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The Philosophy of Religion is the philosophical study of: religious beliefs, religious doctrines, religious arguments, religious history.
Beza dengan ilmu agama
theology tends to be apologetical in nature, committed to the defense of particular religious position, sedangkan Philosophy of Religion investigates of religion itself, rather than the truth of any particular religion.
While theology relies upon religious scriptures (like the Bible or the Quran) as authoritative, those texts are simply objects of study in the philosophy of religion. Authorities in this field are reason, logic and research,
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the central aim of the Philosophy of Religion is to scrutinize religious claims : Does God exist? Is religious belief reasonable? What is the nature of religious experiences? What is the value of faith? Why does Evil exist?
asas perbahasan falsafah agama
Epistemology because it evaluates religious truth claims, on Metaphysics because it investigates the fundamental nature of various aspects of reality, on Ethics because religion plays an important role in moral claims and moral decision making.
1. Does God exist? 2. Is religious belief reasonable? 3. What is the nature of religious experiences? 4. What is the value of faith? 5. Why does Evil exist?
Sesuatu yg disembah dan kawal makhluk Bentuk/patung yg disembah Sesuatu yg diberi perhatian keterlaluan Pencipta alam, kekal, berkuasa, mengawal alam
What is Religion?
A system of human beliefs, ideals and practices Sesuatu institusi yang dipercayai Sikap dan perasaan seseorang terhadap satu kuasa ghaib
Latin word religare, which means "to tie, to bind." Cicero connected the term with relegere, which means "to read over again" (perhaps to emphasize the ritualistic nature of religions?).
Some scholars, however, argue that religion doesn't exist according to them, there is really only culture.
beza agama dan kepercayaan
Religion is certainly a type of belief system,
not all belief systems are religion. Differentiating religious from non-religious belief systems is sometimes easy, but other times rather difficult. Theism (percaya kpd adanya Tuhan) berbeza dgn agama
Agama dan budaya
Religion is solely the creation of the scholar's study. It is created for the scholar's analytic purposes by his imaginative acts of comparison and generalization. Religion has no existence apart from the academy.
Falsafah agama di barat
Early sociologists, anthropologists and philosophers had been studying religion, no one had directly proposed making a science of such studies. Friedrich Max Müller - a German scholar who, in 1870, proposed a radical idea: developing a "science of religion."
E.B. Tylor and James Frazer are two of the earliest researchers who tried to develop theories of the nature of religion, They defined religion as essentially being the belief in spiritual beings - religion according to them is thus systematized animism.
According to Tylor and Frazer, religion and animism are purely intellectual moves . Although it is helpful to reveal the intellectual component of religion as an attempt to explain things, it is clear that religion involves much more.
Sigmund Freud, religion is a form of mass neurosis (mild mental disorder) and exists only as a response to deep emotional conflicts and weaknesses. Freud argued that it should be possible to eliminate the illusions of religion by alleviating that distress.
Emile Durkheim is almost singularly responsible for the development of sociology as an academic discipline, (importance of society - social structures, social relationships, and social institutions) - in understanding human nature.
Durkheim wrote that "...religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden." Religious beliefs are thus symbolic expressions of social realities Durkheim is responsible for helping us understand that religion serves an important social function
According to Marx, religion is one of those social institutions which are dependent upon the material and economic realities in a given society. For Marx, all social institutions are dependent upon economics in the end.
Marx's opinion of religion is simple: it is an illusion whose chief purpose is to provide reasons and excuses to keep society functioning just as it is.
Religion vs. Superstition Is there a real connection between religion and superstition? Some, particular adherents of various religious faiths, will often argue that the two are fundamentally different types of beliefs. Those who stand outside of religion, however, will notice some very important and fundamental similarities which bear closer consideration.
Religion vs. The Paranormal Is there a connection between religion and belief in the paranormal? Religion vs. Theism Are religion and theism effectively the same thing, such that every religion is theistic and every theist is also religious?
Religion vs. Religious one as a noun and the other as an adjective. But perhaps that isn't always true - perhaps the adjective religious has a broader usage than the noun religion.
Agama dan falsafah
Is religion just a type of philosophy? Is philosophy a religious activity? There seems to be some confusion at times over just whether and how religion and philosophy should be distinguished from each other this confusion is not unjustified because there are some very strong similarities between the two.
Agama dan spiritual
Religion, on the one hand, is supposed to describe the social, the public, and the organized means by which people relate the the sacred and the divine Spirituality is to describe such relations when they occur in private, personally, and even in eclectic ways
What is Animism? Animism is the belief that everything in nature has its own spirit or divinity. What is Paganism? Paganism might be pantheistic(god=material) or polytheistic, but is distinctive in that it relates to God primarily through nature.
What is Shamanism? Shamanism is an animistic religion of certain peoples of northern Asia in which mediation between the visible and spirit worlds is effected by shamans."
1. Does God exist? 2. Is religious belief reasonable? 3. Why?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fikiran terhad: pencipta Perkara ghaib Hari pembalasan Peraturan dan undang2 Perkara yg tlh dan akan berlaku
4. What is the value of faith? 5. Why does Evil exist?
The Problem of Evil
Evil exists, in the form of undeserved suffering, perpetrated by man and nature, unchallenged victimization of weak by strong, pestilence, war, famine, and other horrors.
So, either God is limited in power, goodness, or knowledge, or he does not exist at all; that is, either he is incapable or unwilling to remove evil, or he is unaware of its existence or of solutions to it. God would have no reason for permitting evil
BUKANLAH SESUATU YANG POSITIF DI MANA KEBAIKAN ITU TELAH HILANG. KEKURANGAN NILAI BAIK DALAM SESUATU BENDA. MENIMBULKAN MASALAH KEPADA MANUSIA DAN MAKHLUK LAIN. YANG BERTENTANGAN DENGAN TUHAN YANG MAHA PEMURAH DAN MAHA BERKUASA.
PERSOALAN DI DALAM KEJAHATAN
± ASPEK BETUL DAN SALAH. ± BERKAITAN DENGAN TINGKAH LAKU MANUSIA YANG TERTENTU. ± MANUSIA TIDAK BEBAS MELAKUKAN PERKARA YANG DISUKAI.
± BENCANA2 ALAM. ± DIKENALI BENCANA SEMULAJADI.
± KESAKITAN, KESEDIHAN YANG MELANDA DIRI SESEORANG.
HUBUNGAN KEJAHATAN DENGAN KEWUJUDAN TUHAN
TUHAN TIDAK WUJUD. TUHAN WUJUD TETAPI TIDAK MENGETAHUI KEJAHATAN ITU WUJUD. TUHAN WUJUD DAN TIDAK MAMPU MENGAWALNYA DISEBABKAN KUASA YANG TERHAD.
KEJAHATAN MEMANG WUJUD WALAUPUN TUHAN JUGA WUJUD. AGAMA KRISTIAN MENYATAKAN TUHAN TIDAK WUJUD KERANA KEJAHATAN WUJUD. AGAMA ISLAM MENYATAKAN TUHAN MEMANG WUJUD WALAUPUN KEJAHATAN BERLAKU.
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