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ABSTRACT

This thesis work deals with an


Artificial Neural Network(ANN) approach
for assessing the voltage stability of a
power system using Back Propagation (BP)
neural network.

By using Voltage Collapse


proximity Indicator (VCPI) as assessment
index , the voltage stability of a power
system can be determined.

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ABSTRACT CONT….

The training patterns are generated by


changing active and reactive powers for all
load buses in the system under
consideration and BP neural network is
trained.

The proposed approach is tested on


IEEE 14 bus system and IEEE 30 bus
system . Test results indicate that the
proposed approach can make a quick
response.

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OBJECTIVE OF THIS WORK

The objective of this work is to present the


application of Back propagation ANN for
voltage stability assessment and its
effectiveness in reducing computational time
compared to analytical method.

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INTRODUCTION

o Voltage stability is the ability of a power


system to maintain acceptable voltages at
all buses in the system under normal
conditions and after being subjected to a
disturbance.

o The assessment of voltage stability is


useful for taking remedial action to
improve the voltage stability as the power
system should not be operated with high as
well as low voltages.

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VOLTAGE COLLAPSE PROXIMITY
INDICATOR
Voltage stability is assessed by VCPI.
VCPI is denoted with letter ‘L’.

Definition:
VCPI is a quantitative measure for the
estimation of the distance of the actual state
of the system to the stability limit.
The expression for VCPI is given by

Lj = Sj+ / Vj2 * Yjj+


, j€load buses
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VCPI CONTD….
Where
Sj+ is the transformed power
Vj is the consumer node voltage
Yjj+ is the transformed admittance

Sj+ = Sj + Sjcorr
Where S is the nodal power and
j

Sjcorr is the equivalent power which comes from the other loads
of the system
Sjcorr is given by

Sjcorr = ( ∑ ( Zji* / Zjj*). (Si / Vi) ). Vj


i€ L
i≠j

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VCPI contd….

The transformed admittance is the reciprocal of self


impedance at load bus j.

Yjj+ = 1/Zjj

VCPI calculation needs to run loadflow as the loadflow


solutions are the inputs for determination of L.

The method used for loadflow in this work is Newton


Raphson method using cartesian co-ordinates .

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RELATION BETWEEN VOLTAGE AND VCPI

Indicator L , Voltage Vcrit(pu)


1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Fig.1 Stability Indicator L and its relation to the critical Voltage


Vcrit
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WHAT IS ANN

Artificial neural network(ANN) is a


massively parallel distributed processor made up
of simple processing units, which has a natural
propensity for storing experimental knowledge
and making it available for use.

• Knowledge is acquired by the network from


its environment through a learning process.

• Inter neuron connection strengths, known


as synaptic weights are used to store the acquired
knowledge.

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ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL
NETWORKS

• Nonlinearity
• Input-Output Mapping
• Adaptivity
• Contextual Information

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BACK PROPAGATION ALGORITHM

o The back propagation network (BP) is one of the


most commonly used types of neural networks.

o The BP networks are widely used because of


their robustness, which allows them to be
applied in a wide range of tasks.

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STRUCTURE OF A BP NEURAL NETWORK

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MERITS OF BACK PROPAGATION
ALGORITHM

• Computing time is reduced if the weights chosen


are small at the beginning.

• Batch update of weights exist, which provides a


smoothing effect on the weight correction terms.

• The mathematical methodology present here,


can be applied to any application-network .

