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Newton’s Law of Motion

NEWTON’S LAW OF
MOTION

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• These laws describe how


common objects move
under the influence of
forces.

• The first builds on


Galileo’s concept of
inertia; the second
describes the relation
between force, mass, and
acceleration; and the third
explains how forces
always happen in pairs.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Understand that we are saying if


no outside force is applied, the
velocity of the object (which is its
speed and direction) will remain
constant.
• An object traveling in a straight line
at constant speed has a constant
velocity.
• An object standing still has a
constant velocity too.
• Its constant velocity is zero in
value.
• In order to change either of these
examples of constant velocity, you
need to apply a non-zero force to
the object.
• Then, when the force is applied,
the velocity will change.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION


• Today
Hari iniwekitawill
akanexpress this more hal
mengungkapkan
qualitatively in threedalam
yang lebih kualitatif laws which are called
tiga hukum
Newton's
yang disebut Laws.Hukum Newton.
• The
Hukumfirstpertama
law really benar-benar
goes back akanto thekembali
first
ke bagian
part 17th century.
of the pertama dari abad ke-17.
• It
Ituwas
adalah Galileo
Galileo whoyang menyatakan
expressed what he apa
yang disebut
called the lawhukum inersia
of inertia and Idan
will saya
read akan
you
membacakan
his law. hukumnya.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

GALILEO CALLED
‘THE LAW OF INERTIA’
• "A
“Benda
bodydalam
at restkeadaan
remainsdiam
at rest "and
tetap a dan
diam"
bendaindalam
body keadaan
motion akantoterus
continues movebergerak
"at
pada kecepatan
constant velocitykonstan
along asepanjang garis
straight line
lurus kecuali
unless acteddipengaruhi
upon by anoleh gaya force."
external "luar."

• And
Dan now
sekarang aku akan
I will read membacakanmu
to you Newton's own
yang dikatakan
words Newton
in his famous dalam
book, bukunya
Principia.
yang terkenal, Principia.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’


• Newton's first law
•• Every
Setiap benda selalu bersikukuh
body perseveres in itsdalam
state keadaan
of rest
diam atau bergerak beraturan dalam
or of uniform motion in a right line unless garis lurus
beraturan kecuali dipaksa untuk mengubah
itkeadaan
is compelled
oleh gayato yang
change that state by
mencetaknya.
forces impressed upon it.
• If
Jikathegaya
totaltotal
force
yangacting onpada
bekerja a body is zero,
benda adalah
nol, maka
then bendainmelewati
it travels garis
a straight lurus
line dengan
at constant
kelajuan konstan. yaitu kecepatan konstan dan
speed. i.e. its nol.
percepatannya velocity is constant and its
acceleration is zero.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's first law


coin The bottle and coin trick is
equally effective in demonstrating
the same effect. A coin is put on a
card and placed over the mouth
of a bottle. When the card is
flicked away with the finger the
coin drops neatly into the bottle.
For success in performing this
trick the finger should move in
horizontal plane so that the card
is not tilted.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

FORCES ARE BALANCED


30o 60o • According to statement above the
resultant all the forces exerted on the
body is zero, the forces on a body
100 N called in equilibrium or balance and
must satisfy the following conditions.
T1 sin 60o T1
∑Fx = 0 ∑Fy = 0
T2 sin 30o
From the condition of equilibrium,
30o 60o
T2 cos 30o
we have
T1 cos 60o
∑Fx = T1 cos 60o – T2 cos 30o = 0
100 N ∑Fy = T1sin 60o – T2sin 30o – 100 N = 0
T1 = 86,6 N, T2 = 50 N

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's first law


Forces are Balanced

Objects at rest Objects in Motion


(v = 0 m/s) (v ≠ 0 m/s)

a = 0 m/s2 a = 0 m/s2

Stay at Rest Stay in Motion


Same speed and dir’n

1st
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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's first law


Fv

Fgrav OPEN CLOSE

• ∑F = 0 • ∑F = 0
• An object in motion
• An object at stays in motion with
rest stays at the same speed and
rest in the same
direction.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’


• Newton's second law
• “Gaya
"A force action
yang on a pada
bekerja body gives
bendait an
acceleration which
memberikan is in the
percepatan ke direction
arah gayaofdan
the
force andbesaran
memiliki has a magnitude
yang diberi given
olehby ma."
ma."
• ma adalah besar danand
is the magnitude arahthe
dari gaya. is of
direction
the force.

