Newton's Law

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Newton's Law

© All Rights Reserved

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NEWTON’S LAW OF

MOTION

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Newton’s Law of Motion

common objects move

under the influence of

forces.

Galileo’s concept of

inertia; the second

describes the relation

between force, mass, and

acceleration; and the third

explains how forces

always happen in pairs.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

no outside force is applied, the

velocity of the object (which is its

speed and direction) will remain

constant.

• An object traveling in a straight line

at constant speed has a constant

velocity.

• An object standing still has a

constant velocity too.

• Its constant velocity is zero in

value.

• In order to change either of these

examples of constant velocity, you

need to apply a non-zero force to

the object.

• Then, when the force is applied,

the velocity will change.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Today

Hari iniwekitawill

akanexpress this more hal

mengungkapkan

qualitatively in threedalam

yang lebih kualitatif laws which are called

tiga hukum

Newton's

yang disebut Laws.Hukum Newton.

• The

Hukumfirstpertama

law really benar-benar

goes back akanto thekembali

first

ke bagian

part 17th century.

of the pertama dari abad ke-17.

• It

Ituwas

adalah Galileo

Galileo whoyang menyatakan

expressed what he apa

yang disebut

called the lawhukum inersia

of inertia and Idan

will saya

read akan

you

membacakan

his law. hukumnya.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

GALILEO CALLED

‘THE LAW OF INERTIA’

• "A

“Benda

bodydalam

at restkeadaan

remainsdiam

at rest "and

tetap a dan

diam"

bendaindalam

body keadaan

motion akantoterus

continues movebergerak

"at

pada kecepatan

constant velocitykonstan

along asepanjang garis

straight line

lurus kecuali

unless acteddipengaruhi

upon by anoleh gaya force."

external "luar."

• And

Dan now

sekarang aku akan

I will read membacakanmu

to you Newton's own

yang dikatakan

words Newton

in his famous dalam

book, bukunya

Principia.

yang terkenal, Principia.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Newton's first law

•• Every

Setiap benda selalu bersikukuh

body perseveres in itsdalam

state keadaan

of rest

diam atau bergerak beraturan dalam

or of uniform motion in a right line unless garis lurus

beraturan kecuali dipaksa untuk mengubah

itkeadaan

is compelled

oleh gayato yang

change that state by

mencetaknya.

forces impressed upon it.

• If

Jikathegaya

totaltotal

force

yangacting onpada

bekerja a body is zero,

benda adalah

nol, maka

then bendainmelewati

it travels garis

a straight lurus

line dengan

at constant

kelajuan konstan. yaitu kecepatan konstan dan

speed. i.e. its nol.

percepatannya velocity is constant and its

acceleration is zero.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

coin The bottle and coin trick is

equally effective in demonstrating

the same effect. A coin is put on a

card and placed over the mouth

of a bottle. When the card is

flicked away with the finger the

coin drops neatly into the bottle.

For success in performing this

trick the finger should move in

horizontal plane so that the card

is not tilted.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

30o 60o • According to statement above the

resultant all the forces exerted on the

body is zero, the forces on a body

100 N called in equilibrium or balance and

must satisfy the following conditions.

T1 sin 60o T1

∑Fx = 0 ∑Fy = 0

T2 sin 30o

From the condition of equilibrium,

30o 60o

T2 cos 30o

we have

T1 cos 60o

∑Fx = T1 cos 60o – T2 cos 30o = 0

100 N ∑Fy = T1sin 60o – T2sin 30o – 100 N = 0

T1 = 86,6 N, T2 = 50 N

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Forces are Balanced

(v = 0 m/s) (v ≠ 0 m/s)

a = 0 m/s2 a = 0 m/s2

Same speed and dir’n

1st

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Fv

• ∑F = 0 • ∑F = 0

• An object in motion

• An object at stays in motion with

rest stays at the same speed and

rest in the same

direction.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Newton's second law

• “Gaya

"A force action

yang on a pada

bekerja body gives

bendait an

acceleration which

memberikan is in the

percepatan ke direction

arah gayaofdan

the

force andbesaran

memiliki has a magnitude

yang diberi given

olehby ma."

ma."

• ma adalah besar danand

is the magnitude arahthe

dari gaya. is of

direction

the force.

