Before you star t Use these familiar baking tips

... and you'll have better success

Ten Baking Safety Checks

vWash hands for 20-30 seconds (before starting, when returning to food) with warm water and soap all over hands and wrists, rinse well, and dry with a clean towel. vClean dishtowels. Change daily.

vWork surface and sink cleaned before, after, and as needed (sanitize with 1 teaspoon bleach added to 1 quart water). vEggs stored in cartons (not refrigerator door) at 40°F. (Any raw egg drips cleaned up immediately).

vHair tied or held back. vOven rack is placed where it is needed before preheating the oven. . An oven thermometer should hang inside. Dough or batter should be covered and refrigerated if not baked right away. vRaw dough or batter is not to be eaten.

Make sure there is a clear traffic path to it. vCounter space and cooling rack ready for hot baked good when it is removed from the oven. .vTwo clean. dry oven mitts or pads available by the oven.

vClean containers or new plastic bags should be used for storing baked products. .

wash & dry hands before starting.Tip #1:  Read through the recipe & gather the ingredients. . make sure all pans and equipment are clean and dry.

if necessary. Tip #3: Use the appropriately sized baking pans and properly prepare them.    .Tip #2:  Pre-measure the flour & other ingredients Prepare any in advance.

  .TIP #4: Adjust oven shelves & preheat the oven. Do NOT Overor Under-Mix. Use a kitchen timer to help you keep track of mixing times. Each step has a purpose. etc. Use an oven thermometer. Tip #5: Carefully follow each mixing step in the recipe.

Tip #6: Don't crowd the oven & avoid opening the oven door during baking. nose as well as other indicators be your guide. Rotate pans halfway through baking. Let your eyes. Tip # 7: Pay special attention to baking times. .

Tip # 8: When done. Tip #9: Finishing Touches. cool baked goods thoroughly. Tip #10: Store baked goods the best way. .

CAKES .

 They are special & are often associated with life’s miletones . filled. frosted. adorned or plain.CAKES *Used to describe everything from one or more layers. unfilled.

or batter cakes are cakes butters containing fat.TWO CLASSES OF CAKES UNSHORTENED OR SPONGE CAKES  .  .they are called foam cakes because the main leavener is air incorporated while beating eggwhites.They are those without fats SHORTENED CAKES  .     .

BASIC TYPES OF CAKE BASED ON THE INGREDIENTS USED FOR LEAVENING .

flour and sugar. then flour is folded in.Angel food cake Cake made from egg whites which acts as the main leavening agent. A meringue is made from the egg whites and sugar. It does not contain any fat. .

flour. The butter is creamed together with the sugar then eggs are added one at a time. sugar. The dry and liquid ingredients are alternately added. eggs. baking powder) and liquid.leavening agent (i. .e.BUTTER CAKE Cake made of butter.

Chiffon cake Cake made of eggs. sugar. The eggwhites are beaten with sugar until stiff. liquid and oil. flour. The two mixtures are folded to complete the batter. liquid. The volume and lightness of the cake is due to the beaten eggwhites. . baking powder and oil. The dry ingredients are mixed with eggyolks.

. This cake does not use oil but sometimes the recipe calls for melted butter. The flour us added last.SPONGE CAKE Cake whose ingredients are similar to a chiffon cake except oil. The eggs are separately beaten until thick then folded together.

Add the liquid to the dry ingredients by making a well in the center and pouring the liquid into the well. 3.Combine the liquid ingredients and milk. 2. flavoring.Sift together the dry ingredients flour. leavening. beaten eggs. stir the ingredients vigorously until they are well mixed.Methods of mixing cakes   MUFFIN METHOD the simplest method of mixing ingredients for a cake 3 MAIN STEPS 1. Then.   . sugar and salt.

STEPS: 1.Cream the fat until is light and fluffy. beginning and ending with the flour.   CONVENTIONAL METHOD -most laborious and time consuming. 2.Fold in the beaten eggwhites into the mixed batter  .Add the sugar gradually and continue creaming until the two are blended into a fluffy mass 3.Add the flour mixture alternately with the liquid ingredients of milk and flavoring. 4.

