English Grammar 101

A Review of the Essentials David A. deSilva

Parts of Speech 
      

Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjective Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

Parts of Speech (2) 
      

Nouns: words that name persons, places, things, or ideas Pronouns: words that stand in for a noun Verbs: words that express action or state of being Adjectives: words that describe nouns or pronouns Adverbs: words that describe verbs Prepositions: words that connect a noun and its modifiers to another component of the sentence Conjunctions: words that join nouns, verbs, or other parts of a sentence Interjections: words that express emotion, shock, and the like.

The predicate is what is said about that noun or pronoun.. what that noun does or what that noun is. . i.´ (John 11:35 NIV)   ³Jesus´ is the subject: the sentence is ³about´ Jesus.Parts of a Sentence  Every sentence has a subject and a predicate.    The subject is the noun or the pronoun that the sentence says something about.e. ³wept´ is the predicate ± what is said about Jesus. ³Jesus wept.

. the main subject would be ³one´. the rest is composed of modifiers (or descriptors) ³was able to open the scroll or to look into it´ is the predicate. the main predicate would be ³was´. the remaining words are complements and objects.Subjects and Predicates  ³And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it.´ (Rev 5:3 NRSV)   ³no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth´ is the subject.

In this sentence. the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb.Subjects and Predicates (2)  ³When he had taken the scroll. we find a ³compound subject´ (more than one subject): (1) ³creatures´ and (2) ³elders´. . subjects do not always come first. each holding a harp and golden bowls full of incense.´ (Rev 5:8 NRSV)    The subject is in italics. Predicates can be split up. which are the prayers of the saints. all the rest is predicate (³when he had«´ tells when the elders ³fell´).

which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.´ (Rev 5:6 NRSV)  In this example. having seven horns and seven eyes.Subjects and Predicates (3)  ³And the elders fell down and worshiped.´ (Rev 5:14b NRSV)  In this example. we find a ³compound predicate´: the subject governs more than one verb ± (1) ³fell down´ and (2) ³worshiped´  ³Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered. the subject is one word: ³I´ .

Subjects and Predicates (4)  Sentences starting with ³there´ or ³it´: these words are often used as a kind of ³place marker´ for the real subject of a sentence.´ (Mk 13:8 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking.´ The grammatical subjects are ³earthquakes´ and ³famine. there will be famines. the sentence is: ³Earthquakes will be [=will occur] in various places.´ . famines will be [=will happen].  ³There will be earthquakes in various places.´ not ³there´ and ³there.

´ (Heb 10:3 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking.Subjects and Predicates (5)  ³But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of sin year after year.´ (Prov 17:18 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking ³to give a pledge´ is the subject (³to become surety for a neighbor´ is set in apposition).´ . to become surety for a neighbor. ³To give a pledge is senseless.´ The real subject is ³reminder. the sentence is: ³But a reminder of sins is in these sacrifices year after year.´  ³It is senseless to give a pledge.

These may include:     Direct objects Indirect objects Predicate nominatives Predicate adjectives . the predicate often contains other essential parts of the sentence.Complements  Alongside the verb.

The subject (³I´) enacts the verb (³baptize´).Complements (2)  Direct Objects and Indirect Objects occur with ³action´ verbs:   The direct object receives the impact of the action. . the subject enacts the verb upon the direct object.´ (Mt 3:11 NRSV). Put another way. but it is the direct object (³you´) that gets dunked. ³I baptize you with water for repentance.

In this imperative sentence. ³the scroll´ is the object affected by the Lamb¶s actions. ³fruit´ is the thing that has to be borne: it is the direct object of the command. ³bear.Complements (3)  ³He went and took the scroll.´ (Mt 3:8 NRSV)  .´ (Rev 5:7 NRSV)  The Lamb (³he´) does the going and taking.´  ³Bear fruit worthy of repentance. ³The scroll´ is the direct object.

³ransomed. .  ³By your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.Complements (4)  Indirect Objects: nouns or pronouns that are the indirect recipients of the action. ³God´ is the indirect object: the ransoming of the saints has an indirect effect on God. ³for whom´ the action happens.´ (Rev 5:9 NRSV).´ hence the direct object. ³saints´ are the ones actually ³ransomed.´. the main verb of the predicate.  The subject is ³you´. often the ³beneficiaries´ of the action (³to´ or ³for´ whom the action happens).

the indirect object is ³Abraham. .´ the entities actually raised up.e.. in whose favor) these children are raised up.´ the direct object of the infinitive is ³children.Complements (5)  ³God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham.´ (Matt 3:9 NRSV)  Looking at the infinitive ³to raise up.´ to whom (i.

