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# OPERATIONS

AIR CONDITIONING
BASICS:

BOILING POINT:
The temperature at which matter is converted from the liquid state
to the gaseous state at atmospheric pressure.
Temperature at which a liquid turns into gas. For water this
temperature is around 100°C (212° F)
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE:
This is the total weight exerted by the air column over unit
area. This atmospheric pressure at mean sea level is 1 atmospheric
pressure or 1 kg/ sqcm or 1 bar or 14.7psi(pounds per square inch)
The atmospheric pressure will be different at different
altitudes since the air density is reducing as the altitude increases.
Higher the altitude lower will be the atmospheric pressure.
SATURATION PRESSURE:
The atmosphere may have its %RH varying depending upon the
atmospheric pressure & the ambient temperature. Let us imagine
that the atmosphere has 100% RH i.e. Atmospheric air is saturated
with moisture. Then this pressure of atmosphere is the saturated
atmospheric pressure.

SATURATION TEMPERATURE:
Saturation temperature means boiling point. (The
saturation temperature is the boiling point corresponding to the
saturation pressure).

## Saturation Pressure and Saturation Temperature have a direct

relationship:
as saturation pressure is increased so is saturation temperature.
HEAT:
It’s a form of energy. It is expressed in calorie or BTU.
WHEN 1 GM OF WATER IS RAISED THROUGH 1 ⁰ C, THEN THE HEAT
CONSUMED IN THIS POROCESS IS 1 CALORIE.
SIMILARLY 1 POUND OF WATER IS RAISED THROUGH 1 ⁰ F THEN THE
HEAT CONSUMED IN THIS PROCESS ID 1 BTU.
HEAT CONSUMED
IN CALORIES = MASS (IN GMS)X SPECIFIC HEAT OF THE
SUBSTANCE X CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE(⁰C)
H =MXSXT
TRANSMISSION OF HEAT:

## HEAT CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY CONDUCTION, CONVECTION OR RADIATION

PROCESSES

CONDUCTION:
This type of transmission takes place in solid sub stances where the heat is
transmitted from 1 molecule to the other molecule without any molecular
movement.

CONVECTION:
This type of transmission takes place in fluids(liquid & gas), where the
hot molecules move to the upper level and cold molecules come down to
acquire heat. In this there is a molecular movement.

Here the heat is transmitted without any medium.
SPECIFIC HEAT OF A SUBSTANCE:
Is the heat required to raise 1 gm of that particular
substance through 1 C.
SENSIBLE HEAT:
The heat where the temperature change can be observed with the
help of the thermometer.
i.e. heating water from 30⁰C to 100⁰C
LATENT HEAT:
Its is also called hidden heat i.e. the heat where there is no change
in temperature but there is a change in state.
Ex: continue to heating the boiling water at 100⁰C resulting in
water evaporation without rise in temperature.
*) LATENT HEAT OF FUSION(MELTING STATE):
solid to liquid state without change of temperature. Ex: water being
formed into ice

## *) LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION

liquid to vapour state without change of temperature.
Ex: : continue to heating the boiling water at 100⁰C resulting in water
evaporation without rise in temperature.
EXAMPLE:

IF WATER IS HEATED TO 100⁰C, IT CHANGES ITS STATE FROM LIQUID TO VAPOUR FOR
WHICH THE WATER NEEDS 540 KILO CALORIES/KG TO CHANGE STATE.

FOR WATER:

## *)IF 1 gm OF WATER IS HEATED THROUGH 1⁰C , 1 CALORIE HEAT IS CONSUMED.

*)IF 1000 gm(1KG) OF WATER IS HEATED THROUGH 1C⁰ , 1 KILO CALORIE IS CONSUMED.

## *)SUPPOSE WE HAVE 1 KG OF WATER AT 25⁰C, THEN TO RAISE IT TO 100⁰C ,WE NEED 75

KILO CALORIES ONLY. TO CONVERT THIS 1 KG OF WATER AT 100⁰C COMPLETELY INTO
STEAM, WE NEED 540 KILO CALORIES.
SUPER HEAT:
Superheat" is the term used to describe the difference between the
saturation temperature of refrigerant and the actual temperature of
the refrigerant exiting the evaporator coil
Example:
18⁰F-10⁰F=8⁰F of Super Heat
The refrigerant leaving the evaporator is purposely kept above the
saturation temperature in order to prevent liquid refrigerant
entering into the compressor. Liquid entry into compressor is
harmful as liquid is incompressible.
HUMIDITY:
The moisture content in air is referred to as humidity and may be
expressed in two ways as specific humidity and relative humidity.
The amount of moisture present in the air may be varying depending
upon the atmospheric pressure and the ambient air temperature.

