This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Lecture #2, Chapter 3
What is a workstation. As defined on page 41, a workstation as ³computer hardware dedicated to a single customer¶s work´. This could be extended to include a thin client and / or virtual workstation, a laptop, or even a smart cell phone will custom applications installed. Managing workstations boils down to completing 3 tasks
± Loading the System OS (operating system) and software ± Updating the System OS and software ± Configuring or reconfiguration network parameters
How is consistency achieved? . etc). The name of the game is consistency.Workstations Rules apply to managing a few dozen workstations to a few thousand workstations. The concepts and processes are the same. Doesn¶t matter. LINUX. Mac. independent of what OS your using (Windows.
etc) ± Having the same helpdesk staff answering the phone and desktop support staff visit the same users / PC¶s. duplex settings. either hardware or software. Lifecycle is defined as: The useful life of an information system. color settings.Consistency Can be achieved at many levels ± ± ± ± Loading the OS and deploying patches Loading and updating the applications Loading network configurations Loading and updating printer drivers and printer driver configurations (paper trays. Managing systems and applications through their lifecycle. .
Again. This is how much per year you will need to spend on the resource Example: A PC costs $1. You will need to budget or save ~$300 per year to replace this device once its lifecycle has ended.200 new and has a expected lifecycle of 4 years. Combination of hardware and software form the ³platform´ on which your company functions. .Lifecycle Management Project how long hardware and software will last Divide the cost of the resource by this number. this applies for software as well as hardware.
Lifecycle Management .
Evard¶s Life Cycle of a PC .
Update: Applying patches. extra files etc. During this time. Moving to a new known state Entropy: The process of polluting a system. Off: A retired machine. extra software etc. Extra applications installed. Debug: The process of removing the pollution from the system. the system is said to be degrading. but from another state than ³New´. Retire: Removing a machine from the system . installing required software and configurations. Configured: A machine with all configuration and software on it. Rebuild: The same as build. just delivered etc. Only usable in this state ! (hint: good quiz question) Unknown: A polluted machine. The machine has an unknown state in the administrators perspective.Evard¶s Definitions New: A completely new machine. configuration updates. Build: The process of installing the Operating System for the first time. Initialize: Could also be called Configuring. Clean: A machine with only the OS installed on it.
or change the network configuration ± When a user is only a µuser¶. Can¶t install any patches. Can you launch and run applications. There are generally two states in which new systems are deployed to users ± When the user is an Administrator or administrator equivalent. Can¶t install software. or new applications ± Pro¶s and Con¶s for each case .User Rights to the Workstation The more rights or permissions a user has to the system. the quicker the system will degrade. make changes to the system settings. updates.
Software may get installed that was not acquired via µlegal¶ means. . ± Con¶s Workstations quickly become customized and fall into the Unknown state More susceptible to viruses and spyware. More difficult to deploy centralized updates because the state of the system is unknown.Pro¶s and Con¶s Being an administrator ± Pro¶s Can quickly and easily install and update applications Users can configure the workstation how they need with minimal help from an SA Plug-ins. Helpdesk will receive more calls after central updates are deployed due to unknown state of workstations. Require periodic maintenance to (could be automated) to µclean¶ the system after it becomes polluted. etc can be easily installed. vendor updates.
Pro¶s and Con¶s Of being a µuser¶ ± Pro¶s The state of the machine is known so less chance of centralized updates causing a µflood¶ of helpdesk calls. May need to implement various µtricks¶ or µfixes¶ as to get these applications to work ± RunAs ± Wrapping with custom EXE to run the application with elevated rights ± Application virtualization .WSUS) More helpdesk calls because users can¶t install applications. (good and bad) Some applications will not properly run with the user only having µuser¶ level rights. Only software that is licenses and centrally deployed is installed on the workstations Less virus infections and spyware infections Shared machines are more stable because 3rd party software can¶t get installed ± Con¶s Need to implement centralized workstation and software deployment servers (Windows Server Update Services .
If everything is OK. What does it mean to µflash it¶ ± The BIOS is a program pre-installed on Windows-based computers (not on Macs) that the computer uses to start up. always What is the BIOS.Loading the OS Step #1.com/watch?v=BSL0P82PhL4&feature=re lated ± http://www. When.youtube. They are not generic ± http://www.\ ± Flashing the BIOS is the process of updating this preinstalled program to the newest version provided by the vendor ± BIOS¶ are unique to the hardware.com/watch?v=uNr1sse2LiU&list=QL .youtube. The BIOS then checks all your hardware connections and locates all your devices. flash the BIOS. The CPU accesses the BIOS even before the operating system is loaded. the BIOS loads the operating system into the computer's memory and finishes the boot-up process.
Using tools such as Ghost or DriveImage XML to deploy a pre-tested OS image to all workstations. Automate. Will take more time up-front but will pay off ³10x´ over time. ± Ultimate goal is to eliminates the µone off¶ or as I like to call them the µwhite elephant¶ installations. This lead to no uniformity. . Creating an automated windows OS installation can be done by creating an unattended file that ³answers´ all the questions that windows asks during installation. automate. Spend the time in creating a totally hands-off process for loading the OS. pro¶s and con¶s to both processes. ± Can be done either by automating the manual installation or µcloning¶ the OS with 3rd party tools. automate. We use Dell workstations and keep a µbuild¶ machine on hand either on a shelf or deploy it to someone that can give it up for new clone OS build and test processes. ± Even the best SA will make mistakes in loading an OS and applications. Like everything. I prefer the cloning process to the automated installation.Loading the OS The process of installing the operating system onto the computer.