This is the best used for “ high sugar ratio” cakes. NEW  SPEED METHOD called one bowl method or quick-mix.easy mix methods. . The fat recommended is the hydrogenated vegetable shortening because it contains a small amount of emulsifying agent.

QUALITIES OF GOOD CAKE .

Use proper mixing techniques. . 7.Observe proper adjustment of the oven rack to ensure uniform baking and preheating of the oven.Use high quality ingredients 2. 5.Accessibility of all ingredients. 6.Practice accurate measurement of ingredients using the standard measures for dry and liquid ingredients.1. 4.Use well-tested recipe 3.Follow the correct baking techniques by using the right size of pans and baking temperature and the required length of time.

Jelly Roll Cake a Biscuit Roulade  .

*Typically made from a foam cake. roulade (Paupiette) or biscuit recipe (French) or Swiss Roll (English). also known as a biscuit roulade. A jelly roll cake (American). .

  .A Roulade is a French term for a thin roll of meat or cake around savory or sweet fillings.

which is a large and rectangular pan with shallow rims. . also known as a sheet pan.Cake rolls are typically baked in a jelly roll pan .

. the batter is spread into a thin layer in a jelly roll pan. baked until firm but still moist. To make the cake base.

. and rolled tightly.The cake is filled or carefully unrolled if first cooled into a shape and then filled.

Some cakes are cooled flat or rolled immediately and cooled so the cake forms a log shape. .

. buttercream. lemon curd. seedless jam or jelly or chocolate ganache.qFillings for the cake vary widely and can include pastry cream.  qMany times the cake is refrigerated if it contains a perishable filling to help set it.

the roll can be can be simply dusted with powdered sugar or covered with whipped ganache. .Right before serving. whipped cream or buttercream.

. where it shows its pinwheel design when served flat on a plate.It is sliced into disks.

FACTORS AFFECTING GETTING PERFECTLY WHIPPED EGG WHITES: .

ingredients and tools -.even the right weather ! .Egg whites can be temperamental during whipping and you need the right touch.

dry bowl. placing the  whites in the clean.Fat A trace of fat in the egg whites will greatly reduce their volume when whipped. Crack and separate the eggs. .

To get the yolk out. as it contains fat. use the corner of a paper towel or a piece of broken egg shell to sop it up or start over again with a fresh batch of whites . Do not have a trace of egg yolk remaining.

and then dry. and spatula are free of grease. bowl.   Don't . To make sure.  use plastic containers because they tend to absorb and retain fat even if washed. make sure the egg beaters. rinse both in warm water. wipe the clean implements with lemon juice or white wine vinegar.

Weather & Temperature To get the highest egg whites. not cold ones. it's because the egg's protein is more elastic and will create more tiny air bubbles . whip room temperature egg whites.

the longer the beating time will be.  If  .  it is humid or raining outside. the colder their temperature. sometimes you won't get the proper volume no matter what you do.

Acid (Cream of Tartar. . Lemon Juice & Vinegar) An acid is added at the beginning of beating.

but in general.   . use 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar per egg white or 1 teaspoon per cup of large egg whites (8 to 10). As a rule of thumb. 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar = 1/4 teaspoon freshly squeezed lemon juice.  For meringues. when the whites are just beginning to become frothy. There is no exact substitute. but it has a lesser stabilizing effect. use 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar for each 2 egg whites.  You can add a pinch of salt for every 1 to 2 egg whites instead.

or neutral by using a scale called the pH. It also whitens the egg white foam. producing a finer grained cake.Acids and ingredients are described whether it is acidic.  . Foams tend to build better with a lower pH (lower number). but it has been found that cream of tartar works the best. basic.

. which are essentially a delicate protein network.Sugar *also serves as a whipping aid to stabilize beaten egg foams.

 Meringue made from beaten egg whites and sugar. . can sit longer and hold their shape than foams without sugar. Sugar pulls the water from the structure and allows it to set better.

In foam-type cakes. sugar interacts with egg proteins to stabilize the whipped foam structure makes the egg foam more elastic so that air.cells call expand and take up gases from the leavening agent.  Sugar .

.Sugar stabilizes the batter and also delays the evaporation of water from the egg white foam in the oven.