## SATURATED ATMOSPHERIC AIR:

It means that it has enough moisture and beyond this moisture level
it cannot hold any more moisture at that pressure and temperature.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY:
The ratio (%) of the actual amount of water present in the air at a
given temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that
same temperature.
RH = Percentage (%) at temperature (⁰C)
RH is the ratio between the moisture that can be held in a given
volume of air and the theoretical moisture that can be held in
the same volume of air at the same pressure and temperature

## moisture that can be held in a given volume of air

% RH= X 100
theoretical moisture that can be held in given volume of air
If the relative humidity is low, we can feel much cooler than the actual temperature
because our sweat evaporates easily, cooling us off.

If the air is at 100-percent relative humidity, sweat will not evaporate into the
air. As a result, we feel much hotter than the actual temperature when the
relative humidity is high.
AIR CONDITIONING

## Air conditioning means maintaining the air space dust

free, odor free and at a temperature of 21 ± 1⁰C with the
relative humidity between 45% and 55%.
AIR CONDITIONER:
A Unitary Air Conditioner comprises of an evaporator or
cooling coil, a compressor and a condenser , and possibly a heating
apparatus. Ex: window AC unit.
A Central Air Conditioner is designed to provide conditioned air
from a central unit to a whole house / office with fans and ducts.
REFRIGERATION:
Process of removing heat from an enclosed space or from a
substance in order to lower its temperature
WORKING OF AIR CONDITIONER-
REFRIGERANT CYCLE

## The basic working of Air conditioner is based on the

Refrigerant Cycle.
REFRIGERANT CYCLE:
5

## Five basic components of Refrigerant Cycle:

1)Condensing coil/Condenser
2)Expansion Valve
3)evaporator
4)Compressor
5)Refrigerant
REFRIGERATION CYCLE PROCESS

## *) The refrigerant cycle begins with evaporator. The refrigerant is

first passed through the evaporator in the liquid form and it
absorbs heat.
*) The refrigerant from the evaporator comes in the form of
vapour with low temperature and pressure. From evaporator
refrigerant vapour is drawn by compressor and the vapour is
compressed to high temperature and pressure and is then
pumped to the condenser.
*) In condenser the vapour is cooled and condensed into liquid
by air or water.
*)This liquid refrigerant is passed through the expansion valve
where the pressure reduces.
*)This low pressure and low temperature liquid again flows
through evaporator and the cycle repeats.
COMPONENTS OF REFRIGERANT CYCLE

*) EVAPORATOR:
The purpose of the evaporator is to remove unwanted heat from the product, via
the liquid refrigerant. The liquid refrigerant contained within the evaporator is
boiling at a low-pressure
*) COMPRESSOR:
The purpose of the compressor is to draw the low-temperature, low-pressure
vapour from the evaporator via the suction line
The compressor transforms the vapour from a low-temperature vapour to a high-
temperature vapour, in turn increasing the pressure.
This compressor thus helps us to utilise the natural air or water which are
available in plenty at temperatures from 25 C to 45 C for condensing the
refrigerant vapour into its liquid.
*) REFRIGERANT:
A substance, such as R134a, R22 or ammonia, water or carbon dioxide used to cool
something by absorbing heat from it. Refrigerants are usually substances that
evaporate quickly. In the process of evaporation they draw heat from the
surrounding substances.
SUCTION PRESSURE:
It is also said LOW SIDE PRESSURE .
In air conditioning systems, the suction pressure is the intake
pressure generated by the system compressor while
operating.
DISCHARGE PRESSURE:
It is also called as HIGH SIDE PRESSURE / HEAD PRESSURE is
the pressure generated on the output side of a gas
compressor in a refrigeration or air conditioning system.
Head Pressure is affected by factors like:
•Condition and cleanliness of the condenser coil
•Ambient Temperature
•Presence of air and Inert gas in the refrigeration system
(In a nut shell Head Pressure will be high when the
condensation is not taking place properly in the condenser i.e.
there is no proper heat transfer from the refrigerant to the
cooling medium)
Refrigeration systems
• Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR):
uses mechanical energy
• Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR): uses
thermal energy
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
1)CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM (BRINE TYPE)
COOLING TOWER
PUMP

Condenser
3
(WATER COOLED) LOW PR SIDE
4
HI PR SIDE
Expansion
Device Compressor

1 2

Evaporator
(WATER CHILLER)

