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ME Civil (T&CP), Semester – I

Urban Housing(2714801)


Faculty In-Charge
Presented by:
Prof. Palak S. Shah
Vegad Viral A.
Prof. Zarana H. Gandhi
Prof. Jigar Sevaliya
Civil Engg. Department



Affiliated with
• Introduction
• What Is Housing
• Factor Affecting Climate
• Climate Zone Of India
• Hosing For Different Climates
• Conclusion
• References

• People live in different kinds of houses. Some people live in a temporary

house and some live in permanent houses. The houses we live in protect
us from heat, rain, wind, dust and animals. We build different kind of
houses in different region depending on the climate of that region.

Is a group of buildings with required amenities and infrastructure where one

can connect with family and society for development of individual and as a
Factors affecting climate

• Solar Radiation
• Weather Temperature
• Precipitation
• Wind
• Sky Condition
• Solar radiation
• Solar radiation is the most important factor that determines whether a
place experiences high temperatures or is predominantly cold.

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

• Weather Temperature

• weather temperature is the most important climate factor affecting climate

designing. The intended dimensions in designing various points of a
building and also the material in use are determined by the maximum and
the minimum temperature of the region.
• Therefore, the quantity and quality for constructing a building are
different depending on the type of the region: tropical, cold and moderate.
• Precipitation
• Precipitation includes water in all its forms rain, snow, hail or dew.
• The amount of rainfall is one of the most determining factors that shall be
considered in building design, especially ceiling design.
• In rain areas, the ceiling of buildings must be designed as gable roof so
that water erosion is reduced, due damages are minimized and there
would be no water left on the roof.

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

• Wind

• It is a major design factor for architects because it affects indoor comfort

conditions by influencing the convective heat exchanges of a building
envelope as well as causing air infiltration into the building.
• In cold regions wind need to be restricted
• In humid region, moderate intensity winds [20-28 km/hr.] are welcome
• In hot & dry area wind need to be controlled
• Sky condition

• Sky condition generally refers to the extent of cloud cover in the sky or
the duration sunshine.
• Under clear sky conditions, the intensity of solar radiation increases;
whereas it reduces in monsoon due to cloud cover.

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Different Building Roofs

Planning Parameter
Climatic Zone of India

• Hot And Dry Climate

• Hot And Wet Climate
• Cold Climate
Characteristics Of Hot And Dry Climate
• Hot dry weather in summer and cold in winter
• Very little rainfall
• Very low humidity
• High temp. difference between night and day
• High summer day time temp.(32° C - 36 °C)
• High solar radiation

Areas Influenced By This Climate

• Gujarat
• Madhya Pradesh
• Maharashtra
Characteristics Of Hot And Wet Climate
• Precipitation 2000 to 5000 mm Of Rainfall
• Wind Typically Low Wind Velocities.
• The Intensity Of Solar Radiation Is High During Summers And Moderate
During Winters.

Areas Influenced By This Climate

• Goa
• Mumbai (Maharashtra)
• Vishakhapatnam
• Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
• Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
• Kolkata (West Bengal)
• Puri (Orissa)
• Tripura
Characteristics Of Cold Climate
• In Summer, 20-30ºc During Day & 17-27ºc at Night.
• In Winter, 4-8ºc During Day & -3-4ºc at Night.
• Humidity Is Generally High And Ranges From 70 – 80 %
• Annual Total Precipitation Is About 1000 mm

Areas Influenced By This Climate

• Jammu & Kashmir
• Sikkim
Houses in cold regions
• Igloos
Some regions such as Arctic and Polar Regions are completely covered with
snow and are extremely cold. People in that region build houses by using blocks
of snow, generally in the form of a dome shape. Dome shapes helps to keep the
place warm from inside. An igloo is also referred as snow house. People living in
the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska are known as Inuit.

• Wooden Houses

In cold and forested regions, people build wooden houses or log cabins. Wood
is used as trees are readily available to cut down. Wood is a good insulator
and helps to keep the house cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

Houses in Hot and Dry Regions
• Mud/Clay houses
Mud is used with material such as straw and sticks to construct
the house. It can be smoothed into shapes. People living in hot and dry
climates build mud houses. This type of house is found in Mexico.

• Brick Houses
The Egyptians, living in the hot and dry regions of Egypt, baked
straw and mud bricks. These baked bricks were stronger. The houses of
Egypt were probably the first houses to be built of bricks.

Houses in the hot and wet regions
• Huts
People living in the hot and wet climate of Africa used to build
huts. They use grass, leaves and vines which are found in plenty in that
region. These types of houses are built in villages. Mud walls and a
straw roof keeps the house cool in summer.

Other Types of Houses
• Stilt House
This type of houses is mostly found in regions with heavy
rain and frequent flood.

• Temporary Houses
a) Tents
These can be built for vacations and camping.

b) House Boats
House boats are floating houses on water bodies like rivers
and lakes.

• If you get a lot of rain where you live, design your house with overhangs
and simple roof designs to keep water from backing up into the attic and
keep it off the walls.
• If you get a lot of snow, steep roof will allow the snow to slide off quickly
instead of building up.
• In almost all climates, avoid west-facing windows – they heat up the house
at the end of the day and can overheat during even cold weather.
• In cold climates, don't put too many windows on the north side, especially
if you get a lot of wind from that direction – they will lose a lot of heat.

• The Role of Climate Factors on Designing and Constructing Buildings

December 2013
• Najar Salighe, M. (2005), Modeling Building Consistent with Chabahar
City Climat, Geography and Development Journal, No. 2, pp. 147-170.
• Ministry of New and Renewable Energy