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APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL
NETWORKS TO POWER SYSTEMS

Tuning of Power System Stabilizer


Adaptive Power System Stabilizer
Intelligent Load shedding
Power System Transient Stability
Load Forecasting
Power System Protection
Unit Commitment
High Impedance Fault Detection
Voltage Stability
Transformer Maintenance
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ALGORITHM

Calculation of L by analytical method

Step1: Determine the value of L (VCPI) using


the loadflow solution.
Step2: Also determine L values by changing
active and reactive powers at all load
buses and also calculate voltages at
these buses corresponding to these
values of L.(These are the L values
calculated by analytical method)
Step3: Create a feedforward multi layer BP
neural network by giving suitable
number of inputs, outputs , hidden
layer neurons , activation function for
each layer and network function .
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ALGORITHM CONTD…

For example ,

net=newff(minmax(p),[6,8,3],{'logsig’'logsig’‘purelin'},'
trainlm');

Calculation of L by the proposed method


Step4 : Generate training patterns of BP neural
network.
The method of generating the training data is as
follows.
a. Only change the active power of certain bus , the
others remain the same
b. Only change the reactive power of certain bus , the
others remain the same
c. Only change the active and reactive power of certain
bus , the others remain the same
d. Change the active and reactive power of all buses
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ALGORITHM CONTD…

Step5: Train the network by giving some of the


generated training patterns as input and the
L values calculated by analytical method for the
same inputs as targets.
Also give no. of epochs, goal and shows for
training.
net.trainParam.show = 5;
net.trainParam.epochs = 1000;
net.trainParam.goal = 1e-7;
[net,tr]=train(net,p,t);
Step6: After training the network , see the outputs by
giving suitable command.
y=sim(net,p) ;
Step7: See the output and compare these results with
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the analytical results.
ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM
WSCC 9-bus system

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GENERATOR DATA

Generator 1 2 3
Rated MVA 247.5 192 128
KV 16.5 18.0 13.8
Powerfactor 1.0 0.85 0.85
Type Hydro Steam Steam
Speed 180r/min 3600r/min 3600r/min
Xd 0.1460 0.8958 1.3125
Xd’ 0.0608 0.1198 0.1813
Xq 0.0969 0.8645 1.2578
Xq’ 0.0969 0.1969 0.25

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TRANSMISSION NETWORK
DATA

Bus no R X Ypq/2
P Q
1 4 0.0 0.0576 0.0
2 7 0.0 0.0625 0.0
3 9 0.0 0.0586 0.0
4 6 0.017 0.092 0.079
5 7 0.032 0.161 0.153
6 9 0.039 0.17 0.179
7 8 0.0085 0.072 0.0745
8 9 0.0119 0.1008 0.1045

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BUS DATA

Bus No. PGEN PD QD V


1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.04
2 1.63 0.0 0.0 1.025
3 0.85 0.0 0.0 1.025
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
5 0.0 1.25 0.5 1.0
6 0.0 0.9 0.3 1.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
8 0.0 1.0 0.35 1.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0

NOTE :
P , Q & V s all are per unit values throughout the work.
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ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT
LOADING CONDITIONS
P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8 L5 L6 L8
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35 0.34876 0.058104 0.047902 OLC
*1.3 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35 0.37077 0.058159 0.048149
1.25 0.5 *1 0.3 1 0.35 0.34895 0.064221 0.047932
(a)
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 0.35 0.35006 0.058165 0.052411
1.25 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35 0.40159 0.058244 0.048639
1.25 0.5 0.9 *0.4 1 0.35 0.34959 0.06147 0.048031 (b)
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 *0.5 0.35682 0.058338 0.051862
*1.3 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35 0.43026 0.058315 0.048952
1.25 0.5 *1 *0.4 1 0.35 0.34978 0.067522 0.048061 (c)
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 *0.4 0.35271 0.058242 0.053596
1.2* 0.4* 1.1* 0.5* 0.9* 0.4* 0.29603 0.077467 0.044284
(d)
1.3* 0.5* 0.6* 0.6* 0.5* 0.8* 0.39695 0.055657 0.046043
1.1* 0.3* 1* 0.4* 0.8* 0.5* 0.24189 0.067631 0.042156
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OLC-Original Loading Condition
VCPIS AND CORRESPONDING VOLTAGES
AT LOAD BUSES
L5 L6 L8 V5 V6 V8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902 0.80097 1.0011 0.96898 OLC
0.37077 0.058159 0.048149 0.79015 1.0006 0.9665
0.34895 0.064221 0.047932 0.80075 0.99891 0.96868
(a)
0.35006 0.058165 0.052411 0.79948 1.0006 0.96695
0.40159 0.058244 0.048639 0.7575 0.99988 0.96161
0.34959 0.06147 0.048031 0.80002 0.99168 0.96768 (b)
0.35682 0.058338 0.051862 0.80346 1.0009 0.97239
0.43026 0.058315 0.048952 0.7575 0.99988 0.96161
0.34978 0.067522 0.048061 0.7998 0.98947 0.96738 (c)
0.35271 0.058242 0.053596 0.79647 0.99989 0.96285
0.29603 0.077467 0.044284 0.8427 0.97845 0.97166 (d)
0.39695 0.055657 0.046043 0.76365 0.96735 0.93264
0.24189 0.067631 0.042156 0.88509 0.98867 0.97468
OLC-Original Loading Condition 23
NEURAL NETWORK
Outputs