It is very important to be aware of when you add the sugar to the egg whites .

do not dump it in the center  Otherwise. either case. add at the”Raw eggwhite stage” begin to slowly add it in the " soft peak stage".  If adding in a 1/4 cup or less of sugar.   In . slowly at the side of the bowl while the whites are being whipped. always add sugar in a stream.

you don't want to risk deflating the whites….….. ..

but too much can decrease its stability .Water Can aid in the increase of the volume of egg white foam.

high-rise whites .Copper and Mixing Bowls A copper bowl reacts chemically with egg whites to form fluffy.

same result can be obtained using stainless steel or glass bowls with the addition of cream of tartar. it contains an ion which reacts with an egg white protein. to form a more stable foam and helps the whites retain moisture. plastic or wooden bowls because of their naturally porous surface which attracts grease because of its porous surface. specifically conalbumin.   The   Avoid .

 grease or fat deflates egg whites. use aluminum which reacts with the egg whites causing them to turn slightly gray.  . the mixing bowl should be 9 to 10 inches in diameter and 5 to 6 inches deep.   Never If beating by hand.

Beaters Ø Beaters can make a difference in volume depending upon the number of egg whites beaten at one time. Ø ØSome classicists use a large balloon whisk and a copper bowl. when beating by hand for small and .large amounts .

 Beat . always start your mixer on medium-low to medium speed.Degree of Beating  When whipping egg whites. them until foamy and increase the speed to mediumhigh and then to high.

   If . the structure of the foam will not be as strong. This is a very important and underestimated step in the process. and later the egg whites will not beat as high as they should. the egg whites are beaten too quickly at the beginning.

If egg whites are overbeaten. . they can separate or weep.

stirring and jarring can break down the foam When you FOLD them in. use a gentle touch.Manipulation  Beating.  . use a gentle touch.

. its proteins. begin to loose their shape.Heat   Heat is an egg protein's enemy. which are made of chains of molecules called amino acids precisely folded into spirals.   As an egg fries. loops and sheets.

the body. or aggregates.Sticky bits from the interior of the protein get exposed. and adhere to each other. forming disordered globs. making them dysfunctional. heat stress or too much can do the same thing to proteins.  In  .

Preheating the oven. encourages rising. . using an oven thermometer and placing egg-white leavened recipes in the lower third of the oven.

  they should allow for the proper expansion of the egg whites during baking.Baking Pans  Size and shape of pans are crucial. .

If greased.Angel food cakes are best baked in an ungreased tube pan with straight sides. causing a flat cake. . Because an angel food cake does not have a strong gluten structure or chemical leavening. it needs the pan sides to virtually cling to while baking. the egg whites would slip downwards.

Time  Use  f your whites immediately upon beating them. if they do. they start to deflate. They will keep a bit longer if the foam contains sugar or an acid. . such as cream of tartar. so whip again by hand with a whisk. they sit for more than 5 minutes.

Rubber Spatula A large rubber spatula is great for folding ingredients together. .

HOW TO BEAT EGG WHITES & SUGAR WITH A MIXER .

STEP #1: Raw eggwhites   .

*Make sure you use room temperature egg whites with no yolk or visible shells floating in them. *Use a stand mixer when you have a large amount of whites to beat.  *Start with a grease-free bowl and beaters. *use a hand-held electric mixer when beating a small amount .

STEP #2: Frothy OR FOAMY .

 Increase the mixer speed to mediumhigh Salt or cream of tartar is added at this stage if not added in Step #2.MEDIUM-LOW TO MEDIUM MIXER SPEED: The egg white foam looks cloudy. .

MEDIUM-LOW TO MEDIUM MIXER SPEED: vA slower mixer speed will not deflate the early stages of the foam. if you do. it will never whip to its fullest !  vSalt or cream of tartar is added at this stage or in Step #2 .

STEP #3: SOFT PEAK STAGE .

  . Do not continue beating past this stage as the whites will become dry. when the beater is turned off and lifted. if going to the firm peak stage. the mixer speed should be increased to high. However.The soft peak stage is reached when the peaks of the whites droop slightly.