The whole point of the sentence is to link God with this quality.  Subject: ³God´. ³able´ is a predicate adjective.  ³God is able´ (Matt 3:9 NRSV).Complements (6)  Predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives occur with verbs expressing being or a state of being (also called ³linking verbs´). . or ³predicate´ this quality upon God. verb: ³is´.

´ (Rev 5:9 NRSV)  Subject: ³you´. ³to take´ and ³to open.´ further describing this worthiness). since ³was found´ (= was proven to be) is still a ³state of being´ verb.´ (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  ³worthy´ is still a predicate adjective. .Complements (7)  ³You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals. ³worthy´ is another predicate adjective (followed by two complementary infinitives. main verb: ³are´.  ³No one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.

upon it.´ . main verb: ³is´.  Sometimes a direct object can also have a complement in the form of an adjective or noun predicated.Complements (8)  ³Jesus Christ is Lord´ (Phil 2:11 NRSV)  Subject: ³Jesus Christ´. but ³a kingdom and priests´ is also specifically what God made ³them´ ± the phrase is an ³object complement. ³Lord´ is a noun that is being predicated of ³Jesus Christ´ ± it is a predicate nominative. in effect.   ³You have made them a kingdom and priests to our God.´ (Rev 5:10 ESV) ³them´ is the direct object.

 ³Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?´ (Rev 5:2 NRSV) .´ (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  Interrogative: sentences asking a question (thus calling for some declarative statement in response). narrative or argument).Kinds of Sentences  Declarative: sentences stating something (whether fictive or real.  ³I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.

in fact.  ³What did you go out into the wilderness to look at?´ (Mt 11:7 NRSV)  ³What´ is not the subject. the object of the preposition ³at.Kinds of Sentences (2)  Sometimes an interrogative statement is in transposed word order: the subject is most easily found when one reformulates the question as a statement.´ . it is.´ The subject is ³you´: ³You did go out into the wilderness to look at ____.

³Repent. for the kingdom«.´ (Rev 5:5 NRSV) In all these examples the subject ± You ± is not expressed.´ .´ (Mt 3:8 NRSV) "Do not weep.Kinds of Sentences (3)  Imperative: sentences that issue commands. but is understood.     ³Repent.´ (Mt 3:2 NRSV) ³Bear fruit worthy of repentance. you. for the kingdom of heaven has come near.

Kinds of Sentences (4)  There are 1st and 3rd person commands as well.´ (Jn 8:7 ESV) 3rd person plural: ³If any want to become my followers. in which the subject will be expressed. let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me.´ (Mt 16:24 NRSV) .    1st person plural: ´Let us hold fast to our confession.´ (Heb 4:14 NRSV) 3rd person singular: ³Let him who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her.

´ ³ the nations¶ tribute´ . Peter. disciple. thing. region) Can have ³number´: singular.g. Judea) or ³common´ nouns (e. ³disciple´.Nouns     Words that denote a person.g. or idea Can be ³proper´ nouns (e. ³disciples´ (note: usually there is a change of form) Special ending for possessive/genitive case: ³the Lord¶s day... plural. place.

Nouns   6 Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered. 7 He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne. which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. . having seven horns and seven eyes.

. having seven horns and seven eyes. 7 He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne. which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.Nouns   6 Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered.

´ .Pronouns  Words used in place of a proper or common noun. A pronoun generally has an antecedent ± a specific noun named earlier in the discourse for which the pronoun is ³standing in.

´ ³number. you (2nd) .Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns have ³person.´ and ³case. him. it (3rd) Plural (nominative): we (1st) .´     Singular (nominative): I (1st) . she. it Plural (objective): us. you. they (3rd) Singular (objective): me. he. you (2nd) . them . you. her.

Personal Pronouns And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. "Do not weep. the Root of David. the Lion of the tribe of Judah." . so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals. See. has conquered. Then one of the elders said to me.

