Fourth Generation Cellular Systems

Spectrum Requirements Joseph M. Nowack
Member of the Technical Staff Communication Systems and Technologies Labs December 6, 2000


to be deployed around the year 2010 The multiple choice answer: The ³twelve views´ of 4G* Cost reductio n Higher bit rates Wireless Internet User services White space Strict generatio n Is that your final answer? Service provider s Technolog y trends New network *source: Wireless wireline New air interface 4G will not exist 2 CSTL 4G white paper .What is 4G? ‡ ‡ The simple answer: 4G is the next major generation of mobile cellular systems.

Limited Mobility 2G 3G 4G WLA N P-MP (LMDS) Milli-wave LAN Fixed Access Data Rate 64kbps 2Mbps 200Mbps 3 . High Mobility Microcell. but by a significant advance in system capability beyond what can be achieved with 3G Coverage Area. Mobility Macrocell. and 3G ‡ > 2 Mbps in a wide-area mobile system (> 20 Mbps peak) ‡ Could coexist with 2G and 3G ‡ 4G is not necessarily defined by the bit rate.A View of 4G ‡ Domain of 4G extends beyond 1G. 2G.

Some Key Challenges ‡ Coverage ± Transmit power limitations and higher frequencies limit the achievable cell size ‡ Capacity ± Current air interfaces have limited peak data rate. and packet data capability ‡ Spectrum ± Location and availability are key issues ± Lower carrier frequencies (< 5 GHz) are best for wide-area coverage and mobility 4 . capacity.

c o n s ta n t R x a n te n n a g a in . n o c h a n g e in d iffra c tio n . 1000 C a rrie r Fre q u e n c y 100 D a ta R a te 10 As s u m p tio n s : C o n s ta n t E IR P . a b s o rp tio n o r o th e r p ro p a g a tio n c h a ra c te ris tic s .Carrier Frequency and Data Rate In c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f c e l l s n e e d e d t o c o v e r a f i x e d g e o g r ap h ic ar e a d u e t o an in c r e as e in e it h e r t h e s ys t e m d a t a r a t e o r c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y. P a th lo s s e xp o n e n t = 4 1 1 10 100 1000 D ata R ate or C arrier F requenc y Inc reas e F ac tor 5 .The Coverage Problem .

limited antenna gain.Spectrum ‡ Carrier frequency has a larger impact on cell size than data rate ‡ In order to enable wide-area coverage. 4G needs ³mobile friendly´ spectrum (ideally less than 5 GHz) ± Mobile devices have low transmit power. high-elevation antenna 6 . and predominately non-line-of-sight propagation ‡ Fixed wireless systems are more easily able to take advantage of higher carrier frequencies ± ± ± ± ± No movement -> low Doppler Higher transmit power Power consumption/heat dissipation less critical Line-of-sight more likely High-gain.

video-on-demand ± Business Guide ± Stock market information. breaking news 7 . traffic status and advisories ± Entertainment Selections ± movie trailers.Broadband Wireless Content ‡ Successful wireless services are preceded by growth of wired demand POTS Dial-up Internet Mobile Telephony WAP. Cable Data ‡ 4G Broadband Wireless Content is rapidly expanding to serve the Cable/DSL connected consumer ± Many sites focused on video delivery of ³Broadband´ video (typically 300 kbps and faster) ‡ MovieFlix. VideoSeeker. QTV. real-time video briefings. TV guide. ticket reservation. Quokka Sports ‡ Combinations of existing content may be valuable to mobile information consumers ± Expressway Travel Information ± real time web cameras. Cellular Data DSL.

