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EAS 4300: Introduction to Oceanography, FALL 2009

INSTRUCTORS:

Emanuele Di Lorenzo

phone 404-894-3994 office ES&T 3244

email edl@eas.gatech.edu

Kim Cobb phone 404-894-1992 office ES&T 2234 email kcobb@eas.gatech.edu

TA:

Andrew Davis

Email andrew.davis@eas.gatech.edu

Course Website http://ocean3d.org/eas-4300

Questions for you

Questions for you Why do we care about Oceanography? How is oceanography important in understanding future

Why do we care about Oceanography?

How is oceanography important in understanding future climate?

What aspects of ocean sciences are relevant to the economy?

How can humans impact the ocean

and climate?

Oceanography and Climate

How is oceanography important in understanding future climate?

Climate changes occur on different

space and time scales.

Oceanography and Climate How is oceanography important in understanding future climate? Climate changes occur on different
SPACE Regional  Basin Wide  Global
SPACE
Regional  Basin Wide  Global

Seasonal Interannual Decadal Millennial

TIME

Oceanography and Climate - seasonal timescales

Thermoregulating effects (e.g. moist air of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extensions)

Oceanography and Climate - seasonal timescales

Sea surface temperature in the tropical oceans fuel hurricanes

Oceanography and Climate - seasonal timescales Sea surface temperature in the tropical oceans fuel hurricanes Hurricanes
Oceanography and Climate - seasonal timescales Sea surface temperature in the tropical oceans fuel hurricanes Hurricanes
Oceanography and Climate - seasonal timescales Sea surface temperature in the tropical oceans fuel hurricanes Hurricanes

Hurricanes becoming more intense as ocean warms?

Oceanography and Climate - interannual timescales

El Niño is the strongest signal of climate variability on interannual timescales. It is a coupled mechanism between the tropical ocean and atmosphere.

Oceanography and Climate - interannual timescales El Niño is the strongest signal of climate variability on

Oceanography and Climate - interannual timescales

Ocean Vortices are one of the strongest mixing agent in the ocean, they are important for ocean circulation and biology. Their role in climate is still unknown!

NORTH AMERICA Gulf of Alaska
NORTH
AMERICA
Gulf of Alaska

Thomson, R. E., and J. F. R. Gower, 1998: A basin-scale oceanic instability event in the Gulf of Alaska. J Geophys Res-Oceans, 103, 3033-3040.

Oceanography and Climate - decadal timescales

Changes of ocean circulation affects fish distributions and

abundance.

Sardines/Anchovies

Oceanography and Climate - decadal timescales Changes of ocean circulation affects fish distributions and abundance. Sardines/Anchovies
Oceanography and Climate - decadal timescales Changes of ocean circulation affects fish distributions and abundance. Sardines/Anchovies

synchronized alternations between

sardines/anchovies over the entire

Pacific Ocean?

Oceanography and Climate - longer timescales

Changes in the ocean/atmosphere affect the ice caps, and

therefore Sea Level.

Oceanography and Climate - longer timescales Changes in the ocean/atmosphere affect the ice caps, and therefore

Sea level will rise

7 to 22” in the next

century, if melting does not accelerate --IPCC AR4, 2007

Oceanography and Climate - longer timescales

Marine Ecosystem regulate the cycling of chemical species relevant to climate (e.g. Carbon, DMS)

Chlorophyll Spring 2005 (MODIS Satellite)

Oceanography and Climate - millenial timescales

Vertical circulation of the ocean

MOVIE:

The Day After Tomorrow
The Day After Tomorrow

Oceanography and Climate

Climate changes occur on different

space and time scales.

Oceanography and Climate Climate changes occur on different space and time scales. What makes it interesting

What makes it interesting is that processes happening on different temporal and spatial scales are not separable and interact with each other A NONLINEAR SYSTEM COMPLEXITY

WHY?

e.g. The ocean has a very long memory.

We will learn about this, and about the mechanisms of interaction between ocean-atmosphere-land- ecosystems.