"Do not weep." . so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals. the Lion of the tribe of Judah. has conquered. the Root of David. Then one of the elders said to me. See.Personal Pronouns And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.

his. yours.´ (1 John 2:2) ³My beloved is mine and I am his. and not for ours [= our sins] only but also for the sins of the whole world. yours.Possessive Pronouns   Singular: mine. its Plural: ours.´ (Song 2:16) . hers. theirs ³He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins.

but ours.Possessive Pronouns vs. .´ ³Ours´ stands in for the noun ³sins.´ ³Our´ describes a noun in the sentence. Possessive Adjectives   Pronouns: stand in for nouns ± ³he atoned not only for their sins.´ Adjectives: describe nouns ± ³he atoned for our sins.

themselves Intensive: ³He himself was not the light. himself. 'Where I am going. itself Plural: ourselves. you cannot come'?³ (John 8:22) . yourselves.´ (John 1:8) Reflexive: "Is he going to kill himself? Is that what he means by saying. herself. yourself. but he came to testify to the light.Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns   Singular: myself.

Definite Relative Pronouns   Introduce subordinate clauses that. As with most pronouns. the definite relative pronoun points back to some antecedent (some noun to which it is referring) Who. whose (possessive case of ³who´). as a whole. which/that . whom (objective case of ³who´). function as adjectives (supplying additional information about some noun or pronoun).

Lazarus is sick.Relative Clauses   The relative pronoun introduces a relative clause with a verb and. objects. A relative clause generally could have been written as a separate sentence:    You love Lazarus.´ (John 11:3) . modifiers. The entire clause modifies some noun or pronoun in the main sentence (the antecedent of the relative pronoun). ³He [Lazarus] whom you love is sick. often. and prepositional phrases.

Relative Pronouns (and relative clauses)    ³He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne. whose sandals I am not worthy to carry.´ (Matt 3:3) ³I baptize you with water for repentance.´ (Matt 3:11) . but one who is more powerful than I is coming after me.´ ³This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.

I also will deny before my Father in heaven. sometimes generalized (³whoever.Indefinitive relative pronouns    The relative pronoun can also be used where there is no antecedent.´ (Matt 10:33) ³Remember then what you received and heard´ (Rev 3:3) . whatever´) ³Whoever denies me before others.

no antecedent Who? What? Which? ³Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?´ (Rev 5:2) .Interrogative Pronouns    Used to ask questions.

these. those Nearer demonstratives: this.Demonstrative Pronouns     Used to ³point out´ particular objects. that. This. these Farther demonstratives: that. those .

saying. "Who are these [=³these people´]. robed in white. for they will be comforted. and where have they come from?³ (Rev 7:13) ³Blessed are those [=³those people´] who mourn.´ (Matt 3:3) Then one of the elders addressed me.Demonstrative Pronouns    ³This [= ³this person´] is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.´ (Matt 5:4) .

everybody. none. someone. but rather to general types or classes. etc. anything. everyone. nobody. something. nothing. anybody. . few. everything. all. many. several.Indefinite Pronouns   These pronouns do not refer to specific persons or things. somebody. Anyone.

´ (Matt 22:14) .´ (Matt 11:6) ³The kingdom of heaven may be compared to someone who sowed good seed in his field.Indefinite Pronouns    ³Blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me. but few are chosen.´ (Matt 13:24) ³For many are called.

that you love one another. each other ³I give you a new commandment. One another.Reciprocal Pronouns     Pronouns indicating that the individual members of a collective subject act back on other members of the group.´ (John 13:34) ³What are you discussing with each other while you walk along?´ (Luke 24:17) .

servants of Jesus Christ. The second noun or pronoun is said to stand in ³apposition´ to the first. a certain Tertullus.´ (Acts 24:1) . to all the saints«. Christ. and is like a parenthetical comment. and they reported their case against Paul.´ (Phil 1:1) ³Ananias came down with some elders and an attorney. is born for you today in David¶s city´ (Luke 2:11) ³Paul and Timothy.    ³A Savior. the Lord.Appositives  Nouns or pronouns can be used simply to rename another noun or pronoun in the sentence.

 State of being   . He went and took the scroll. I saw a mighty angel. You are worthy.Verbs  Action    Jesus wept. no one « was able.