the most trust you will have in it and the more uniform your users workstations will be.Loading the OS Which ever way you decide to deploy the OS in corporate environment. Test. test. get everyone involved with the process. This includes: ± ± ± ± Helpdesk staff Desktop support staff Other SA¶s The entire team will be supporting the user / system so get everyone¶s buy-in and sign-off (either verbally or physically) saying that this new process or build is ready for production. Again. . Try to think of where the loading process will get hung up and engineer around it. test. the better you plan and more time you put into debugging your OS loading process. Get staff not involved with the creation of the image or process to test it.
use a vendor¶s pre-installed OS in production ± Installation can change over time as new drivers. are released. etc.Loading the OS Never. ± Trial ware applications installed. ± It has been known to happen that preloaded OS¶ from the vendor have had virus infections. . These include time stamped (run for a set amount of time. then quit working) copies of anti-virus. etc software. service packs. spyware detection. when never.
but also. Can anyone remember some of them ? . Mentioned a few of these in last week lecture. This is true for ALL OS¶.Updating the OS Operating systems require updates. Allows for not only the deployment of critical patches. 3rd party applications available that allow you to manage both the OS and the installed applications. not just Windows Invest the time and money in implementing an update system such as Windows Server Update Services ± WSUS. service packs. and IE. and some non-OS updates such as Microsoft Office updates. Windows media player.
. ± Using windows group policies objects (GPO¶s) and windows installer (MSI) packages to µpush¶ software packages and updates to workstations. 3rd party management packages available. These may require the user being a local administrator for the installation to be successful.Loading the Applications Many ways to get applications installed onto a workstation ± Manually with a stack of CD¶s and a desktop visit ± Creating automated installations that occur during a login process. ± Again.
the less problems you will have afterwards. One. Some. ± This is true even after the testing is complete and your very confident in what you¶ve built ± Think about it. test. test« ± The more time you put into the testing and refining process. stagger the installation over 2 weeks (10 days) and do 100 per day. don¶t deploy Microsoft Office 2007 onto 1000 PC¶s all at the same time. Less of a load on the network and . Many ± Use a staggered approach to deploying software.Testing Your Automated Installs Test.
.Testing Your Automated Installs One ± When testing for the first time. mid-end. ± May wish to test on different platforms as to gauge how a low end. Use a dedicated test machine that can be quickly reverted back to a known stable state. ± A virtual machine works great for this process. test on one machine. Use a snapshot. and high-end system will perform.
a training lab. or your home department.Testing Your Automated Installs Some ± Once your convinced that your packages are working as designed. chances are that it will fail on 10% of all your users. Determine why the package failed on these 10% and fix it ! ± 10% doesn¶t sound like a lot but 10% of 500 desktops is 50 machines. test with some more users. If your installation fails on 10% of this group. This could be your support team. . This could equate to 50 users being down or your desktop support staff running around to 50 machines which may take weeks to complete depending on workload and staffing.
Publish the schedule on a website and refer your users to this page. or Thursday and avoid the beginnings and ends of the week. Monday¶s are generally not good days to make system changes. Generally I like to do this on a Tuesday. and deploy the software. . you can communicate your intentions to your target users. ± This is the time when having an effective communication process is vital. not only to µget the word out¶ to your users but to field calls if it is determined that the update is causing problems.Testing Your Automated Installs Many ± Once you¶ve convinced that your in the high 90¶s% success rate. schedule a deployment date. Wednesday. ± Don¶t deploy software on a Monday or Friday! Your automated update has the potential of causing massive damage.
Questions so far? .
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Process in which the workstation obtains its IP address information Domain Name System (DNS). .google.Network Configuration Large Workstation populations require the use of automated network configuration tools. These are commonly known as DHCP and DNS services. Process in which domain names such as www. We will discuss these in more detail later in the semester.com are resolved to IP addresses and servers and workstations communicate between each other.
Servers (next chapter) typically use hard coded IP information. gateway address. but not always. static or hard coded IP information. and DNS server addresses to a workstation Typically workstations use DHCP vs. . subnet mask.DHCP DHCP server: a server that assigns the IP address.
DHCP IP Information Assignment Lease Information .
What happened? . you need to remember only the name.edu -> 128. Your workstation will go to that IP address and download the page.18.syr. not the IP address. of the server you wish to talk to (easier to remember name).104 ± www. Your computer will ask the DNS server what IP address your website is located at and return that information to your workstation.com -> 66.Single Slide Example of DNS Think of it as a large µlook-up¶ table where the computers name and IP address exist within the table Example ± www. ± You can simply go to the IP address of the server if you know it.188.8.131.52.170.35 ± When you enter a URL in a web browser.google.39. launch internet explorer and go to http://128. For example.
it doesn¶t need to be updated ! DNS is used by Windows Active Directory servers (later in the semester) to keep track of all workstations on the network and allow them to work efficiently together to deliver applications. your DNS entry in the DNS table illustrated previously will need to be updated.DNS As your IP address may change via DHCP. print. login. is DHCP a required component on a Windows network? Is DNS? . etc. Question. This is why most servers use a static or non-changing IP address so once the DNS entry is in place.
You can¶t test too much! .Conclusion Workstation consistency is the magic that makes managing hundreds or thousands of workstations µmanageable¶. test. a µfix¶ can be created and deployed to all machines. if all workstations exhibit the problem. test. Even if a postinstallation problem arises. Automate as much as possible to reduce inconsistencies in your workstations. Test.