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SOLID WASTE

MANAGEMENT
Electrical Engineering Department
Sukkur IBA University
INTRODUCTION
• Human activities generate WASTE material that are often discarded
because they are considered USELESS ( mostly solid)

• WHAT IS WASTE???
WHAT IS WASTE ???
It is a matter for which a specific owner ceases to have use for it. It is
also any unwanted or discarded matter. It can be in a solid, liquid or in a
gaseous form.
WHAT IS WASTE ???
• Waste (also known as rubbish, refuse, garbage, junk) is
unwanted or
• useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted
substances expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste; such
as urea and sweat.
Important Definitions and Kinds of
Wastes
• Solid wastes: Wastes that are not Liquid or Gaseous
wastes in solid forms, domestic, commercial and industrial
wastes
Such as
• Durable & Non-Durable Goods,
• Containers,
• Packaging,
• Food Scrapes,
• Yard Trimmings
Examples: plastics , bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash
Important Definitions and Kinds of
Wastes
• Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic
washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing
industries and other sources.
• Bio-degradable :can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)
• Non-biodegradable :cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old
machines, cans foam containers and others)
Important Definitions and Kinds of
Wastes
• Hazardous wastes: Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and have any of the
following properties- ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity,
& toxicity.
• Non-hazardous : Substances safe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and do not have any of
those properties mentioned above. These substances
usually create disposal problems.
Important Definitions and Kinds of
Wastes
• Rubbish => Old cans, News Paper, Tires, Packaging material etc.

• Trash => Combustible portion of Rubbish

• Garbage (Food Wastes) :


• Food Residue (Resulting from preparation cooking & serving foods)
• Animal Residue
Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
• Municipal Solid wastes: Solid wastes from diff, sources
• Residential
• Commercial
• Institutional
• Industrial
But doesn’t include
• Construction Wastes
• Automobile Bodies
• Municipal Sludge
• Industrial Process Wastes
Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
• Bio-medical wastes: Solid or liquid wastes including containers,
products generated during diagnosis, treatment & research
activities of medical sciences.
• Industrial wastes: Liquid and solid wastes that are generated by
manufacturing & processing units of various industries like
chemical, petroleum, coal, metal gas, sanitary & paper etc.
Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
• Agricultural wastes: Wastes generated from farming activities.
These substances are mostly biodegradable.
• Fishery wastes: Wastes generated due to fishery activities.
• E-wastes: Electronic wastes generated from any modern
establishments. They may be described as discarded electrical or
electronic devices. Some electronic scrap components, such as
CRTs, wires, circuits, mobile, computers etc.
Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
• SWM => Recovery of materials for
• Recycling
• Composting
• Combustion with or without energy
• Land Filling
Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
• Integrated SWM => An approach to help guide decisions about
• Generation of Wastes
• Recycling of Material
• Disposal of Waste Residu
Improper-Waste Management
Affects Health Costal & marine & Surface Environment

Socio-economic Conditions Climate


Solid Waste Management
Factors

Waste Generation

Waste Collection

Waste Treatment

Final Disposal
Municipal Solid Waste Sources

Household Commercial/
Institutional

MSW
Sources

Other
Industrial
Sources
FLOW Chart-Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Generation

Household Commercial Industrial


Food Plastics Glass & Paper & C&D Metals EE Hazardous Others
W. Ceramics C. board W. W.

Transfer
Recyclables
Station

Composting Material Recovery Facility Material


Processing Facility
Incineration Ash Sanitary
& Land-
Other WtE filling

Fertilizer Re-manufacturing ENERGY

ENERGY Use

Waste generated = Diverted + Disposed


MSW Items
MSW items and related Materials
Biodegradable Substance: Any Organic material that can be decomposed into
microorganism( bacteria, enzymes, fungi) into Simpler & more stable
compounds.

Example: Food, paper etc.

Ash: The non-combustible solid by-product of Incineration or other WtE process

Cont….
MSW Items and related Terms
Bulky Waste: Large waste that can’t be managed by normally routine MSW
Collection/processing.

Example: Appliances, trees,


branches etc..

Co-disposal: The disposal of different type of waste in one area of a landfill or dump

Example: Sewage Sludge may be disposed of


with regular MSW site.

Cont….
Typical Composition of MSW (%)
Kitchen Waste
7%
5% 4%
Plastic

Paper & Cardboard 49%


6%
Glass & Ceramics

C&D
10%
Hazardeous Waste

Metal

ES
5%
Others
8% 6%
• Organic Fraction= 49%

• Combustibles(Recy)= 31%

• Recyclables( Inorg:)=10%

• Inert = 10%
MSW Related Terms
Composting: Biological decomposition of organic solid materials by bacteria, fungi and
other organisms into solid-like product.

Compost/Humus: Material obtained from the composting.

Use: It is soil conditioner, so used as a fertilizer.

Cont….
MSW Related Terms
Disposal: The final handling of solid waste following collection,
processing or incineration/WtE , and finally to dump or landfill.

Land filling: The final disposal of Solid Waste in a controlled fashion.

Cont….
MSW Related Terms
Recycling: Processing of used materials into new products

Ferrous Metals: Materials & alloys contains Iron.

• Magnetic Properties

• Used in Skyscrapers

• Used in Electrical Appliances

Example: Mild steel, Carbon Steel , Stainless Steel ,Cast Iron & Wrought Iron
etc.

Cont….
MSW Related Terms
Non-ferrous Metals: Materials , not contain Iron (ferrite) in
appreciable amount.

Properties
• More expensive than Metals

• Low weight

• Higher Conductivity

• Resistance to Corrosion

• Non-magnetic Property

Example: Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Nickel, Tin & alloys


etc.

Cont….
Purpose of Recycling

Processing of used materials into


new products

Lessen the Consumption of raw


resources

Save used Energy

Reduce air Pollution


( from Incineration)

Reduce Water Pollution


( from Land-filling)
Characteristics of SOLID Waste

Physical Chemical Biological

• % Content Used mainly; Biodegradability


• Bulk Density For combustion & WtE Organic Solids usually
• Function of Location calculations, can also calculated by Volatilities
• Season be used to estimate Solids (VS) content of the
• Storage Time biological behavior. waste.
• Equipment Used
• Compaction Waste Consist of; Degradation Produces
• Shredding etc. Combustible .i.e. Paper Odor, H2S (rotten eggs)
or
NOTE: It used in Noncombustible .i.e. Attracts flies etc.
Volume Calculations Glass
Chemical
Characteristics

Proximate Analysis
• Loss of moisture( temperature at 105 C)

• Volatile Combustible Matter (VCM) (temperature increased to 950 C, closed crucible).

• Fixed Carbon (residue from VCM)

Fusing Point of Ash


• Ash (temperature= 950 C, open crucible).

Ultimate Analysis
• Molecular Composition (C, H, N, O, P etc.)

Energy Content
• Determined through lab calculations using calorimeter.
CLEAN THE ENVIRONMENT BEFORE IT HARM YOU!!

Please get to know more and change your life.

Thank You for your concentration during the presentation.

Any Question Please……….…….!!!