## PUMP CHILLED WATER

AHU
FCU
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
2) DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
a) Split type( where condenser, compressor are kept outside the space to be
conditioned and only the diffuser is kept inside the space to be conditioned)

Condenser
3
(AIR / WATER COOLED) LOW PR SIDE
4
HI PR SIDE
Expansion
Device Compressor

FAN
1 2

DIFFUSER

SPACE TO BE CONDITIONED
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
3) DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
b) Window type( where condenser, compressor and diffuser are kept in the
same enclosure)

Condenser
3
(AIR COOLED) LOW PR SIDE
4
FAN
HI PR SIDE
Expansion
Device Compressor

FAN
1 2

DIFFUSER
MULTI REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Low pressure liquid refrigerant
in evaporator absorbs heat and Liquid passes through
changes to a gas expansion device,
which reduces its
pressure and controls
the flow into the
evaporator

## The high pressure

superheated gas is
cooled in several stages
in the condenser
The superheated
vapour enters the
compressor where
its pressure is
raised
CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERANT

## *) Low Boiling Point(Desirable saturation temperature - for operating

pressures)

*) Should not mix with the lubricating oil and change the characteristics of
the oil.

## *) Non-toxicity - not a health hazard

*) Stability – nonflammable / nonexplosive
*) Ease of leak detection
*) Low cost
CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERANT

## Note 1: *) Refrigerant is chosen on the basis of

the temperature required in the space and its
ecofriendliness

## Note 2: *) Chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs) or

Freon's: R-11, R-12, R-21, R-22 and R-502–
these are non ecofriendly and hence are being
replaced with R-134a, R-404, etc.
CONDENSOR & ITS TYPES
CONDENSOR IS USED TO COOL THE HIGH PRESSURE SUPER HEATED VAPOUR
TO HIGH PRESSURE SUB COOLED LIQUID

TYPES OF CONDENSOR:
*) WATER COOLED CONDENSER (SHELL & TUBE: In this, the tube carries
water and the shell carries the refrigerant)
*) AIR COOLED CONDENSER(The copper tube will be formed into the coil
through which the refrigerant passes and air will be blown on this tube
with the help of a fan. To improve the heat transfer from the tube,
aluminium fins are mounted on the tubes so as to improve the heat
transfer area. Now a days for the same purpose the tube surface is
provided with ribs
WATER COOLED: REFRIGERANT

WATER
ALUMINIUM COIL (OR) FINS TYPE:

ALUMINIUM FINS

REFRIGERANT(HOT GAS)

COPPER TUBES

The hot gas flows through copper tubes, the heat from gas is
absorbed/ taken by the aluminium fins.
Then the air is passed through it to cool or lower the temperature
of gas.
• Types of condensers:
• Air cooled condensers
• Air-cooled with water spray condensers
• Shell & tube condensers

## • Advantages of Water-cooled shell & tube

condenser
• Lower discharge pressure
• Higher TR
• Lower power consumption
COMPRESSOR AND ITS TYPES

## COMPRESSOR is used to draw the low-temperature, low-pressure

vapour from the evaporator via the suction line and convert into
high temperature , high pressure vapour.

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS:
*) CENTRIFUGAL *) SCROLL
*) SCREW *) RECIPROCATING
*) ROTARY *) HERMETICALLY SEALED
*) SEMI HERMETICALLY SEALED

## CENTRIFUGAL ,SCREW and SCROLL type compressors have high

capacities and high energy efficiency.

## RECIPROCATING & ROTARY type compressors have less capacity

and low energy efficiency.
HERMETICALLY SEALED COMPRESSORS are used up to capacities
30 TR. In this type the motor and the compressor are sealed in a
vacuum container. For any fault we have to cut open the
container.

## SEMI HERMETICALLY SEALED compressors are used up to 70/80

TR capacities. In this case on the same shaft the compressor is
fixed at one end and at the other end the motor is fixed. It is easy
for us to attend the work on the motor.
EVAPORATOR AND ITS TYPES

## THE EVAPORATOR IS USED TO CONVERT THE LOW PRESSURE WET

VAPOUR INTO LOW PRESSURE SUPER HEATED VAPOUR.