L L L
5 6 8 Output layer

h h h h h h h h
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Hidden layer

P Q P Q P Q Input layer
5 5 6 6 8 8

Inputs
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Input layer : There are 6 neurons in the input
layer(P & Q s of all load buses).
1.P5=active power at bus 5.Similarly P6 & P8
2.Q5=Reactive power at bus 5.similarly Q6 & Q8

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1.0 0.35

Middle (hidden) layer:


Middle layer consists of 8 neurons activated by
binary sigmoidal activation function.
Output layer : This layer consists of 3 neurons(VCPIs
at all load buses).
L5=VCPI at bus 5.similarly L6 & L8
L = Sj+ / Vj2 Yjj+ , j= 5,6,8
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The output layer consists of 3 output neurons which
predicts the VCPI after undergoing supervised training
for changes in active or reactive powers or both.

L5 L6 L8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902

Network Configuration :
Number of input neurons = 6
Number of hidden neurons = 8
Number of output neurons = 3
Learning rate η = 0.1
Performance goal = 1e-7
Activation Function = Binary sigmoidal
Number of presentations or Epochs = 1000

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GENERATION OF TRAINING DATA BY
CONDITION(a)
(a) Only change the active power of certain bus, the others
remain the same

Loading conditions

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


*1.3 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 *1 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 0.35

OLC-Original Loading Condition


27
GENERATION OF TRAINING DATA BY
CONDITION(b)

(b) Only change the reactive power of certain bus, the others
remain the same

Loading conditions
P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8
OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35

1.25 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


1.25 0.5 0.9 *0.4 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 *0.5

OLC-Original Loading Condition


28
GENERATION OF TRAINING DATA BY
CONDITION(c)

(c) Only change the active and reactive power of certain


bus, the others remain the same

Loading conditions

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


*1.3 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 *1 *0.4 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 *0.4

OLC-Original Loading Condition 29


GENERATION OF TRAINING DATA BY
CONDITION(d)

(d) change the active and reactive power of all buses


Loading conditions

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


1.2* 0.4* 1.1* 0.5* 0.9* 0.4*
1.3* 0.5* 0.6* 0.6* 0.5* 0.8*
1.1* 0.3* 1* 0.4* 0.8* 0.5*

OLC-Original Loading Condition


30
INPUTS AND TARGETS ASSIGNED( a)FOR
TRAINING THE NETWORK
Loading conditions as inputs

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


*1.3 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 *1 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 0.35

VCPIs at load buses as targets

L5 L6 L8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902
0.37077 0.058159 0.048149
0.34895 0.064221 0.047932
0.35006 0.058165 0.052411
OLC-Original Loading Condition 31
INPUTS AND TARGETS ASSIGNED( b)FOR
TRAINING THE NETWORK
Loading conditions as inputs

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


1.25 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 *0.4 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 *0.5

VCPIs at load buses as targets

L5 L6 L8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902
0.40159 0.058244 0.048639
0.34959 0.06147 0.048031
0.35682 0.058338 0.051862
OLC-Original Loading Condition 32
INPUTS AND TARGETS ASSIGNED( c)FOR
TRAINING THE NETWORK
Loading conditions as inputs