If not.MEDIUM-HIGH MIXER SPEED: Add sugar here if you are going to stop at this stage. proceed to Step # 4. which takes 4 . If adding sugar. do so a little at a time.5 minutes or in a steady stream at the edge of the bowl .

quickly and evenly sprinkle over the meringue when it has almost formed either soft. whip until the foam is white and opaque and begins to hold a soft peak.If necessary. firm or stiff peaks with the mixer is still running.  If adding extracts. . taking another 2 or 3 minutes.

STEP #4: FIRM PEAK STAGE .

  Add your sugar here if only beating to firm peaks or if beating to stiff peaks. moist and shiny.straight peaks should form.   . Stop the beaters and then lift them -.The egg white foam will become smooth.

add in a steady stream at the side of the mixing bowl to prevent the foam from deflating.  . a little at a time -. if you have the time -. add the sugar at this stage.or.about 1 to 2 tablespoons.HIGH MIXER SPEED:  For a stiff meringue.

If going to the stiff peak stage, mixer speed should remain on high. 
If adding extracts, quickly and evenly sprinkle over the meringue when it has almost formed either soft, firm or stiff peaks with the mixer is still running.

STEP #5: STIFF PEAK STAGE

Beat until the egg whites are very stiff and glossy.
Stiff meringue can be made when sugar is added here.  If beating to stiff peaks, add sugar during Step #4. 

HIGH MIXER SPEED: If the recipe calls for whipped egg whites with stiff peaks, you will first go through Steps #3 & 4, above, and then this step. Beat until the egg whites are stiff and glossy. To check, stop the beaters and lift them. 

If adding extracts.If egg whites are beaten to dry and dull. they are overbeaten -Watch carefully. . quickly and evenly sprinkle over the meringue when it has almost formed either soft. because egg whites can go from stiff to dry and overbeaten in as little as 30 seconds. firm or stiff peaks with the mixer is still running.

Cakes: what went wrong? .

If the cake rose unevenly in the oven vThe flour was not blended sufficiently into the main mixture. v vThe oven temperature was too high . vThe temperature inside the oven was uneven.

If the batter overflowed the pans: Make sure you used the right size pan. The uncooked mixture should fill the pan by no more than two-thirds .

*The flour was not folded in gently. . Always mix in the flour at the lowest  speed. Always use large eggs when baking. *Insufficient air was whisked into the egg and sugar mixture.CAKES THAT USE SEPARATELYBEATEN EGG WHITES AND YOLKS   If the cake is dense and heavy: *The eggs were too small.

. *The oven temperature was too low. causing it to sink down through the whisked foam. *The melted butter was too hot when added.

*The cake was not cooked long enough. *The oven door was opened too soon. which created a draft.If the top of the cake dropped: *The oven temperature was too hot. .

. * The butter and sugar were not creamed together well enough before adding the eggs.CAKES THAT USE CREAMED BUTTER AND SUGAR MIXTURES  If the batter curdles and separates: *The ingredients were not at room temperature.

.*The eggs were added too quickly.

* The flour was beaten at too high a speed. sugar and eggs were not beaten together long enough.  . If   the cake's texture is too heavy: * The butter.

*The oven temperature was not hot enough. .*Too much flour was added to the creamed mixture.

it burst up through the top of the cake. As the mixture in the center of the cake continued to cook and rise.IF THE TOP OF THE CAKE PEAKS AND CRACKS: *The oven temperature was too hot. . causing the outside of the cake to bake and form a crust too quickly.

*The cake wasn't baked on the center rack of the oven. .

. dried fruit and nuts sunk to the bottom:  The pieces of fruit were too large and too heavy.If raisins. batter was not thick enough to hold them.

Undermixing or extreme overmixing Too large a pan Oven Temperature too low or too high Not properly alternating the flour and the liquid ingredients during mixing Cold eggs and/or butter  .Low volume Over or under measurement of liquids.

Underbaking .oven temperature too low and / or too short a baking time High humidity .Sticky top  Covering while still warm Overmeasurement of liquid.

Make sure that you measure correctly.  . liquid or sugar will cause this problem. Excess shortening.Soggy Moving the cake before it is set Underbaking Cooling the cake in the pan (unless the recipe specifies) Your ingredients are out of proper balance.

