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Pathways in Becoming a Professional Folklore Musician

Matias Recharte / Phd student Faculty of Music, University of Toronto / m.recharte@mail.utoronto.ca

The “Escuela Nacional Superior de Folklore José María Arguedas” Theoretical framework: Preliminary Research Questions:
(ENSF-JMA)
 Located in Lima, Peru  Folklore and National Culture.  How do the students that attend the
 Founded in 1948 by Rosa Elvira Figueroa  Definitions of ‘Folklore’ starting with the work of Herder (& Bohlman, 2017) and other
historical works on the development of the concept in Europe and its relationship to
ENSF-JMA construct their identities
 Publicly funded since 1964, official university status since 2011 as “professional folklore
music (Gelbart, 2007; Bohlman, 1988).
 Currently offers degrees in Professional Folklore Artist with specialization in “music”  Theory surrounding nationalism and culture such as Hobsbawm’s “The Invention of performers”? What are their
and “dance” as well as Artistic Education specialized in Folklore. Tradition” (2013[1983]), Anderson’s “Imagined Communities” (2013 [1983]) and “Beyond
Imagined Communities (Sara Castro-Klaren & Chasteen, 2003) thoughts on what that should be and
Historical, geographic and political context.  Sources from within the ENSF-JMA community and within the country which have their how do these compare to the official
own definitions and genealogies of ‘folklore’ in the work of Roel Tarazona Padilla (2013), view of the educational institution?
Jose Maria Arguedas (1975, 1977) and Jose Peña Ortega (2013).
 Colonialism: Spanish conquistadors topple the Inca empire and found the  How does the concept of folklore
 Historical development of a Peruvian folkloric canon
Viceroyalty of Peru in 1543.  Studies that chronicle the formation of distinct repertoires that are now considered
frame what is taught, how it is
 Music education was a central component of the evangelization project which sought to convert the canonical, which developed mostly in the first half of the 20th century. taught and who teaches and learns
local indigenous population and enslaved peoples brought from other non-European lands into  The case of Cuzco is described by Zoila Mendoza (2008) while the case of Afro-Peruvian
christianity (Baker, 2008). Non-European music continued to be practiced and developed in rural
it? What are the tensions inherent in
music and dance has been chronicled by Heidi Feldman (2006).
areas and through political/religious/cultural resistance movements such as the Taki Onqoy  Other works describe the changes in folkloric repertoires through the second half of the the institutionalization of folkloric
(Millones, 1990). 20th century as they were affected by mass migration and then rural exodus following the practices?
 In time, Indigenous, mestizos and peoples of African descent developed their own styles of music ‘internal armed conflicted’ that killed 69,000 people, mostly indigenous and mestizo (for
combining local instruments, concepts and aesthetic preferences with European ones. example Turino, 1993 and Tucker, 2008).
 How do students’ negotiate ideas
 Independence: In 1821 a South America-wide revolutionary movement led about their identity in terms of
by local criollo elites ends colonial rule and inaugurates an independent Coloniality/Decoloniality gender/race/sexuality/ethnicity/
Coloniality of power (Quijano, 2000) designates the systems of social, political, cultural and
Republic of Peru. economic structures that were developed during colonial times and that continue to affect
language, etc. with normative
 Those who led the revolution remained ambiguous about racial equality and deferred social the ways contemporary postcolonial societies are organized and perceived. identities embedded in the folkloric
changes. Coloniality of power continues to structure macro and micro-scale relationships between canons they learn to perform?
 Public education was seen as a way to bring the masses into modernity through social and regions, countries, societies, social groups and individuals.
cultural evolution, while indoctrinating them into the new nationalis ideology. Nationalist music Racial categories were formed during the colonial period and they continue -albeit in  What is the role of a professional
and patriotic songs became the main concern of music education. historically modified ways- to inform cultural systems of expression through what Bohlman folkloric musician in Peru and how
and Radano call the “racial imagination” (2000).
 20th century: Indigenismo and the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces Decoloniality names the practices of cultural, political and economic resistance to the
does that function within neoliberal
(RGAF) imposition of a colonial system of government and an Eurocentric worldview. These practices conceptions of diversity and
 A new intellectual current centered around the rights and representation of Indigenous peoples originated at the moment of the colonial encounter and continue today in forms that have multiculturalism?
(Indigenismo) in the national political and cultural stage gains importance in the 1920s and 30s. sometimes been called “folkloric”.
 Artists and intellectuals pioneer the formation of folkloric canons of indigenous, criollo, mestizo BIBLIOGRAPHY

and Afro-Peruvian styles of music and dance (Mendoza, 2008; Feldman, 2006).  Symbolic capital, conjectural body, performativity Anderson, Benedict. 2006. Imagined Communities. Rev. ed. ed. London: Verso. Castro-Klarén,
Arguedas, Jose Maria. 1977. Nuestra Musica Popular Y Sus Interpretes. Lima: Mosca Azul editores.
 The Ministry of Education takes up some of the indigenismo concerns and begins nation-wide  Symbolic capital (Bourdieu, 1984) refers to the accumulated resources a person can -----------------------------. 1977b. Formación De Una Cultura Nacional Indoamericana. Mexico: Siglo
Veintiuno Editores. Peña Ortega, Jose. 2013.
programs of bilingual education, ethnographic data collection and a National Folklore Ensemble. attain in the form of prestige, recognition and the ability to appropriate certain forms of Baker, Geoffrey. 2008. Imposing Harmony : Music and Society in Colonial Cuzco. Durham: Duke