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


*1.3 *0.6 0.9 0.3 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 *1 *0.4 1 0.35
1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 *1.1 *0.4

VCPIs at load buses as targets

L5 L6 L8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902
0.43026 0.058315 0.048952
0.34978 0.067522 0.048061
0.35271 0.058242 0.053596
OLC-Original Loading Condition 33
INPUTS AND TARGETS ASSIGNED(d)FOR
TRAINING THE NETWORK
Loading conditions as inputs

P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P8 Q8

OLC 1.25 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 0.35


1.2* 0.4* 1.1* 0.5* 0.9* 0.4*
1.3* 0.5* 0.6* 0.6* 0.5* 0.8*
1.1* 0.3* 1* 0.4* 0.8* 0.5*

VCPIs at load buses as targets

L5 L6 L8
0.34876 0.058104 0.047902
0.29603 0.077467 0.044284
0.39695 0.055657 0.046043
0.24189 0.067631 0.042156
OLC-Original Loading Condition 34
OUTPUTS OBTAINED FROM TRAINING ANN

L5 L6 L8

OLC 0.34944 0.058209 0.048018


0.37054 0.058386 0.04749
(a)
0.34925 0.064432 0.048028
0.34997 0.058547 0.052436
0.40147 0.058008 0.048721
(b)
0.34994 0.061652 0.048149
0.3572 0.058824 0.051616
0.43017 0.05851 0.047843
(c)
0.34955 0.067891 0.048172
0.35281 0.057848 0.053567
0.29606 0.077309 0.044523
(d)
0.39686 0.055721 0.04606
0.24222 0.067716 0.041804
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OLC-Original Loading Condition
COMPARISON OF RESULTS BETWEEN
CONVENTIONAL & PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES
L5(C) L5(A) %E5 L6(C) L6(A) %E6 L8(C) L8(A) %E8
Min E
0.34876 0.34944 -0.06799* 0.058104 0.058209 -0.010499 0.047902 0.048018 -0.011599 OLC
Max E
0.37077 0.37054 0.02300 0.058159 0.058386 -0.02269 0.048149 0.04749 0.0659*
0.34895 0.34925 -0.0300 0.064221 0.064432 -0.0210 0.047932 0.048028 -0.00959* (a)
0.35006 0.34997 0.008999 0.058165 0.058547 -0.0382 0.052411 0.052436 -0.0025

0.40159 0.40147 0.0120000 0.058244 0.058008 0.0236 0.048639 0.048721 -0.008199


0.34959 0.34994 -0.034999 0.06147 0.061652 -0.01820 0.048031 0.048149 -0.0118 (b)
0.35682 0.3572 -0.037999 0.058338 0.058824 -0.0486 0.051862 0.051616 0.0245999
0.43026 0.43017 0.0089999 0.058315 0.05851 -0.01950 0.048952 0.047843 0.1109000
0.34978 0.34955 0.0229999 0.067522 0.067891 -0.03690 0.048061 0.048172 -0.0111 (c)
0.35271 0.35281 -0.009999 0.058242 0.057848 0.0394 0.053596 0.053567 0.0029
0.29603 0.29606 -0.002999 0.077467 0.077309 0.015799 0.044284 0.044523 -0.023900
0.39695 0.39686 0.0090000 0.055657 0.055721 -0.00640 0.046043 0.04606 -0.001699 (d)

0.24189 0.24222 -0.032999 0.067631 0.067716 -0.00850 0.042156 0.041804 0.0351999


E5 = L5(C)-L5(A) where , OLC-Original Loading Condition 36
C-conventional & A-ANNresults
TRAINED NETWORK OF 9-BUS SYSTEM