Large holes & tunneling  Oven temperature too high. Undermixing or extreme overmixing (too much gluten ) Too much leavening . Use an oven thermometer to check.

Shrinks  Too little batter in pan Pans greased too heavily Pans too close together in oven Extreme overmixing Too much liquid Overbaking .too long or at too high a temperature  Improper mixing procedure.  .

Over or under measurement of liquid or too much sugar Too small a pan  .Falls Over or underbeating – too much or too little air is incorporated into batter. Probably not thoroughly cooked. Underbaking . Bake longer or reduce the heat by 25 degrees F and bake longer.oven temperature too low and / or too short a baking time.

   Too much baking powder or baking soda Keep recipe close to 1 teaspoon baking powder or 1/4 teaspoon baking soda per cup of flour.  .Falls Excessive jarring or moving of the cake during baking. Opening the oven door before cake sets  Oven temperature too low.

Falls
Excessive

mixing of the batter. Beaten egg whites - When you beat egg whites, their proteins unwind and join together loosely, making them very unstable. Make sure at least one of the egg whites is not beaten, but added with the liquid ingredients instead, to help stabilize its structure.

Coarse grain & sunken center
Oven

too cold (baked too slowly). Preheat oven for about 20 minutes. Sugar and fat under-creamed Batter undermixed Too much baking powder. Not enough liquid

 Too

much flour Used all-purpose flour instead of cake flour.  Careless or poor depositing in the pans.

Dry cake, tough crust
Overmixing

the batter. Overbaking. Check cake for doneness at lower end of baking time range. Overbeating egg whites and too many of them Pan too big. Use the size called for in the recipe or substitute it.

Cool cakes in a draft free area. They will dry out quickly in a draft Added more flour than the recipe called for.The oven was probably set too low and the cake dried out as it baked. Use an oven thermometer to help you check. .

Added

less shortening or liquid than the recipe called for. Not enough sugar.

Peaked, cracked tops 
Overmixing Oven

temperature too hot. Not using magi-cake strips which prevent the edges from baking and setting faster than the middle  Too much flour or too little liquid Pan placed too high in oven. Before preheating the oven, adjust oven shelf to the middle.

Uneven cake layer
Oven

shelf not

level Bent pans Undermixing

Uneven browning, burned on one side Uneven heat circulation. Make sure the pan has at least 1- to 2-inches space between the sides of the oven and another pan, if using. Pans too close together in oven. Improper placement in the oven will cause cakes to bake faster on one side.

.Gently rotate the cake pans (don't pick up the pans. spin them) about 2/3 into the baking time for an even bake.

Make sure the pan has at least 1. . if using.to 2-inches space between the sides of the oven and another pan. stagger them between the two shelves.Burnt bottom & undercooked batter Inadequate air circulation in oven.  If you have to bake two pans in the oven at once and they won't fit on one shelf.

Heavy layer on bottom  Not enough mixing Too much liquid Too many eggs .

. Check cake at the beginning of the time range for doneness or 10 minutes before the stated time.Thick  Too hot an oven Excessive baking time.

Low-grade GRAYISH COLOR  flour   Sticky wet layer Not had the batter folded with beaten egg whites sufficiently  .

The cake cooled too long in the pan before trying to remove it.  Not baked long enough.Sticking to pan Not greased and floured the pan enough. .

Batter too stiff (insufficient water)  .Tough crust or crumb Too little fat Too little sugar Excessive mixing.

one at a time. To avoid it. on low speed until just blended. . blend in the eggs.Batter too thin (excessive water). Can be a meringue-like crust: is created by egg whites when the batter is beaten too much after eggs are added.

Hanging over sides of pan Too much baking powder Too small a pan .

Either the oven was set very low or you put too much batter in the pan.  Check your oven setting and never fill the baking pan more than 1/2 full of cake batter.   .Bitter or poor flavor Excess baking powder will cause the batter to run over the pan. so measure carefully.

Improper cleaning and greasing of the pans.Bitter or poor flavor Improper mixing procedure. . Improper cleaning of the equipment. Faulty baking conditions.

  The layers may have needed a little extra baking time. . Taken the cake from the pan before it had cooled enough. or sugar.Cracks & crumbles Too much shortening. baking powder.