 The RGAF takes power in 1969 and begins an aggressive program of land redistribution, cultural objects or practices. In Latin America, race functions as a form of embodied University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 2010. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London [u.a.]:
nationalization of natural resources and an Afro-Peruvian and Indigenous cultural revival. symbolic capital which often signals capabilities of appropriating or embodying different Routledge.
Bohlman, V. Philip & Radano, Ronald (eds). 2000. Music and the Racial Imagination. Chicago :
sets of cultural norms and practices. University of Chicago Press,.
 Neoliberalism: ”Marca Perú” and the commoditization of diversity.  Conjectural body (James, 2010) is a concept that tries to illuminate the ”coincidences”
Bohlman, Philip Vilas. 1988. The Study of Folk Music in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press.
 Radical economic reforms are initiated in the 1990s to comply with global neoliberal imperatives between identity categories (gender/race/sexuality/etc) and music. It also looks to take
Castro-Klaren, Sara and John Charles Chasteen. 2003. Beyond Imagined Communities. Washington, D.C:
Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
of ‘development’. materiality seriously without getting caught up in its “naturalness” or “truth” as this is
Erlmann, Veit. 2004. Hearing Cultures : Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity. London:
Bloomsbury Publishing.
 Public education is defunded and privatized. Curriculums are geared to productivity and training both “empirically false and can often be politically exclusionary and/or oppressive” Feld, Steven. 2015. "Acoustemology." In Keywords in Sound, edited by David Novak and Matt
Sakakeeny, 19-30. Durham; London: Duke University Press.
of workers/consumers. Arts education practically disappear from national curricula. (p.30). Feldman, Heidi Carolyn. 2006. Black Rhythms of Peru : Reviving African Musical Heritage in the Black
Pacific. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press.
 ”Marca Perú” is created as a way to gain a competitive edge’ against other countries in the  Sound studies and Aurality Gelbart, Matthew. 2007. The Invention of "Folk Music" and "Art Music". Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Press.
tourism industry, attracting foreign investment and providing a platform for Peru’s export industry  This field of inquiry argues that the sonic is an area of research that transmits very Herder, Johann Gottfried and Philip V. Bohlman. 2017. Song Loves the Masses: Herder on Music and
(www.peru.info) important information and which is generally overlooked by image and language-
Nationalism. Berkerley: University of California Press.
Hobsbawm, Eric J. 2013. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
 As a result, Perú’s cultural diversity is marketed as a parallel to its biodiversity highlighting its focused inquiry. Ethnographic research informed by sound studies methodologies can
James, Robin. 2010. The Conjectural Body: Gender, Race and the Philosophy of Music.
Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
potential for exploration, exploitation and consumption. attend to local ‘soundscapes’ (Schafer, 1977), ‘listening cultures’ (Erlmann, 2004) and
Mendoza, Zoila S. 2008. Creating our Own : Folklore, Performance, and Identity in Cuzco, Peru.
Duke University Press.
Durham:

 Schools like the ENSF-JMA have become suppliers of skilled workers for this cultural industry ‘acoustemologies’ (Feld, 2015) in order to approach what is heard in a more historically
Millones, L., Castro-Klarén, S., & Albornoz, C. . (1990). El Retorno de las huacas: Estudios y
documentos sobre el Taki Onqoy, siglo XVI. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
which thrives on folkloristic representations of Perú’s cultural diversity. nuanced way. Ochoa Gautier, Ana Mara. 2014. Aurality : Listening and Knowledge in Nineteenth-Century
Colombia. Durham: Duke University Press.
 At the same time, young activists and artists (many of whom are students and recent graduates  ‘Aurality’ (Ochoa Gautier, 2014) is a concept that attempts to re-construct the field of Quijano, Aníbal. 2000. "Coloniality of Power and Eurocentrism in Latin America." International
Sociology 15 (2): 215-232.
from ENSF-JMA) are engaged in decolonial cultural/social/political movements, deconstructing the what is heard from traces of sound and listening found in historical texts. For the Schafer, R. Murray. 1977. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Toronto:
received canons and challenging hegemonic notions regarding ‘folklore’, ‘authenticity’ and other purpose of my study, it will inform how I reconstruct the particular ‘aurality’ that is
McClelland and Stewart.
Tarazona Padilla, Roel. 2013. "La Folklorología: Una Ciencia Sólida, Prospectiva Y Holistica." Arariwa
related concepts. dominant in the ENSF-JMA: what is heard, how it is perceived, categorized and
1 (8): 27-32.
Turino, Thomas. 1993. Moving Away from Silence : Music of the Peruvian Altiplano and the
Experiment of Urban Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
evaluated, what is silenced and how silencing is resisted.