0.359

L5

Input 1 p{1} y {1} 0.05887

p{1}
Neural Network L6

0.04376

L8

37
FIGURE INDICATING THE TRAINING OF BP
NEURAL NETWORK
Performance is 8.85411e-008, Goal is 1e-007

0
10
Training-Blue Goal-Black

-2
10

-4
10

-6
10

-8
10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
80 Epochs

38
CASE STUDIES
Case study 1: IEEE 14 bus system

39
COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 14 BUS
SYSTEM
L3(C) L3(A) %E3 L4(C) L4(A) %E4 L5(C) L5(A) %E5 L6(C) L6(A) % E6

0.040695 0.040652 5.90E-03 0.36934 0.36853 0 0.085889 0.085815 -4.00E-03 0.055503 0.055778 -4.20E-03 OLC

0.0357 0.035647 5.30E-03 0.37968 0.37969 -1.00E-03 0.086 0.086066 -6.60E-03 0.055604 0.055646 -4.20E-03
(a)
0.044689 0.044637 5.20E-03 0.3692 0.3692 0 0.0868 0.086841 -4.10E-03 0.055562 0.055586 -2.40E-03

0.040708 0.04065 5.80E-03 0.36956 0.36956 0 0.08587 0.08591 -4.00E-03 0.055575 0.055603 -2.80E-03
(b)
0.040845 0.040787 5.80E-03 0.37487 0.37488 -1.00E-03 0.086192 0.086231 -3.90E-03 0.055985 0.056011 -2.60E-03

0.036057 0.036004 5.30E-03 0.38101 0.38102 -1.00E-03 0.086035 0.086102 -6.70E-03 0.055637 0.05568 -4.30E-03
(c)
0.040718 0.040655 6.30E-03 0.36953 0.36955 -2.00E-03 0.085926 0.085965 -3.90E-03 0.056685 0.056718 -3.30E-03

0.052215 0.052114 1.01E-02 0.3407 0.34074 -4.00E-03 0.1354 0.13545 -5.00E-03 0.040525 0.04051 1.50E-03
(d)
0.038961 0.038961 0 0.3349 0.3349 0 0.1064 0.1064 0 0.04578 0.04578 0

OLC-Original Loading Condition 40


COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 14 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L9(C) L9(A) %E9 L10(C) L10(A) %E10 L11(C) L11(A) %E11

0.29765 0.29786 -5.00E-03 0.03124 0.031477 -7.90E-03 0.045444 0.045044 1.30E-03 OLC

0.29828 0.29832 -4.00E-03 0.031305 0.031391 -8.60E-03 0.045532 0.045512 2.00E-03


(a)
0.30967 0.30972 -5.00E-03 0.031278 0.031347 -6.90E-03 0.045496 0.045491 5.00E-04

0.29778 0.29783 -5.00E-03 0.031254 0.031333 -7.90E-03 0.045466 0.045453 1.30E-03


(b)
0.30068 0.30075 -7.00E-03 0.033208 0.033293 -8.50E-03 0.045962 0.045929 3.30E-03

0.29849 0.29853 -4.00E-03 0.031327 0.031413 -8.60E-03 0.045562 0.045542 1.20E-03


(c)
0.29792 0.298 -8.00E-03 0.032363 0.032457 -9.40E-03 0.04498 0.044935 4.50E-03
Min E
0.36274 0.36283 -9.00E-03 0.031021 0.031133 -1.12E-02* 0.080883 0.080961 -7.80E-03 (d)
0.29625 0.29625 0 0.025938 0.025938 0 0.059374 0.059374 0

OLC-Original Loading Condition 41


COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 14 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L12(C) L12(A) %E12 L13(C) L13(A) %E13 L14(C) L14(A) %E14

0.065812 0.065401 -1.70E-03 0.082799 0.082446 5.60E-03 0.12952 0.12933 8.00E-03 OLC

0.065934 0.065953 -1.90E-03 0.082961 0.082897 6.40E-03 0.12979 0.1297 9.00E-03


(a)
0.065883 0.065907 -2.40E-03 0.082894 0.082843 5.10E-03 0.12968 0.1296 8.00E-03