Excessive top heat Dark pan .Crust too dark Oven too hot.

Crust is shiny & sticky Oven temperature too cool. Removed the layers from the oven too soon. Too much sugar  .

Dense grain Excessive  liquid in the batter. Improper mixing procedure. .

Incorrect amount of water. Insufficient liquid.Burnt on top Oven temperature too hot. Excessive mixing. Lack of body .

(baked too slowly). . Unclean equipment.Off color  Improper mixing procedure. Oven too cool.

Insufficient Liquid. Improper mixing procedures. . Cooled in a drafty location.Poor keeping qualities Excessive baking time.

they tend to brown unevenly. A anodized aluminum pan will help with even browning.Brown patches Especially true in yellow cakes. Due to the high sugar and fat content in yellow cakes. .

Baking Lingo .

 .Basketweave piping technique that features interwoven vertical and horizontal lines (like a wicker basket).

Butter cream .

swags. as well as decorative rosettes. Also used to create piping.A smooth. creamy icing that stays soft so it’s easy to cut through. It can be colored and/or flavored. . so it may melt in extreme heat or humidity.Buttercream is made from butter (as its name implies). and other borders. . It can be used as filling too.

DOTTED SWISS .

.piping technique that forms tiny dots in random patterns that resemble a fine dot swiss fabric.

Dragees .

edible sugar balls coated with silver or gold and used for decorative purposes. .Round.

Fondant .

and has a porcelain finish. corn syrup. . and architectural designs. It’s a smooth. elastic icing made of sugar. and gelatin that’s literally rolled out with a rolling pin and draped over a cake. decorative details.A sweet. firm base for gum paste flowers.

Ganache .

rich chocolate. it will soften in very humid weather. which can be used as icing or filling. – Because ganache is made of chocolate and heavy cream. denser than mousse but less dense than fudge.A sweet. .

Gum paste

This paste of sugar, cornstarch, and gelatin is used to mold realisticlooking fruits and flowers to garnish a cake.

Latticework
A piping detail that crisscrosses with an open pattern.

Marzipan

used to mold edible flowers or fruit to decorate the cake. sugar. like fondant. Marzipan can also be rolled in sheets. and used as icing.A paste made of ground almonds. . and egg whites.

Piping .

Decorative technique created using a pastry bag and various metal tips. . Piping details include leaves. borders. basket-weave patterns. and flowers.

Pulled sugar A technique in which boiled sugar is manipulated and pulled to produce flowers and bows. .

Royal Icing .

.Made of egg whites and confectionary sugar. bows. When dry. this icing starts life as a soft paste piped from a pastry bag to create latticework. its texture is hard and brittle – do not refrigerate. beading. and flowers.

Torte A dense cake that does not use leavening agents like baking powder or baking soda. .

Whipped cream .

.Heavy cream beaten to achieve a thick consistency. Whipped cream must be kept refrigerated – it is not recommended for outdoor events.

of a Cake Basic Tube Design .

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The tubing of 18 shells make a decorative top border. .Top Border A continuous decoration used around the top of a cake.

E BORD TOP R .

Side Trim Decorations used around the sides of a cake. Here you can tube 47 ribbed stripes and tube 67 leaves to make an attractive side trim combination. .

R IM ET S ID .

On this cake tubes 21 and 33 are used for the drop flowers. Leaf trims are added with tube 67 . and tube 104 is used for the roses and sweet peas. with tube 3 for the drop flower centers.Central Decoration  The design used on the top of a cake are usually made up of different combinations of different tubes and decorations.

CENTRAL DECORATIONS .

like a happy greeting written with tube 3.Greeting  The message written on the cake top. .

GREETING .

these tube 21 shells are a perfect choice . like the top border.Bottom Border A continuous decoration used around the base of a cake.

BOTTOM BORDER .

Basic Tube Design .

depending on the tip used.DECORATING TUBES OR TIPS Tubes are the tips that fit on the bottom of reusable or disposable pastry bags or parchment cones. called piping. There are many different ways to pipe.  They come in different tip designs which produce different decorations when you squeeze the filling through them.   .