TYPES OF EVAPORATOR:
*) SHELL & TUBE
APPLICATION:- USED IN AIR COOLED CHILLERS
*) TUBE & FINS
APPLICATION:- WINDOWS AND SPLIT A/C
FLOW RATE THROUGH CONDENSOR/EVAPORATOR:
AS A STANDARD PRACTICE 3USGPM/TR OF WATER IS CIRCULATED
THROUGH THE CONDENSOR AND 2.5 USGPM/TR IS CIRCULATED
THROUGH THE EVAPORATOR

## SELECTION OF SUCTION & DISCHARGE PRESSURE:

SUCTION PRESSURE:

## *) SUCTION PRESSURE(EVAPORATOT PRESSURE) IS DETERMINED

ON THE BASIS OF TEMPERATURE OF THE SPACE OR THE PRODUCT
TO BE COOLED.
DISCHARGE PRESSURE:
*) DISCHARGE PRESSURE WILL BE DETERMINED BASED ON THE
TEMPERATURE OF THE COOLING MEDIUM LIKE AIR OR WATER.
( IF THE COOLING WATER/AIR TEMPERATURE IS HIGH THEN THE
DISCHAGRE PRESSURE WILL BE HIGH RESULTING IN LOW SYSTEM
EFFICIENCY.)

## EFFICIENT OPERATION OF THE A/C PLANT:

1)FOR COMFORT A/C, the OUTLET CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE shall
be maintained as high as possible between 47⁰ to 50⁰F (8⁰C to 10⁰C)
2)FOR PRECISION UNITS, BRINE OUTLET TEMPERATURE shall be
maintained at 40⁰F (4⁰C)
3) THE OPERATING DISCHARGE PRESSURE SHOULD BE CLOSE/EQUAL TO
DESIGN PRESSURE.
BASIC WORKING OF AIR HANDLING
UNIT CHILLED WATER
WITH 11⁰C TEMP
AHU/CANVAS
TEMP 15⁰C
RETURN AIR
AIR

AIR Y STAINER
FILTER

CHILLER FAN
WATER
COIL

CHILLED WATER
WITH 8⁰C TEMP
RETURN
AIR

24⁰C-25⁰C
SPACE TO BE
CONDITIONED AIR

## AIR TEMPERATURE IN THE

CONDITIONED SPACE NEEDS TO BE
22⁰C TO 23⁰C
PARAMETERS TO BE MONITERED FOR AHU
& FCU
1) THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SPACE TO BE CONDITIONED IS TO BE 22⁰C-
23⁰C

## 2) THE RETURN AIR TEMPERATURE MUST BE 24⁰C-25⁰C.

3) THE ∆T1(TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROOM AND RETURN AIR)
SHOULD BE 1⁰C OR 2⁰C

4) IF ∆T1 IS MORE THAN 2⁰C, THEN IT MEANS SOME EXTERNAL HOT AIR IS
MIXING WITH THE RETURN AIR.
5) THE ∆T2(TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RETURN AIR AND
AHU CANVAS OR FCU GRILLE TEMP) SHOULD BE 12⁰C-15⁰C

## 6) IF ∆T2 IS LESS THAN 12⁰C THEN IT MEANS THE HEAT TRANSFER

AT THE CHILLED WATER COIL IS IMPROPER.
IF SO WE HAVE TO CHECK THE FOLLOWING:

## *) THE CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE(TO BE ABOUT 8⁰C)

*) Y STRAINER CLEANLINESS
*) COIL & ALUMINIUM FINS CLEANLINESS
*) AIRFLOW IN cfm (400 cfm/TR FOR AHU, 600 cfm/TR FOR PACS)
*) AIR FILTER CLEANLINESS

## PACKAGE TYPE AIR CONDITIONING UNIT:

*) FOR CAPACITIES 5 TR AND ABOVE A PACKAGE TYPE A/C SYSTEM IS
USED.
*) THIS WILL HAVE A COMPRESSOR, A CONDENSOR(AIR OR WATER
COOLED), AND AN EVAPORATOR.
*) THIS UNIT WILL BE PLACED ON THE FLOOR INSIDE THE SPACE TO BE
COOLED.
*) THIS CAN BE OF DUCTABLE OR NONDUCTABLE UNIT, DEPENDING IN
THE REQUIREMENT
PRECISION AIR CONDITIONING UNIT (PAC):
This machine has a humidification system in addition to a package air
conditioning unit.

This PAC unit, in addition to having the room space at the designed
temperature(say 18 to 20⁰C especially computer data centres)
maintaining the %RH also between 45% to 55%
HUMIDIFICATION:
HUMIDIFICATION means increasing the humidity level, by adding water
molecule or steam to the air.

DEHUMIDIFICATION:
DEHUMIDIFICATION means decreasing the humidity level from the existing level,
by over cooling the air and then heating it to the desired level.
HUMIDIFICATION:
HUMIDIFICATION means increasing the humidity level, by adding water
molecule or steam to the air.