0.065844 0.065861 -1.70E-03 0.082839 0.082783 5.60E-03 0.12958 0.1295 8.00E-03


(b)
0.066442 0.066449 -7.00E-04 0.083722 0.083655 6.70E-03 0.13643 0.13635 8.00E-03

0.065976 0.065995 -1.90E-03 0.083016 0.082951 6.50E-03 0.12988 0.12979 9.00E-03


(c)
0.065894 0.065897 -3.00E-04 0.082903 0.082828 7.50E-03 0.12968 0.12959 9.00E-03
Max E
0.10516 0.1052 -4.00E-03 0.086371 0.086236 1.35E-02* 0.11475 0.11466 9.00E-03 (d)
0.078571 0.078571 0 0.075944 0.075944 0 0.10648 0.10648 0

OLC-Original Loading Condition 42


LOADINGS AND VCPIS SHOWING STABLE
,UNSTABLE &VERGE OF INSTABLE VALUES
Loading conditions

P3 Q3 P4 Q4 P5 Q5 P6 Q6 P9 Q9
0.942 0.19 0.478 -0.039 0.076 0.016 0.112 0.075 0.295 0.166
0.942 1.19 0.478 1.2 0.076 0.3 0.112 0.1 0.273 0.16
0.942 1.19 0.478 1.5 0.076 0.4 0.112 0.1 0.273 0.166

P10 Q10 P11 Q11 P12 Q12 P13 Q13 P14 Q14
0.09 0.058 0.035 0.018 0.061 0.016 0.135 0.058 0.149 0.05
0.09 0.058 0.035 0.018 0.061 0.016 0.135 0.058 0.149 0.05
0.09 0.058 0.035 0.018 0.061 0.016 0.135 0.058 0.149 0.05
VCPI values

L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 l8 L9 L10 L11 L12


VS
0.04069 0.36934 0.08588 0.05550 0.29765 0.03124 0.04544 0.06581 0.08279 0.12952
VI 0.17598 0.67639 0.15253 0.1168 1.0001 0.04177 0.06827 0.09534 0.11901 0.17587
VU 0.27812 0.7544 0.17755 0.155 1.345 0.04979 0.07572 0.10548 0.13242 0.20703 43
Case study 2: IEEE 30 bus system