F=ma

Force = mass x acceleration

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• ∑F = m a or

• a = Fnet / m

There acceleration There acceleration

depends directly depends inversely

upon the net force upon the object’s

mass

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Forces are unbalanced

There is an acceleration

depends directly depends inversely

upon the net force upon the object’s

mass 1

a F a

m

2nd

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Mass

The acceleration of an

object is proportional to

the force exerd onthe

object, is inversely

proportional to the mass

of the object, and is in

velocity

velocity

velocity

the force.

time time time

(a) 1 unit of (b) 2 units of (c) 3 units of F

force force force

a = ----- or F = m.a

m

Experiment 1st

vt - v0

a = --------

t - to

Newton’s second law

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Mass

The acceleration of an

object is proportional to

the force exerd onthe

object, is inversely

proportional to the mass

velocity

velocity

velocity

of the object, and is in

the same direction as

the force.

time time time

(a) 1 unit of (b) 2 units of (c) 3 units of F

mass mass mass a = ----- or F = m.a

m

Experiment 2nd

vt - v0

a = --------

t - to

Newton’s second law

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Newton’s

Newton’sLaw

LawofofMotion

Motion

Tichker time

velocity

time

(a) 1 unit of

force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s

Newton’sLaw

LawofofMotion

Motion

Tichker time

velocity

time

(b) 2 units of

force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s

Newton’sLaw

LawofofMotion

Motion

Tichker time

velocity

time

(c) 3 units of

force

●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Newton's Third Law

• "If onesebuah

"Jika object benda

exerts mengerjakan

a force on another

sebuah

"the

gayaother

padaexerts

bendathe same

lain" force

benda lainin

opposite direction

mengerjakan gayaon the sama

yang one." dengan arah

yang berlawanan pada benda pertama. "

Hukum

• The Ketiga

Third Law sebagai “aksi

as "Action sama

equals dengan

minus

minus reaksi."

reaction."

Faction = – Freaction

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Newton’s Law of Motion

FA = - FR

3th

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Examples

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• In the first experiment,

Freaction when two spring balances

are pulled in opposite

directions, they experience

Faction the same force acting in the

opposite directions.

=–

goes back

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• In case of the balloon when you

release it, the air inside the

Freaction balloon rushes out downward,

exerting force on the air outside.

The balloon experiences equal

and opposite reaction.

Faction Therefore, the balloon is pushed

upward.

=–

goes back

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Rockets work on the same principle.

The exhaust gases produced as the

result of the combustion of the fuel

are forced out at one end of the

rocket. As a reaction, the main rocket

moves in the opposite direction. It is

important to note that action and

Freaction

reaction act on different bodies;

action acts on one body and reaction

on the other. Both begin and end at

Factionthe same time.

=–

goes back

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Newton’s Law of Motion

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Newton’s Law of Motion

law to a single mass.

• Net force = mass x acceleration

• ∑Fx = m a

• ∑Fy= N – m g

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Newton’s Law of Motion

to a single mass.

• Net force = mass x acceleration

• ∑Fx = F cos θ = m a

• N = m g – F sin θ

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• Since F is the only net force acting on

the two masses, it determines the

acceleration of both:

may now be determined.

F2 acts backward on m1. Note that the

net force acting on m1 is consistent with

the above.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Connected Masses

• The force F is the only net force acting

on the system of three masses, which

are constrained to accelerate together.

Therefore Newton's 2nd law gives the

acceleration:

masses may be isolated one by one to

determine the tensions T1 and T2.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

• One of the insights that comes from the

setup of this problem is that the force

required to push a mass m up a frictionless

incline is equal to mgsinθ.

• Checking the limiting cases, you find that it

takes no force along a horizontal frictionless

surface (θ=0), and a force = mg on a vertical

frictionless surface (θ=90°) as you would

expect.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Inclined Pulley

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Atwood's Machine

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Lifting Mass

• Though

Meskipun a straightforward

aplikasi langsung application

dari hukum of

Newton's second

kedua Newton, law, many

banyak find this

menemukan

problem deceptive. The common

masalah ini menyesatkan.

misconception which is carried into it is that

Kesalahpahaman

the umum

tension in the rope yang

must dibawa

equal the ke

weight

dalamnyaof the hanging

adalah object.

bahwa Whendi

tegangan the

tali

mass

harus is accelerated,

sama that isbenda

dengan berat not so. You

may change the data and then click on

menggantung.

either tension orKetika massa dipercepat,

acceleration in the

yang tidak

equation begitu.

below Anda dapat

to calculate its mengubah

value.

data dan kemudian klik pada salah satu

• mass

ketegangan atau percepatan

x acceleration = tension dalam

- weight

persamaan di bawah ini untuk menghitung

nilainya.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Elevator Problem

• This is an application of Newton's second

law to the forces felt in an elevator. If you

are accelerating upward you feel heavier,

and if you are accelerating downward you

feel lighter. If the elevator cable broke,

you would feel weightless since both you

and the elevator would be accelerating

downward at the same rate.

+ weight

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Horizontal Pulley

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