Resources in the Ocean and Economy

What aspects of ocean sciences are relevant to the economy?

Resources in the Ocean and Economy What aspects of ocean sciences are relevant to the economy?

Geological Resources extraction of petroleum, gas, metals, carbon sequestration?, etc. Ecological Resources mainly food from fisheries and maricultures

Energy Resources extraction of power from waves, tides, currents and heat content

Chemical Resources e.g. development of new drugs, salts, etc.

Recreational Resources of coastal areas, e.g. beaches and more

Oceanographic studies helped discover these resources and help to

manage them (e.g. coastal processes and beaches, and many more…)

Ocean Resources, Economy and Oceanography

An example: The City of Venice, ITALY

  • 1. Dump: rain and tides

distribute it in the lagoon)

  • 2. Factory: factories drained

their liquid waste partly into the

lagoon and partly into dumps. Currents and erosion continue to disperse pollutants.

  • 3. Sea: Meteorological

conditions can accentuate high tides. Bora, a cold northerly in the Adriatic Sea, and Sirocco, a hot, dust-laden wind from the Libyan desert, can trigger dangerously high tides.

  • 4. River: the Republic of Venice

diverted four rivers that originally flowed into the lagoon. The loss of the silt and sediment is transforming the delta environment into a marine one.

  • 5. Farm: 53 percent of the

phosphates and other pollutants that enter the lagoon come from

these sources.

  • 6. Town: About 1,400,000

people live in the basin, but when one considers the quantity of nutrients and organic matter generated, environmentalists say, it is as if 4,000,000 people

lived there.

Offshore GAS extraction platforms opening to sea Adriatic Sea
Offshore GAS
extraction
platforms
opening to
sea
Adriatic Sea

Ocean Resources, Economy and Oceanography

An example: The City of Venice, ITALY

using oceanography and ocean engeneering

opening to sea Adriatic Sea
opening to
sea
Adriatic Sea

Install Gates to control the tide

Ocean Resources, Economy and Oceanography An example: The City of Venice, ITALY using oceanography and ocean

More at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venice/

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate

How can humans impact the ocean and climate?

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate How can humans impact the ocean and climate? Alterations:

Alterations: chemical (e.g. mercury, aerosols, green house gases, oil)

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate How can humans impact the ocean and climate? Alterations:

dying corals, poison fish, global warming

biological (e.g. introducing new faunas, phosphate from changes in land use, overfishing …)

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate How can humans impact the ocean and climate? Alterations:

cholera in India, changes in Mediterranean species

physical/geological (e.g. shoreline interventions …)

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate How can humans impact the ocean and climate? Alterations:

city of venice was an example

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate CNN : Asian Brown Cloud' poses global threat August

CNN: Asian Brown Cloud' poses global threat

August 12, 2002 Posted: 10:43 PM EDT (0243 GMT)

Satellite view

Aerosols change:

radiation budget clouds concentration amount of rain in clouds

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate

CNN: Asian Brown Cloud' poses global threat

August 12, 2002 Posted: 10:43 PM EDT (0243 GMT)

Where does it come from? The sources are changing fast

Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate CNN : Asian Brown Cloud' poses global threat August
Humans impacts on the Ocean and Climate Oceanography in the Indian Ocean plays a crucial role
Humans impacts
on the Ocean and
Climate
Oceanography in the
Indian Ocean plays a
crucial role in
isolating and
understanding the
impacts of Asian
aerosols.

… aerosol pollution is only one piece of a more complex puzzle

The Global Warming Issue

… aerosol pollution is only one piece of a more complex puzzle The Global Warming Issue

from thermometers

from paleo records

What will happen

in the (near) future?

An important question discussed by scientists (IPCC)

0.8 C

How do we define the science of Oceanography?

How do we define the science of Oceanography? My personal interest

My personal interest

We studied oceanography in San Diego at the

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Manu

Ocean and climate dynamics Physical-biological interactions in the ocean Ocean Forecasting

Kim

Paleoclimate and Climate Change

Isotope Geochemistry Energy & the Environment

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method