F=ma
Force = mass x acceleration

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's second law

• ∑F = m a or
• a = Fnet / m
There acceleration There acceleration
depends directly depends inversely
upon the net force upon the object’s
mass
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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's second law


Forces are unbalanced

There is an acceleration

There acceleration There acceleration


depends directly depends inversely
upon the net force upon the object’s
mass 1
a F a
m
2nd
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Newton’s Law of Motion

The relations between Farce, Acceleration and


Mass
The acceleration of an
object is proportional to
the force exerd onthe
object, is inversely
proportional to the mass
of the object, and is in

velocity
velocity
velocity

the same direction as


the force.
time time time
(a) 1 unit of (b) 2 units of (c) 3 units of F
force force force
a = ----- or F = m.a
m
Experiment 1st
vt - v0
a = --------
t - to
Newton’s second law

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Newton’s Law of Motion

The relations between Farce, Acceleration and


Mass
The acceleration of an
object is proportional to
the force exerd onthe
object, is inversely
proportional to the mass
velocity

velocity

velocity
of the object, and is in
the same direction as
the force.
time time time
(a) 1 unit of (b) 2 units of (c) 3 units of F
mass mass mass a = ----- or F = m.a
m
Experiment 2nd
vt - v0
a = --------
t - to
Newton’s second law

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Newton’s
Newton’sLaw
LawofofMotion
Motion

Verification of Newton’s 2nd


Tichker time

velocity
time
(a) 1 unit of
force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s
Newton’sLaw
LawofofMotion
Motion

Verification of Newton’s 2nd


Tichker time

velocity
time
(b) 2 units of
force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s
Newton’sLaw
LawofofMotion
Motion

Verification of Newton’s 2nd


Tichker time

velocity
time
(c) 3 units of
force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s Law of Motion

FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’


• Newton's Third Law
• "If onesebuah
"Jika object benda
exerts mengerjakan
a force on another
sebuah
"the
gayaother
padaexerts
bendathe same
lain" force
benda lainin
opposite direction
mengerjakan gayaon the sama
yang one." dengan arah
yang berlawanan pada benda pertama. "
Hukum
• The Ketiga
Third Law sebagai “aksi
as "Action sama
equals dengan
minus
minus reaksi."
reaction."
Faction = – Freaction
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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law

FA = - FR

3th
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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law


Examples

Click the picture above

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law


• In the first experiment,
Freaction when two spring balances
are pulled in opposite
directions, they experience
Faction the same force acting in the
opposite directions.

=–

goes back

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law


• In case of the balloon when you
release it, the air inside the
Freaction balloon rushes out downward,
exerting force on the air outside.
The balloon experiences equal
and opposite reaction.
Faction Therefore, the balloon is pushed
upward.

=–

goes back

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law


• Rockets work on the same principle.
The exhaust gases produced as the
result of the combustion of the fuel
are forced out at one end of the
rocket. As a reaction, the main rocket
moves in the opposite direction. It is
important to note that action and
Freaction
reaction act on different bodies;
action acts on one body and reaction
on the other. Both begin and end at
Factionthe same time.
=–
goes back
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Newton’s Law of Motion

Standard Newton's Laws Problems

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Constant Acceleration Motion

• Application of Newton's second


law to a single mass.
• Net force = mass x acceleration
• ∑Fx = m a

• ∑Fy= N – m g

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Mass with force at angle

• Application of Newton's second law


to a single mass.
• Net force = mass x acceleration
• ∑Fx = F cos θ = m a

• N = m g – F sin θ

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Force on Two Masses


• Since F is the only net force acting on
the two masses, it determines the
acceleration of both:

• The force F2 acting on the smaller mass


may now be determined.

• Note that by Newton's third law, the force


F2 acts backward on m1. Note that the
net force acting on m1 is consistent with
the above.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Connected Masses
• The force F is the only net force acting
on the system of three masses, which
are constrained to accelerate together.
Therefore Newton's 2nd law gives the
acceleration:

• Once the acceleration is determined, the


masses may be isolated one by one to
determine the tensions T1 and T2.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Mass on Frictionless Incline


• One of the insights that comes from the
setup of this problem is that the force
required to push a mass m up a frictionless
incline is equal to mgsinθ.
• Checking the limiting cases, you find that it
takes no force along a horizontal frictionless
surface (θ=0), and a force = mg on a vertical
frictionless surface (θ=90°) as you would
expect.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Force on Inclined Mass

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Inclined Pulley

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Atwood's Machine

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Lifting Mass
• Though
Meskipun a straightforward
aplikasi langsung application
dari hukum of
Newton's second
kedua Newton, law, many
banyak find this
menemukan
problem deceptive. The common
masalah ini menyesatkan.
misconception which is carried into it is that
Kesalahpahaman
the umum
tension in the rope yang
must dibawa
equal the ke
weight
dalamnyaof the hanging
adalah object.
bahwa Whendi
tegangan the
tali
mass
harus is accelerated,
sama that isbenda
dengan berat not so. You
may change the data and then click on
menggantung.
either tension orKetika massa dipercepat,
acceleration in the
yang tidak
equation begitu.
below Anda dapat
to calculate its mengubah
value.
data dan kemudian klik pada salah satu
• mass
ketegangan atau percepatan
x acceleration = tension dalam
- weight
persamaan di bawah ini untuk menghitung
nilainya.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Elevator Problem
• This is an application of Newton's second
law to the forces felt in an elevator. If you
are accelerating upward you feel heavier,
and if you are accelerating downward you
feel lighter. If the elevator cable broke,
you would feel weightless since both you
and the elevator would be accelerating
downward at the same rate.

• support force F = mass x acceleration


+ weight

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Horizontal Pulley

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