 Helping verbs are an essential part of the formation of the various voices. You were slaughtered. and aspects of the English verb.´    The Lion « has conquered. tenses. They will reign on earth.Verbs (2)  English verbs are often formed by a combination of one or more ³helping verbs´ with a ³main verb. .

be. had Am. should. are. did Has. were. was. could May. would  Modal Helping Verbs      . being.Helping Verbs Listed  Common Helping Verbs:    Do. might Must Shall. have. ought [to] Will. is. does. been Can.

Verbs: Person and Number  1st Person   Singular: I heal. Plural: We heal. Plural: They heal. Plural: You (Y¶all) heal. Singular: He. she. Singular: You heal.  2nd Person    3rd Person   . it heals.

often upon one or more objects. They were baptized by him in the river Jordan.  Passive: The action of the verb is done to the Subject of the sentence. . They will reign on earth.   You were slaughtered.   He went and took the scroll.Verbs: Voice  Active: The subject of the sentence performs the action of the verb.

Progressive: I was baptizing. Simple: I will baptize.Verbs: Tense (all examples are in active voice)  Present   Simple: I baptize. Progressive: I am baptizing. Simple: I baptized.  Past    Future   . Progressive: I will be baptizing.

Simple: I had baptized. Progressive: I have been baptizing. Progressive: I had been baptizing.Verbs: Tenses (2)  Present Perfect   Simple: I have baptized. Progressive: I will have been baptizing. Simple: I will have baptized.  Past Perfect (Pluperfect)    Future Perfect   .

Simple: I will be baptized. Simple: I was baptized.Verbs: Tenses (Passive Examples)  Present   Simple: I am baptized. Progressive: I will be being baptized.)  Past    Future   . Progressive: I am being baptized. (Not regularly used. Progressive: I was being baptized.

Verbs: Tenses (Passive Examples)  Present Perfect   Simple: I have been baptized. Progressive: N/A Simple: I had been baptized. Progressive: N/A  Past Perfect (Pluperfect)    Future Perfect   . Progressive: N/A Simple: I will have been baptized.

Verbs: Moods    Indicative: Narrating Facts or Purported Facts  John was baptizing in the Jordan River. for she is a sinner. ³Repent. for the kingdom of heaven is near.´ "If this man were a prophet. he would have known who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him." (Luke 7:39 ESV) Imperative: Giving Commands  Subjunctive: Unreal Situations  .

´ ³to have been´ .Verbal Forms  Infinitives: the bare form of the verb      Present Active (time contemporary with or subsequent to main verb): ³To heal.´ ³to be called´ Perfect Active (time prior to main verb): ³To have healed.´ ³to have been loved´ Stative: ³To be.´ ³to be saved.´ ³to have loved´ Perfect Passive: ³To have been healed.´ ³to call´ Present Passive: ³To be healed.´ ³to save.

and to die is gain.Infinitives: Uses  As a noun:  Subject of verb: ³To live is Christ.´ (Phil 3:10 NRSV)  I want what? .´ (Phil 1:21 ESV)  What is?  Object of verb: ³I want to know Christ.

´ (Heb 11:11 NRSV)  The infinitive answers the question ³what kind of power?´ .Infinitive: Uses (2)  As an adjective:  ³By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive.

´ (Heb 11:8 NRSV)  Supplies more information about the verb ³called´  ³God is not ashamed to be called their God.Infinitive: Uses (3)  As an adverb:  ³Abraham « obeyed when he was called to go out.´ perhaps giving the ³circumstances´ .´ (Heb 11:16)  Supplies more information about the adjective ³ashamed.

Baptized by John. e.:     Perfect Active: having baptized Having baptized many. Perfect Passive: having been baptized Having been baptized by John. John¶s reputation spread.g. Passive: baptized  Participles can form additional voices and tenses with helping verbs. Peter and Andrew went out to preach. John was arrested. . the tax collectors repented.Participles    Active: baptizing  While baptizing by the river.

sealed with seven seals´ (Rev 5:1 NRSV) The participle ³seated´ introduces a clause that further describes the ³one´. the participles ³written´ and ³sealed´ introduce clauses giving additional information describing the ³scroll.´ .Participles: Usage  Adjectival Participial Clauses: the participles describes some noun or pronoun   ³I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back.

but having seen them and greeted them from afar. and having acknowledged that they were strangers and exiles on the earth.´ (Heb 11:13 NRSV)  ³[not] having received´ and ³having seen « and greeted´ and ³having acknowledged´ all describe under what circumstances ³these all died.´ (Matt 3:6 NRSV)  ³Confessing´ supplies information about the circumstances under which the people were being baptized.Participles: Usage (2)  Adverbial Participial Clauses: the participle gives more information about the action of the main verb  ³These all died in faith. not having received the things promised. confessing their sins.´  ³They were baptized by him in the river Jordan. .

