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NAME: ASIF ALI

TOPIC PAK-INDO SATELLITES SYESTEM


CAPABILITY ON DEFENCE BASIS

What is satellite
A satellite is any object that moves in a curved path around a planet. The moon is
Earth's original, natural satellite, and there are many man-made (artificial)
satellites, usually closer to Earth. The path a satellite follows is an orbit, which
sometimes takes the shape of a circle.
• To understand why satellites move this way, we must revisit our friend Newton.
Newton proposed that a force -- gravity -- exists between any two objects in the
universe. If it weren't for this force, a satellite in motion near a planet would
continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction -- a straight line.
This straight-line inertial path of a satellite, however, is balanced by a strong
gravitational attraction directed toward the center of the planet . Sometimes, a
satellite's orbit looks like an ellipse, a squashed circle that moves around two
points known as foci. The same basic laws of motion apply, except that the planet
is located at one of the foci. As a result, the net force applied to the satellite isn't
uniform all the way around the orbit, and the speed of the satellite changes
constantly. It moves fastest when it's closest to the planet -- a point known as
perigee -- and slowest when it's farthest from the planet -- a point known as
apogee.
Satellites come in all shapes and
sizes and play a variety of roles
Weather satellites
Communications satellites
Broadcast satellites
Scientific satellites, like the Hubble Space
Telescope, perform all sorts of scientific
missions. They look at everything from
sunspots to gamma rays
Navigational satellites help ships and
planes navigate. The most famous are the
GPS NAVSTAR satellites.
 Military satellites

• Military satellites are up there, but much of


the actual application information remains
secret. Applications may include relaying
encrypted communication, nuclear
monitoring, observing enemy movements,
early warning of missile launches,
eavesdropping on terrestrial radio links,
radar imaging and photography (using what
are essentially large telescopes that take
pictures of militarily interesting areas).

 Why Are Satellites Important?

• The bird's-eye view that satellites have allows them to see large areas
of Earth at one time. This ability means satellites can collect more data,
more quickly, than instruments on the ground.
• Satellites also can see into space better than telescopes at Earth's
surface. That's because satellites fly above the clouds, dust and
molecules in the atmosphere that can block the view from ground level.
• Before satellites, TV signals didn't go very far. TV signals only travel in
straight lines. So they would quickly trail off into space instead of
following Earth's curve. Sometimes mountains or tall buildings would
block them. Phone calls to faraway places were also a problem. Setting
up telephone wires over long distances or underwater is difficult and
costs a lot.
• With satellites, TV signals and phone calls are sent upward to a
satellite. Then, almost instantly, the satellite can send them back down
to different locations on Earth.
 What Are the Parts of a

Satellite?
Satellites come in many shapes and sizes. But most have at
least two parts in common - an antenna and a power source.
The antenna sends and receives information, often to and
from Earth. The power source can be a solar panel or
battery. Solar panels make power by turning sunlight into
electricity.
• Many NASA satellites carry cameras and scientific sensors.
Sometimes these instruments point toward Earth to gather
information about its land, air and water. Other times they
face toward space to collect data from the solar system and
universe.

 How Do Satellites Orbit Earth?

• Most satellites are launched into space on rockets. A satellite


orbits Earth when its speed is balanced by the pull of Earth's
gravity. Without this balance, the satellite would fly in a straight
line off into space or fall back to Earth. Satellites orbit Earth at
different heights, different speeds and along different paths.
The two most common types of orbit are "geostationary" (jee-
oh-STAY-shun-air-ee) and "polar."
• A geostationary satellite travels from west to east over the
equator. It moves in the same direction and at the same rate
Earth is spinning. From Earth, a geostationary satellite looks
like it is standing still since it is always above the same
location.
• Polar-orbiting satellites travel in a north-south direction from
pole to pole. As Earth spins underneath, these satellites can
scan the entire globe, one strip at a time.

Why Don't Satellites Crash Into Each
• Other?
Actually, they can. NASA and other U.S. and international
organizations keep track of satellites in space. Collisions are
rare because when a satellite is launched, it is placed into an
orbit designed to avoid other satellites. But orbits can change
over time. And the chances of a crash increase as more and
more satellites are launched into space.
• In February 2009, two communications satellites - one
American and one Russian - collided in space. This,
however, is believed to be the first time two man-made
satellites have collided accidentally.

 INDIAN SATELLITES ON
DEFENCE BASIS
• Military using 13 satellites to keep eye on
foes
• These satellites are used for keeping an
eye on enemies ..

• : With The Launch Of Cartosat Military Now


Using 13 Satellites To Keep An Eye On
Enemy

 BACK GROUND

INDIANS SATELLITES ON MILITARY


BASIS
– India's first satellite
India's first satellite, the Aryabhata, was launched
by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975 from
Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle.
This was followed by the Rohini series of
experimental satellites, which were built and
launched indigenously.
CARTOSAT-2A

Cartosat-2A was
launched by PSLV-
C9 on 28 April 2008
from Satish Dhawan
Space Centre's SLP
at Sriharikota along
with 9 other
satellites. ... The
satellite carries a
panchromatic (PAN)
camera capable of
CARTOSAT-1
Cartosat-1

Cartosat1Assembly.jpg
Names IRS-P5
Mission type Earth
observation
Operator ISRO
COSPAR ID 2005-017A
SATCAT no. 28649
Website Cartosat-1 webpage
Mission duration Planned: 5
years
Elapsed: 13 years, 6 months, 16
days
riasat-1

• Launch date 20
April 2009

Rocket PSLV-CA C12


GSAT-3D - DATE
Sep 08, 2016

IMS-1 Apr 28,


2008
Oceansat-2 Sep
23, 2009 960
kg
IRS-1C Dec 28, 1995
1250 kG

IRS-P2 Oct 15, 1994 804 kg

Bhaskara-I Jun
07, 1979
INSAT-3DR Sep
08, 2016 2211 kg
SCATSAT-1 Sep
26, 2016 371 kg
PAKISTAN,S SATELLITES

• Badr-1It was the


first ever artificial
and digital satellite
launched by
pakistan in 1990..
• Rocket: Long
March 2E
• Launched date: july
16 ,1990
• Badr-B
• It is the second
spacecraft and first
earth observation
satellite launched
into earth orbit on
2001 by SUPARCO-
Pakistan National
Space AgenCY
• icube-1
• It is a miniaturised
satellite built by
Institilute Of Space
Technology In
Pakistan in 2013
with an objective to
provide a wide
range