User Session Traffic Characterization 18000 16000 Packet Data Rate (bytes per second) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 Packet ata ate (bytes per second) Web browsing session (T ) 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 500 520 Video ownload (U 2000 0 2800 2820 2840 2860 2880 2900 2920 2940 2960 2980 3000 Time during Session (seconds) Internet Telephony udio ± fro 2500 2250 Packet ata ate (bytes per second) 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 500 520 540 lient 2500 2250 Packet ata ate (bytes per second) 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 500 Internet Telephony udio ± to lient § 560 580 600 620 640 Ti e during Session (seconds) 660 680 700 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 Ti e during Session (seconds)   £  ¨ 4000 540 560 580 600 620 640 Ti e during Session (seconds) ¡¢ ¢ © ¦ ¥  ¤ ¡  ) 660 680 700 £ § ¦ ¥ 660 680 700 8 .

8 ‡ U P data uses fewer upstream packets than T P ‡ Peak-to.37 Ratio of ownload Byte Volume To Upstream ± 394.Typical Observations ‡ ‡ 200-second sections of sessions using three applications Packet data traffic rates are provided in bytes per second Browsing the World Wide Web ( T P & HTTP ) Peak-to.0 atio of ownload Byte Volu e To Upstrea ± 8.verage Bit Rate Ratio ± 1.verage Bit ate atio ± 8.85 Ratio of ownload Byte Volu e To Upstrea ± 1.8 0 average = 205 1647 ‡ Bursty data traffic ‡ cquisition of various sources for a single site ‡ Long pauses by user ‡ T P upstrea packet traffic volu e oderate Interactive Internet Telephony ( U P & Internet PhoneŒ ) Peak-to.verage Bit ate atio ± 1.verage data rate ratio low in this trace ‡ Mainly due to embedded constant bit rate ( BR) audio stream of the downloaded sample ‡ Variable bit rates (VBR) are more common for most video applications average = 1362    Video + udio ownload ( U P & VXtremeŒ ) 2853 average = 5232                     7166 2474 .27 0 ‡ Packet data rates reflect telephone speech patterns ‡ Remote participant responsible for more speech and packet traffic than client in this trace ‡ Byte volumes generally comparable 9  Peak-to.

Illinois ± ± A one-directional broadband downlink carrier on DVB-T (WA9XHI) A narrowband uplink via a cellular data connection (Sprint CDMA data) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Proving ground for asymmetric mobile broadband Develop application understanding to apply to broadband air interface designs Platform to demonstrate custom applications Increasing levels of integration ± ± Phase 1 ± Vehicular mobility with a larger off-the-air receiver ± May 2000 Phase 2 ± Personal mobility with an integrated laptop receiver ± Progressing Proxy & Router Intranet/ Internet Server Sprint PCS 10 .4G Concept System ‡ A demonstration of broadband mobile systems in Schaumburg.

4G System Research Areas Adaptive Antennas for Broadband Broadband Air Interface Research Broadband Implementations 4G System Design 11 .

Potential Coverage and Capacity Solutions Primary Benefit Improved Coverage Asymmetric Data Rate High Power BTS Lower Frequency Small Cells Adaptive Antennas Advanced Air Interface and Link Adaptation X X X X X X X X X Higher Capacity 12 .

used to boost uplink range when necessary ‡ Adaptive antennas (4 to 8 elements at base station. but also investigating other methods 13 . QoS) ± Adaptive modulation/coding with power control. cell size will be made as large as possible via: ‡ Asymmetry . than 3G ± However. 2 elements at terminal) ‡ Higher frequency band than 3G (below 5 GHz preferred) ‡ RF channel bandwidths of 20-100 MHz ‡ OFDM is promising (especially for downlink). on average.4G Air Interface Characteristics ‡ Higher bit rates than 3G (20 Mbps < peak < 200 Mbps) ‡ Higher spectral efficiency and lower cost per bit than 3G ‡ Air interface and MAC optimized for IP traffic (IPv6. hybrid ARQ ‡ Smaller cells.

Closing ‡ 4G still in a formative stage (commercial 2010) ‡ Frequency bands less than 5 GHz preferred for wide-area. mobile services ‡ 4G system bandwidth between 20 and 100 MHz (paired or unpaired) ‡ ITU Working Group 8F beginning to consider the requirements and spectrum needs ‡ International 4G spectrum harmonization 14 .

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