Gerunds (Participles acting as Nouns)   The gerund looks like the present participle in form: baptizing. ³Living´ and ³Dying´ are both fulfilling the role of nouns as subjects of the verb ³is. naming the particular action. however.´ . the word acts as a simple noun. seeing. living is Christ and dying is gain´ (Phil 1:21 NRSV).   ³To me. healing As a gerund.

Infinitives.Verbals and their Complements  Participles. and Gerunds can take all the complements that a normal verb can take:      Adverbs Direct Objects Indirect Objects Adverbial Prepositional Phrases Predicate Nominatives .

and I saw a mighty angel proclaiming with a loud voice. Adjectives are words that answer questions like ³what kind of ____?´ or ³which _____?´ or ³how many _____?´ Attributive Adjectives (simple descriptors):  Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back. sealed with seven seals.Adjectives   Words used to describe nouns or pronouns. ³Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?´ (Rev 5:1-2 NRSV) .

Adjectives (2) 

Predicate Adjectives: the ³point´ of the sentence is to link a noun or pronoun with a descriptor by means of a linking verb (a form of be, become, etc.) 

³No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll´ (Rev 5:3) 

³No one [S] « was [V] able [Pred Adj]´ 



³No one was found worthy.´ (Rev 5:4) ³You are worthy to take the scroll.´ (Rev 5:9)

Adjectives (3) 

Substantive Adjectives: Adjectives can be used as nouns, as in the title, ³The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.´ 

Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth«. Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. (Mt 5:5, 7 NRSV) 

³meek´ and ³merciful´ are actually adjectives. Here it is understood that Jesus is talking about ³those who are meek´ or ³the meek ones.´

Adjectives (4) 

Adjectives have ³degrees´ 

Positive: ³holy,´ ³righteous,´ ³good´ 

³you are my strong refuge´ (Ps 71:7) ³And the LORD made his people « stronger than their enemies (Ps 105:24) ³The anger of God rose against them and he killed the strongest of them´ (Ps 78:31) 

Comparative: ³holier,´ ³more righteous,´ ³better´  

Superlative: ³holiest,´ ³most righteous,´ ³best´ 

the verb ± or about an adjective or even another adverb. but do not always.e. Adverbs often answer questions like:       How? Why? Where? When? Under what circumstances? To what degree or extent? (This is the sense in which adverbs generally describe adjectives and other adverbs. end in -ly ..)  Adverbs often.Adverbs  Adverbs are words that give more information about the action of the sentence ± i.

Adverbs (2)  ³I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.´ (Matt 19:25 NIV)  To what extent were the disciples astonished? .´ (Rev 2:3 ESV)  How are the believers enduring?  ³When the disciples heard this. they were greatly astonished.´ (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  How was John weeping?  ³I know you are enduring patiently and bearing up for my name's sake.

least Badly. worse. less.Adverbs (3)  Like adjectives. best Little. worst  Irregular comparisons also exist:    . adverbs can be compared:    Positive: ³bitterly´ Comparative: ³more bitterly´ Superlative: ³most bitterly´ Well. better.

as in ³I heard the voice of many angels around the throne´ (Rev 5:11 NASU).  ³Around´ is often used as a preposition. he went out to Bethany with the twelve. ³around´ describes the action of ³looking´ ± Where did Jesus look? .´ (Mark 11:11). as it was already late.Caution: When adverbs look like prepositions  ³And when he had looked around at everything. however. In Mk 11:11.

The entire prepositional phrase will describe some other noun or pronoun in the sentence (acting adjectivally) or the verb in the clause to which it is related (acting adverbially). .Prepositions   Prepositions stand before a noun or pronoun (and its descriptors) to create a prepositional phrase.

