# Complex Numbers

Complex Numbers
Consider the quadratic equation x2 + 1 = 0. Solving for x , gives x2 = ± 1 x2 !  1
x ! 1

Since there is not real number whose square is -1, the equation has no real solution. French mathematician Rene Descartes (1596 -1650) proposed that i be defined such that,

i ! 1

Complex Numbers
i ! 1 Note that squaring both sides yields: i 2 ! 1 therefore i 3 ! i 2 * i1 ! 1* i ! i

and i ! i * i ! (1) * (1) ! 1 so and
i ! i * i ! 1* i ! i i ! i * i ! 1* i ! 1
6 4 2 2 5 4

4

2

2

And so on«

Finding Powers of i
The successive powers of i rotate through the four values of i, -1, -i, and 1.
in = i if n = 1, 5, 9, « in = 1 if n = 4, 8, 12, « in = -i if n = 3, 7, 11, « in = -1 if n = 2, 6, 10, «

I i ! - 1, then
i ! 1
2

i !i
i ! 1
6

5

i ! i

3

*For larger exponents, divide the exponent by 4, then use the remainder as your exponent instead.
Example:

i !1

4

i ! i

7

i !1

8

23 ! 5 ith a remainder o 3 4 3

i !?

23

So, use i
23

hich ! -i

etc.

i ! i

Real numbers and imaginary numbers are subsets of the set of complex numbers.

Real Numbers

Imaginary Numbers

Complex Numbers

Imaginary Unit
 Until now, you have always been told that you can¶t take the square root of a negative number. If you use imaginary units, you can!  The imaginary unit is ¡.  ¡=  1  It is used to write the square root of a negative number.

Property of the square root of negative numbers
 If r is a positive real number, then 

r !i ir r
Examples: 

3 ! i 3 

4 ! i 4!

2i

Examples

1. (i 3 ) 2 2 ! i ( 3)

2

2. olve 3 x  10 ! 26

2

3 x ! 36
x ! 12
2

2

! 1( 3 * 3 )

! 1(3) ! 3

x !  12 x ! si 12 x ! s2i 3

2

Complex Numbers
 A complex number has a real part & an imaginary part.  Standard form is:

abi
Real part
Example: 5+4i

Imaginary part

To Add or Subtract Complex Numbers 1. Change all imaginary numbers to bi form. 2. Add (or subtract) the real parts of the complex numbers. 3. Add (or subtract) the imaginary parts of the complex numbers. 4. Write the answer in the form a + bi.

Ex: (1  2i)  (3  3i) ! (1  3)  (2i  3i )
! 2  5i

Ex: 2i  (3  i )  ( 2  3i )
! (3  2)  (2i  i  3i )

! 1 2i

Ex: (2  3i)  (3  7i ) ! (2  3)  (3i  7i ) ! 1  4i

Multiplying
To Multiply Complex Numbers 1. Change all imaginary numbers to bi form. 2. Multiply the complex numbers as you would multiply polynomials. 3. Substitute ±1 for each i2. 4. Combine the real parts and the imaginary parts. Write the answer in a + bi form.

Multiplying Treat the i¶s like variables, then change any that are not to the first power
Ex:  i (3  i ) ! 3i  i 2 ! 3i  (1)

Ex: (2  3i )(6  2i)
! 12  4i  18i  6i 2 ! 12  22i  6(1)

! 1  3i

! 12  22i  6

! 6  22i

CAUTION! 
4 2 !?  4   2 ! i 4 i 2 ! 2i 2 2 !  2 2 4 2 { 8

Dividing
To Divide Complex Numbers 1. Change all imaginary numbers to bi form. 2. Rationalize the denominator by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate of the denominator. 3. Substitute ±1 for each i2.

Dividing
Examples:
4  3i 4  3i 4  3i 4  3i 4  3i !  ! ! 2 4  3i 4  3i 4  3i 16  3i 16  24i  9i 2 7  24i ! 25 16  9 5 3i 5 5  ! ! ! 3 5 3i 5 3i 5 3i 5 5 5(3  i 5 ) 15  5i 5 ) 15  5i 5 ) ! ! 2 14 9  5i 95

3  11i  1  2i Ex : *  1  2i  1  2i
(3  11i )(1  2i ) ! (1  2i )(1  2i ) 
3  6i  11i  22i 2 ! 1  2i  2i  4i 2 

25  5i ! 5  25 5i !  5 5

! 5  i 

3  5i  22(1) ! 1  4(1) 
3  5i  22 ! 1 4

EVALUATE the FOLLOWING

1. i

8 15

2.  i 3. 2i

27 5 2

4.  i 5. i 
12

Change to bi form

1. 

36 48 600 4  64

2.  120 3. 4. 5.

1 . ( 2  8 i )  (3  5 i ) 2 . (5  8 i )  (  4  2 i )  (3  i ) 3 . 3i ( 2  5 i ) 4 . ( 4  3 i )( 2  5 i ) 4  i 5. 2i 3i 6. i
Perform the following operations