group them in a logical manner.
 The field of Biology that deals with classifying organisms is called
Taxonomy.
 Carolus Linnaeus is the father of Modern Taxonomy (1700’s)

•Linnaeus is considered the


founder of the binomial system of
nomenclature and the originator
of modern scientific classification
of plants and animals
Linneaus’ Findings:
 Millionsof animals and plants
 How did we keep them in order?
 Binomial Nomenclature
Hierarchy
System Of Classification

Hierarchy
Ranking System

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species


Binomial Nomenclature
 Identifying organisms by their genus and species’ names
 2 words
 First letter of FIRST word is capital, First letter of
SECOND word is lowercase.
 The word needs to be in italic or underlined
 Latin Form of the word.
 Ex: Homo sapiens, Acer rubrum, Canus lupus
 Humans, Red Maple, Wolf
Binomial Nomenclature

 Used because the common name can sometimes be


misleading.
 Common names can be different in various parts of the
world (for example the British, North American and
Australian “Robins”)
 Latin is a universal “dead” language
How do Scientist
Classify organisms?

 You will probably need to add this slide to your notes


 Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in
its older members are called derived characters.
 Derived Characters can be used to construct a Cladogram, a
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group
of organism
 This concept was derived from Darwin.
 http://ccl.northwestern.edu/simevolution/obonu/cladograms/Op
en-This-File.swf
How do Scientist
Classify organisms?

 Early systems of classification grouped organisms


together bases on visible similarities.
 That can quickly lead to troubles….
 Biologist now group organisms into categories that
represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny,
not just physical similarities.
 Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but
not in its older members are called derived characters.
 This concept was derived from Darwin.
How do Scientist
Classify organisms?

 Similarities at the DNA level in the genes of organisms


can be used to help determine classification.
 Comparisons of DNA can also be used to mark the
passage of evolutionary time. A model known as a
molecular clock uses DNA comparisons to estimate the
length of time that two species have been evolving
independently.
 A dichotomous key is a
series of yes/no questions
that state the rules for
placing items into
categories within a system
of classification
 Ex: Plants, Insects, Trees,
People (We could make
one for our class!!)
 1. Eubacteria- (Bacteria)
 2. Archaebacteria-
(Bacteria)
 2. Protists- (Amoeba)
 3. Fungi- (Mushrooms)
 4. Plants- (Trees)
 5. Animal- (Mammals)
2 Kingdoms or 1?
 Most books lists 6 kingdoms,
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
 Prior to 1990 most books listed
only 5 kingdoms, Eubacteria
and Archaebacteria were
grouped together Monera
 Either is correct..(I still refer to
Monera on my quizzes and
test. )
The Three-Domain System

 Molecular analyses have given rise to a new


taxonomic category that is now recognized
by many scientist.
 The domain is more inclusive category than
any other—larger than a kingdom.
 Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
Eubacteria
 Single Celled, Prokaryotic, Autotrophic
and Hetrotrophic
 Most bacteria are in the EUBACTERIA
kingdom.
 Cell walls with peptidoglycan.
 Some produce vitamins and foods like
yogurt.
 Ex: Streptococcus, Escherichia coli

 Bacteria…ecological diverse
 Free living soil organisms to deadly
parasites
 Some need oxygen some do not need
oxygen.
Archaebacteria
 Single Celled
 Prokaryotic
 Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
 Cell walls do NOT contain
peptidogllycan
 Ex: Methanogens, halophiles

 These bacteria live in volcanic hot


springs, brine pools, and black organic
mud.
 Most survive in the absence of oxygen
Protists
 Mostly unicellular
 Eukaryotic
 Autotrophic/Heterotrophic
 Members have great variety
 Ex: Amoeba (bottom) and
Paramecium (top)
 You need to be familiar with
BOTH of these little
guys…they will be on your
quiz/test.
Fungi
 Mostly multicellular but some unicellular.
 Has a cell wall but does NOT make its own food.
 Heterotrophic
 Change dead organic matter into usable nutrients… Decomposers
 Ex: Bread mold, mildew, yeast, and mushrooms.
Plant Kingdom

 Green- contain
chlorophyll
 Make food by
photosynthesis
 Ex: Algae. Moss,
Vascular Plants, Trees,
Flower, Etc
Animal Kingdom
 Multi-Cellular
 Cannot make their own
food
 Most animals move
(sponge is sessile)
 Vertebrates: (Backbone)
Ex: Fish, Frogs, Birds,
Snakes, and US!!
 Invertebrates: (No
backbone) Ex: Sponges,
Jellyfish, Earthworm
A Mysterious Organism-Virus
 Not sure which
classification to
put viruses
under
 No cell parts
 Chromosome-
like structures
 Do not grow as
living things
A Mysterious Organism-Virus
1.
A virus is an infectious organism that reproduces within the cells of an
infected host.

2. A virus is not alive until it enters the cells of a living plant or animal

3. A virus contains genetic information wrapped in a protein coat.

4.
Viruses can be useful as well as harmful.

5. A virus that mutates ensures its own survival by making itself


unrecognizable to immune systems and vaccines.

6. Even viruses engineered for useful purposes can be harmful if unchecked