Prepositions (2)  Some common prepositions in prepositional phrases (from Mt 3:1-12):        in the wilderness from the coming wrath to yourselves at the root of the trees into the granary with unquenchable fire .

to. throughout. beyond. along. across. up. between. within. beneath. below. among. past. together with. into. against. according to. through. from. unto. of. behind.Common Prepositions  About. underneath. up to. out of. in. instead of. without . over. by. upon. above. with. around. during. before. off. alongside [of]. toward. beside(s). since. near. at. after. down. despite. inside. under. for. concerning. because of. like. except. until. on.

Prepositions (3)  ³I tell you.´ (Mt 3:9-10 NRSV)  Adverbial prepositional phrases:     ³from these stones´ (giving information about the ³raising´) ³to Abraham´ (ditto) ³at the root´ (where is the ax lying?) ³into the fire´ (where is it being thrown?) ³of the trees´ (giving information about what root)  Adjectival prepositional phrase´  . Even now the ax is lying at the root of the trees. every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham.

3 NRSV) . And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it. sealed with seven seals«.Prepositions (4a)  ³Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back.´ (Rev 5:1.

: where seated?] a scroll written on the inside [adv.].] was able to open the scroll or to look into it [adv. 3 NRSV) .Prepositions (4b)  ³Then I saw in the right hand [adv.: how or where written?] and on the back [adv.: sealed by what means or how?]«. sealed with seven seals [adv.: where saw?] of the one [adj.] or under the earth [adj.: describes what hand] seated on the throne [adv. And no one in heaven [adj.´ (Rev 5:1.: look where?].: describes ³one´] or on earth [adj.

´ ³to sing.´ ³to look´)  FUNCTION determines what a word is in a given context . or adverb ³To´ can be a preposition (³to the river´). conjunction. or it can be part of an infinitive (³to come.Caution  Many words that can function as prepositions can also function as other parts of speech!   ³Since´ can be a preposition.

or subordinate one clause to another. set them in relationship to one another (correlative conjunctions).Conjunctions  Conjunctions are used to link words or phrases together (coordinating conjunctions). usually giving some indication of the logical relationship between those clauses (subordinating conjunctions). .

or. connecting both as complements to ³was able´ . so.Conjunctions (2)  Coordinating Conjunctions: and. but.´ Rev 5:3 NRSV)   The first two conjunctions link three prepositional phrases together as one overarching unit of modifiers describing ³one´ The last conjunction links two infinitives. yet:  ³No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it.

for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.Conjunctions (3a)  ³You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals.´ (Rev 5:9 NRSV) .

for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.Conjunctions (3b)  ³You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals.´ (Rev 5:9 NRSV)    The first ³and´ links two infinitives as complements to ³worthy´ (³worthy´ of what?) The second ³and´ links two clauses as part of the rationale introduced by ³for´ (³you were slaughtered and « you ransomed´) The last three occurrences of ³and´ link four nouns as the common objects of the preposition ³from´ .

 ³Store up for yourselves treasures in heaven.¶´ (Heb 12:28 ESV)  The ³not only«but also´ coordinates ³earth´ and ³heaven´ as twin objects of the verb ³shake. but now he has promised.´ (Matt 6:20 NRSV)  ³neither´ and ³nor´ link ³moth´ and ³rust´ as two subjects of the verb ³consumes. not only « but also. neither«nor. either«or):  ³At that time his voice shook the earth.´ while also establishing a stronger relationship between the two objects. .Conjunctions (4)  Correlative (both«and. where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. µYet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens.

in order that. although. after. so. while. rather than) Used to connect noun or adverb clauses to some other element in the sentence . though. as. where. before. because. as « as. unless. since. so that. whether. as if. if.Conjunctions (5)   Subordinating Conjunctions (when.

Then one of the elders said to me.Conjunctions (6)  ³And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.´ (Rev 5:4-6 NRSV)    ³because´ introduces a subordinate clause specifying CAUSE ³so that´ introduces a subordinate clause specifying RESULT ³as if´ introduces a subordinate clause specifying MANNER . the Root of David. See. the Lion of the tribe of Judah. has conquered. having seven horns and seven eyes. µDo not weep.¶ Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered. which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.