44
COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM
L3(C) L3(A) %E3 L4(C) L4(A) %E4 L7(C) L7(A) %E7

0.002152 0.002144 0.000860 0.073823 0.073846 -0.002 0.10627 0.10621 0.0060

0.002277 0.0022460.0030 0.073708 0.07374-0.00320 0.10627 0.10623 0.0399

0.00216 0.002187-0.00268 0.073767 0.073806-0.00389 0.10627 0.10622 0.0050

0.002284 0.0022550.028800 0.073652 0.073686-0.00340 0.10627 0.10622 0.00500

0.002304 0.0022840.0019 0.073773 0.073821-0.00479 0.10627 0.10616 0.01099

0.002175 0.0021450.00298 0.073793 0.073892-0.00990 0.10628 0.1062 0.00799

0.002325 0.002333-8.1E-04 0.073743 0.073787-0.00440 0.10628 0.106220.0060

0.002154 0.002165-0.00115 0.073831 0.073841-0.0010 0.10282 0.102819.9E-04

0.002152 0.0021030.004920 0.073817 0.073911-0.00940 0.10629 0.106210.0079

0.002153 0.0020910.006209 0.073825 0.07391-0.00850 0.10285 0.102780.00700


45
COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L10(C) L10(A) %E10 L12(C) L12(A) %E12 L14(C) L14(A) %E14

0.030247 0.030316-0.00689 0.051157 0.051189-0.00319 0.04898 0.0487690.02110

0.030246 0.030341-0.00950 0.051155 0.051202-0.00469 0.048979 0.0488570.01220

0.030246 0.030287-0.0041 0.051154 0.051171-0.00100 0.048978 0.0488560.012200

0.030245 0.030307-0.00619 0.051153 0.0511484.99E-04 0.048977 0.0488650.01120

0.030248 0.030269-0.00210 0.052136 0.052166-0.00299 0.048982 0.0488340.01479

0.03025 0.030315-0.00650 0.051172 0.051225-0.00529 0.048985 0.049031-0.00459

0.03025 0.03033-0.00800 0.052151 0.0521080.00430 0.048986 0.0489590.00269

0.030264 0.030328-0.00640 0.051178 0.051191-0.00129 0.048995 0.0488770.0118

0.030244 0.030281-0.00369 0.051153 0.051156-0.00030 0.048977 0.0487170.02599

0.03026 0.030306-0.00460 0.051173 0.051227-0.00539 0.048992 0.0489140.00780 46


COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L15(C) L15(A) %E15 L16(C) L16(A) %E16 L17(C) L17(A) %E17

0.046438 0.046473-0.00350 0.045919 0.045935-0.00159 0.007004 0.007029-0.00252

0.046437 0.046507-0.0070 0.045918 0.0459143.99E-04 0.007003 0.00701-6.8E-04

0.046436 0.046472-0.00360 0.045917 0.0458520.00650 0.007003 0.007055-0.00513

0.046435 0.046463-0.0028 0.045916 0.046008-0.00920 0.007003 0.007032-0.00286

0.04644 0.046430.0010 0.04592 0.0459170.00030 0.007004 0.0070031.00E-04

0.046442 0.046533-0.0091 0.045923 0.046058-0.01350 0.007004 0.007013-8.79E-04

0.046444 0.046420.00239 0.045924 0.045992-0.00679 0.007004 0.0073.99E-04

0.046454 0.0464530.0010 0.045936 0.045953-0.00170 0.007007 0.007019-0.001

0.046434 0.046571-0.01369 0.045915 0.045948-0.00330 0.007003 0.007029-0.0026

0.04645 0.046505-0.0054 0.045932 0.045987-0.00549 0.007006 0.007021-0.00144


47
COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L18(C) L18(A) %E18 L19(C) L19(A) %E19 L20(C) L20(A) %E20

0.032239 0.0321490.00899 0.001555 0.0015320.00222 0.020309 0.0203018.00E-04

0.032238 0.03220.00380 0.001555 0.001559-0.00046 0.020309 0.020349-0.0039

0.032238 0.0322110.00270 0.001555 0.001575-0.0020 0.020309 0.020337-0.00280

0.032237 0.03220.003700 0.001555 0.0015230.00315 0.020308 0.0202880.00199

0.03224 0.0321580.00819 0.001555 0.0015060.00487 0.02031 0.0202460.006400

0.032242 0.0321710.007100 0.001555 0.0015469.09E-04 0.020311 0.0202750.003599

0.032243 0.0321760.00669 0.001555 0.001555.00E-04 0.020312 0.0202920.00199

0.032252 0.0322410.00110 0.001555 0.001555.49E-04 0.02032 0.0203180.000200

0.032236 0.0321470.00889 0.001554 0.0015380.00165 0.020307 0.0202440.00629

0.032249 0.0322250.002400 0.001555 0.0015250.00299 0.020318 0.020349-0.00309 48


COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L21(C) L21(A) %E21 L23(C) L23(A) %E23 L24(C) L24(A) %E24

0.00135 0.0013473.59E-04 0.047685 0.0475743.59E-04 0.00141 0.0014370.0111

0.00135 0.001340.00103 0.047684 0.0476370.00103 0.00141 0.001430.00469

0.00135 0.0013427.79E-04 0.047684 0.0475567.79E-04 0.00141 0.0014620.012799

0.00135 0.001359-9.20E-04 0.047682 0.047685-9.20E-04 0.00141 0.001437-2.99E-04

0.00135 0.001367-0.00163 0.047687 0.047559-0.00163 0.00141 0.0014430.01280

0.00135 0.001352-1.79E-04 0.04769 0.047712-1.79E-04 0.00141 0.001392-0.00219

0.00135 0.0013455.00E-04 0.047691 0.0476275.00E-04 0.00141 0.0014550.00639

0.001351 0.001351.29E-04 0.047706 0.0476461.29E-04 0.001412 0.0014290.005999


Max E
0.00135 0.0013440.00065 0.04768 0.047510.00065 0.00141 0.001450.01700*

0.001351 0.001357-5.80E-04 0.047701 0.047689-5.80E-04 0.001412 0.001430.00119 49


COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF 30 BUS
SYSTEM CONTD…
L26(C) L26(A) %E26 L29(C) L29(A) %E29 L30(C) L30(A) %E30

