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POLIMORFI & ISOMORFI

DI ALAM
POLIMORFI DI ALAM

Polimorfi :
Mineral dengan komposisi kimia sama tetapi
struktur kristal berbeda
Akibatnya :
Sifat fisik berbeda
Sifat kimia berbeda
MACAM POLIMORFI

1. DIMORFI
2 JENIS KRISTAL BERBEDA
2. TRIMORFI
3 JENIS KRISTAL BERBEDA
3. POLIMORFI
> 3 JENIS KRISTAL BERBEDA
Kekerasan
10
Tidak
berwarna

INTAN Membiaskan cahaya

bj 3,5

kristal
CONTOH kubus
DIMORFI Kekerasan
0,5 -1

Hitam

Tidak tembus
GRAFIT
cahaya

bj 2,12

kristal
heksagonaL
diamond graphite
hardest
soft and slippery
substance
to touch
known in nature.

Diamond is a
black and
transparent
opaque
substance

a poor conductor
a good
of electricity, but
conductor of
is a good
heat and
conductor of
electricity.
heat.
STRUKTUR POLIHEDRA
INTAN & GRAFIT
STRUKTUR UNIT SEL
INTAN & GRAFIT
FOTO GRAFIT & INTAN
THE DIAMOND STRUCTURE

. composed of pure carbon element

face-centered cubic.

connected by covaelent bonds, with


each carbon atom bonded to four others
in a tetrahedral geometry.

In essence, diamond is large molecule.


This model shows an
array of 3 x 3 x 3 unit
cells of the diamond
structure.
DIMORFI ZnS

SFALERIT : WURZITE
• Kekerasan : 3.5-4 • Kekerasan : 3.5-4
• Warna : • Warna : dark brownalmost
black,brown,yellow, black
reddish,green, white or • Optik :transparent to
colorless. translucent
• Optik :are transparent to • bj :4.0
translucent. • Struktur kristal : heksagonal
• bj :4.0
• Struktur kristal : kubus
DIMORFI CaCO3

KALSIT ARAGONIT

Hardness:
Hardness: 3.5 - 4.0
3 Spec Grav:
Spec Grav: 2.9 - 3.0
2.71 Color(s):
Color(s): colorless,
colorless, white,etc pale green, violet, brown
DIMORFI CaCO3

KALSIT ARAGONIT
• Hardness: 3 • Hardness: 3.5 - 4.0
• SpecGrav: 2.71 • SpecGrav: 2.9 - 3.0
• Color(s): colorless, • Color(s): colorless, pale
white,etc green, violet, brown
• Aragonite is denser than calcite
The Ca ions are ordered • stable only at higher pressures.
according to a face-centered • crystallizes at ambient
rhombohedron.
conditions and persists
metastably for millions of years
TRIMORFI TiO2
Sifat Rutil Anatase Brookit

Struktur tetragonal tetragonal ortorombik

kristal
Kekerasan 5,5 - 6 5.5 - 6 5.5 - 6

Warna Brown, reddish brown to black, dark brown to


brown to black also yellow and greenish black
blue.

bj 4.2743 3.895 4.123


ANASTASE BROKIT
POLIMORFI SILIKA

Kuarsa tridimit kristobalit

Kristal Alfa (trigonal) Beta (heksagonal) Beta (Kubus)


Beta (heksagonal) Alfa (monoklin) Alfa (tetragonal)

Hardness 7 7

Color Colorless, purple, colorless or white


grey, pink,
orange, white
Specific 2,65 2.27
Gravity
Foto mineral kuarsa
It will form from a
melt at low pressures Below 870 degrees
and at temperatures Celsius, beta quartz
of approximately 870 is stable and it will
degrees to 1470 crystallize
degrees Celsius.

Tridymite is only Above 1470 degrees


metastable at normal Celsius, cristobalite is
surface stable and it will
temperatures; crystallize.

But this is a slow and


complicated process
STRUKTUR KUARSA
• Quartz has two
polymorphs.
• Alpha quartz is
trigonal and stable
below 573 C.
• Above 573 C the
structure inverts to beta
quartz, which is
hexagonal.
STRUKTUR TRIDIMIT
The structure of beta tridymite is
composed of sheets of SiO4
tetrahedrons linked into six membered
rings, hence the hexagonal symmetry.
The sheets are unlike the sheets of the
phyllosilicates in that these sheets are
linked together by strong oxygen to
silicon bonds. The tetrahedrons
alternately point up then down to
connect to the sheets above and below
making tridymite's true tectosilicate
structure. Unlike in the cyclosilicates, in
tridymite each six-sided ring is linked to
those of the sheet above and of below
(in cyclosilicates, each tetrahedra of a
given ring 'points' in the same
direction).
STRUKTUR KRISTOBALIT
Cristobalite has an isometric
structure, in which six-membered
rings of (SiO4)-4 tetrahedra are stacked
parallel to (111). The view in the
accompanying photo is along [111],
and each tetrahedron occurs at the
corner or face of a regular cube (the
unit cell). This arrangement of
tetrahedra is analogous to the stacking
of spheres in cubic closest packing.
Interestingly the structure
of beta cristobalite is
analogous to the structure
of diamond. . By
replacing the tetrahedrons
in the diamond structure
Si with the tetrahedrons of
SiO4, we get
approximately the
structure of beta
cristobalite.

Corner, Face & Inner : O


ISOMORFI DI
ALAM
ISOMORFI

Rumus senyawa analog, struktur kristal sama


Contoh :
Deret kalsit
Deret aragonit
Deret plagioklas
DERET KALSIT
 Smithsonit ZnCO3 ; Zn2+ = 0,83 Angtrom
 Magnesit MgCO3; Mg2+ = 0,78 Angtrom
 Siderit FeCO3 ; Fe2+ = 0,83 Angtrom
 Kalsit CaCO3; Ca2+ = 1,06Angtrom
 Rhodochrosit MnCO3; Mn2+ = 0,91 Angtrom
DERET KALSIT

Sphaerocobaltite Smithsonite Siderite

Rhodochrosite Calcite