Conjunctive Adverbs  Not to be confused with subordinating conjunctions. then. hence. conversely. still. certainly. nevertheless. incidentally. otherwise. next. specifically. besides. anyway. consequently. however. nonetheless. furthermore. instead. indeed. these adverbs can also be used to indicate the relationship between independent clauses:  Accordingly. also. subsequently. therefore. similarly. thus . meanwhile. likewise. finally. moreover.

now you are speaking plainly and not using figurative speech!´ (Jn 16:29 ESV) . drawing attention to something or some experience. and come down from the cross!¶´ (Mk 15:29-30 ESV) ³His disciples said. save yourself. wagging their heads and saying.   ³And those who passed by derided him. µAha! You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days. "Ah.Interjections  Words usually expressing surprise or emotion.

Kinds of Sentences and Clauses 

Clauses: groups of related words containing a subject and a verb. 

Independent (or main) clauses: An independent clause expressed a grammatically complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence.  

³John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness of Judea.´ (Matt 3:1 NRSV) ³John wore clothing of camel's hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey.´ (Matt 3:3 NRSV) ± a compound of two independent clauses.

Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (2)  

Dependent (subordinate) clauses: these clauses are not complete sentences, but must always be attached to a main (independent) clause.  ³because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.´ (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  ³so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.´ (Rev 5:5 NRSV)  ³as if it had been slaughtered.´ (Rev 5:6 NRSV) In each of these three examples, there is a subject (bold) and verb (italic), but none can stand as a complete sentence.

Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (3) 

³By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive, even when she was past the age, since she considered him faithful who had promised.´ (Heb 11:11 NRSV)  



³By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive.´ (Main clause; could stand alone as a complete sentence) ³even when she was past the age´ (Subordinate clause) ³since she considered him faithful who had promised´ (Subordinate clause)

 in the right hand  of the one  seated on the throne  sealed with seven seals  proclaiming with a loud voice  having seven horns and seven eyes  into all the earth .g.. e. prepositional phrases and participial phrases.Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (4)  Phrases:  These are related groups of words that do not contain both a subject and a verb.

´ (Matt 5:10 NRSV) ³One who is more powerful than I is coming after me.´ ³when.´ ³why. ³What place?´ .´ (Matt 3:3 NRSV) ³Every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.´ (Matt 28:6 NIV) ± Still answers the question.´ (Matt 5:11 NRSV)  These can be introduced also by ³where.Functions of Subordinate Clauses  Adjectival (most often involving relative clauses introduced by relative pronouns)    ³This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke. Come and see the place where he lay.´ and ³whose´  ³He has risen«.

Clauses (2)  Adverbial  Temporal (when does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³When he had taken the scroll.Functions of Subord.´ (Rev 5:6 NRSV) .´ (Rev 5:8 NRSV)  Location (where does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³You knew that I reap where I have not sowed and gather where I scattered no seed. the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb.´ (Matt 25:26 ESV)  Manner (by what means or in what manner does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³I saw « a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered.

´ (Heb 5:8 NIV)  Condition (under what circumstances would the action of the main clause take place?)  ³If anyone hears my voice and opens the door.´ (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  Concession (despite what does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³Although he was a son. he learned obedience from what he suffered.Functions of Subord. I will come in and eat with him.´ (Rev 3:20 NIV) . Clauses (3)  Cause (for what reason does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. and he with me.

and sent spies who pretended to be righteous.´ (Luke 20:20 NASU)  Result (to what effect did the action of the main clause take place?)  ³The Lion of the tribe of Judah « has conquered. Clauses (4)  Purpose (to what end does the action of the main clause take place?)  ³They watched Him.´ (Rev 5:5 NRSV) . in order that they might catch Him in some statement.Functions of Subord. so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.

 Note: because noun clauses often play an integral role in the main clause. they are often not separable from the main clause (as adjectival and adverbial clauses are). as the subject of the sentence. Clauses (5)  Noun Clauses: the clause as a whole plays a role usually assigned to a noun (like subject.   ³When he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in place of his father Herod. as a whole.Functions of Subord. he was afraid to go there. direct object.´ (Matt 2:22 ESV) ± the whole ³that´ clause is the direct object of ³he heard´ ³What you sow must die before it is given new life´ (1 Cor 15:36 NJB) ± ³What you sow´ functions. object of a preposition). .

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