SEVEN basic decorati ng tubes .

flower centers. cornelli lace. string work. . printing and writing message. beads. stems. filling and piping in areas. dots. Use to outline details. lattice. figure piping. vines. balls.Round Tube  These versatile tubes are smooth and round.

Cornelli .

ROUND TUBE .

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zigzags. such as STARS. fleurs-de-lis and scrolls. puffs. SHELLS. ropes. . rosettes.STAR TUBE Star-shaped tips create the most popular decorations.

STAR TUBE .

 Star tips range in size form small to extra large. The small ones with narrow teeth are perfect for making a shell border or rosettes.  . Or a small star tube with wide teeth makes a wider shell border and rosettes.

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. 67 and 352.Leaf tube  The V-shaped openings of these tubes make leaves with center veins. The more popular leaf tips include number 65.

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narrow at the other. This tear. Petal tubes can also make ribbons.Petal tubes These tubes have an opening that is wide at one end.drop shaped opening yields a variety of petals that form flowers like the rose. drapes and swags. pansy and more.   . bows and streamers. carnation. daisy.

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 .Drop Flower Tube:  Used for making different types of flowers.

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Tips number 124 and 127 make larger flower petals.   In addition to creating flowers. ruffles and sweet peas.Rose Tube  Used    for making roses. rosebuds. 102. The most common tips include numbers 101. Rose tips are use to make ribbon draped swags and bows. . 103 and 104.

When short. Basketweave tips are decorating tips with one smooth side and one serrated side.BASKETWEAVE TUBE  Used for making smooth or ribbed stripes and a basketweave design. ribbed horizontal stripes are interwoven the effect is the basketweave .

BASKETWEAVE TUBE .

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One of the most commonly used is the Fluted tip.   . Tips in this group have tightly curved opening and are used to make Lily of the Valley and Scalloped or Ribbon border.specialized tips are decorating tips of various other shapes and sizes.

 Another type of specialty tip is the Hair tip. . These tips have tiny openings that will make a cluster of strings that look like hair or grass.

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PASTRY BAG .

Pastry bag a cone-shaped. one large and one small. Either bag has two open ends. a clear plasticine disposable bag or a hand folded parchment cone. reusable polyester or plastic coated cloth bag. .

forcing the contents towards the tip.A pastry bag is typically fitted with a decorative tube (tip) on the small end (optional for parchment cones) and filled with different icings and pastry dough. whipped cream or whipped ganache through the large one.   .) The pastry bag is then closed by twisting the bag halfway down. .

  . with the large end facing up.The bag is then held in such a way that the tip faces the decorating surface. It is squeezed. creating designs called PIPING. forcing its contents through the tip. while moving it in certain positions.

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three types of pastry bags Reusable Pastry Bags Disposable Pastry Bags Parchment cone or cornets .

use one that is 8 to 10-inches long.    .Reusable Pastry Bags Sometimes called featherweight bags  They are available in nylon. but it is subject to frequent reloading. canvas. or plastic. plastic-lined cotton. use a bag that is 14 to 16inches long üFor smaller quantities.  Pastry bags come in different sizes ü12 or 14-inch plastic lined canvas bag üLarge quantities.

Disposable Pastry Bags  made out of clear plasticine.  use.  They are not as easy to use because they're Parchment Cones: not flexible.  . these bags are just thrown away when the decorating is done.

optionally fitted with a decorating tube and filled just like a pastry bag with a small amount of icing. . such as a tablespoon.PARCHMENT CONES Or CORNETS are disposable pastry bags made from parchment paper triangles. They can be made both large and small.

a base and a ring. that fits in the pastry bag and allows you to interchange decorating tips . plastic device.COUPLERS A coupler is a two-part.

How to Use a Decorating Bag .

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.Cake Decorating Start from the top with the easiest decorating ideas and go down the list to the most complex.

CAKE DECORATING .To take a baked and cooled cake and to fill and frost it and/ or make a simple or elaborate designs on the sides or top.  . .Decorations are really the final wrapping or packaging that someone sees and should be as good as the cake on the inside.

Steps in icing a cake .

Learning to bake a cake 2.Smoothing & preparing its surface for decorations  .Filling the layers and icing the cake 5.Leveling (trim& torte) the layers 4.Cooling the cake before proceeding 3.1.

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