0.021428 0.021479-0.0271 0.055921 0.055983-0.00510 0.021747 0.021758-0.00619

0.021428 0.021434-0.00197 0.055919 0.055976-6.00E-04 0.021746 0.021759-0.00569

0.021428 0.021423-0.00522 0.055918 0.0559494.99E-04 0.021746 0.021766-0.00309

0.021427 0.021433-0.00273 0.055917 0.055953-5.99E-04 0.021745 0.021774-0.00360

0.021429 0.021439-0.0030 0.055922 0.056031-9.9E-04 0.021748 0.021796-0.01089

0.02143 0.0213990.001789 0.055926 0.0559660.003099 0.021749 0.021782-0.00400

0.021431 0.021436-0.00448 0.055927 0.056036-5.00E-04 0.02175 0.021815-0.01090


Min E
0.021443 0.021544-0.00163 0.055961 0.056108-0.0101 0.021763 0.021785-0.0147*

0.021425 0.02136-0.00403 0.055912 0.0559320.00649 0.021743 0.021729-0.00199

0.02144 0.021374-0.0018 0.055952 0.0560910.006600 0.021759 0.021857-0.0139 50


CONCLUSIONS
o The neural network based analysis to assess
voltage stability lead to faster computation i.e, it
reduces the computation time as compared to
conventional computational methods.
Type of system Computation time(in secs)
conventional ANN
WSCC 9bus system 0.875 0.203
IEEE 14bus system 1.187 0.454
IEEE 30bus system 1.937 0.625

o Values of VCPI(L values) obtained are accurate as


they are in close agreement with those obtained
from analytically calculated results.

51
CONCLUSIONS CONTD…
o Values of VCPI(L values) obtained are accurate
as they are in close agreement with those
obtained from analytically calculated results.
Type of system %Max error %Min error
WSCC 9bus system 0.0659 -0.06799

IEEE 14bus system 1.35E-02 -1.12E-02

IEEE 30bus system 0.017 -0.0147

o The proposed method is effective for the


assessment of voltage stability on the power
system and the BP network is a useful tool to
assess voltage stability quickly. 52
REFERENCES

I. Xiaoqing HAN , Zhijing ZHENG , Nannan TIAN . ‘Voltage


stability assessment based on BP Neural network’ .
Taiyuan University of Technology , Taiyuan China , 2009
II. Kundur , P. , ‘ Power system stability and control’ , McGraw-
Hill , 1993
III. Kessel P , Glavitch H . , ‘Estimating the voltage stability of
power systems’ [J] . IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery , 1986 , 1
(3) : 346~354
IV. Anderson, P. M., and Fouad, A. A., “Power System Control And
Stability”, New York: Wiley Interscience, 2002. pp. 34 -56.
V. Simon Haykin, “Neural Networks A Comprehensive
Foundation”, India: Pearson Education, 2004.

53
REFERENCES CONTD….

VI. Salama M M , Ebtsam M Saied et al.’ Estimating the voltage


collapse proximity indicator using artificial neural network’.
Energy Conversion & Management [J ] .2001 , 42 : 6979.
VII. M.A.Pai.,’Computer techniques in power system analysis’
VIII.Sivanandan , Deepa , ‘Neural networks using MATLAB 6.0’
IX. Hagan , ‘Neural networks design’
X. C. L. Wadhawa, “Electrical Power Systems”, India: New Age
International (P) Limited, 2003.

54
THANK YOU

55