DEHUMIDIFICATION:
DEHUMIDIFICATION means decreasing the humidity level from the existing level,
by over cooling the air and then heating it to the desired level.
MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE LEVEL OF AN AC SYSTEM

1) COP(COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE)

## Cooling effect (kW)

COP =
Power input to compressor (kW)

## The term COP is dimensionless

2) EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio):

=
WATT INPUT

## *) NOTE: 1 KW = 3413 BTU.

3)REFRIGERATION UNIT:

## IT IS ALWAYS EXPRESSED IN TONS OF REFRIGERATION(TR).IT

MEANS IT WILL GIVE COOLING EFFECT EQUIVALENT OF 1 TON
OF ICE.

## 1TR = 3024 KCAL/HOUR OR 12000 BTU/HOUR.

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHART OF R-22 AND R-134a

## PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE CHART

TO FIND AIRFLOW IN CFM THROUGH AHU

1 2 3

4 5 6

IN FEET/MINUTE

## Q= AV IN CUBIC FEET / MIN

CONVERSION

⁰C = (⁰F -32)/18

⁰F = 1.8(⁰C)+32

HEAT POWER:
1 hp = 2545 BTUh

ELECTRICAL POWER:
1 hp = 746 W / 0.746 kW
COOLING TOWER

TOWER
COOLING
COOLING TOWER

## *) The entire heat gained from the conditioned space is finally

discharged into the atmosphere by the cooling tower.
*) The cooling tower uses the ‘water evaporation’ principle to
cool the condensor water.
COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWER

## • Frame and casing: support exterior enclosures

• Fill: fills are added to increase contact surface as well as
contact time between air and water. Thus they provide
better heat transfer. The efficiency of the tower also
depends on them

## • Cold water basin: receives water at bottom of

tower
• Drift eliminators: capture droplets in air stream that
otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere.
• Louvres: equalize air flow into the fill and retain water
within tower

## • Air inlet: entry point of air entering a tower.

• Nozzles: spray water to wet the fill
• Fans: deliver air flow in the tower.
Axial and centrifugal fans are used in cooling towers.
CLASSIFICATION OF COOLING TOWER

COOLING
TOWER

NATURAL MECHANICAL
DRAFT DRAFT

INDUCED FORCED
DRAFT DRAFT
Natural Draft Cooling Towers

## • Hot air moves through tower

• Fresh cool air is drawn into the tower from
bottom
• No fan required
• Concrete tower upto 200 m height.
• water flow rates is above 45,000 m3/hr due to
the larger size of the tower
• Used for large heat duties
Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers
• Large fans to force air through circulated water
• It uses power driven fan motors to force or draw
air through the tower.
• Water falls over fill surfaces which increases the
contact between water and air for maximum heat
transfer
• Cooling rates of Mechanical draft towers depend
upon their fan diameter and speed of operation
INDUCED:
An induced draft cooling tower where one or more fans are located on
top of the tower. Cooling air is pulled up through stack.
•Advantage: less recirculation than forced draft towers
•Disadvantage: fans and motor drive mechanism require weather-
proofing

FORCED:
A forced draft cooling tower where the fan or fans are located at the
bottom of the tower. Cooling air is pushed up through stack.
•Advantages: suited for high air resistance & fans are relatively quiet
•Disadvantages: recirculation due to high air-entry and low air-exit
velocities
INDUCED COUNTER FLOW DRAFT COOLING
TOWER
DRIFT
ELIMINATOR

*) Counter flow design mixes air and water in a vertical flow method where the
water is falling and the air is rising.
*) In the counter flow induced draft design, hot water enters at the top, while the
air is introduced at the bottom and exits at the top .
COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE

Performance Parameters
1. Wet Bulb temperature
2. Range
3. Approach
4. Effectiveness
5. Cooling capacity
6. Evaporation loss
7. Blow down
1.WET BULB TEMPERATURE
*) The wet-bulb temperature is the lowest temperature a
liquid may be cooled to by the process of evaporation.
*) The wet bulb temperature and the dry bulb temperature (i.e air
temperature) would then be used to calculate relative humidity

Ideally a cooling tower can cool the condenser water to the wet
bulb temperature. But this will be very expensive. Any cooling
tower will be designed to reduce the water temperature 5⁰F
above the wet bulb temperature.
2. Range
Difference between the temperatures of inlet and outlet
water of the cooling tower.

## Higher the RANGE BETTER the PERFORMANCE

3. Approach
Difference between cooling tower outlet water temperature
and the ambient wet bulb temperature:

## Lower the APPROACH(in °C) BETTER the performance

4. Effectiveness
Effectiveness in %

## High effectiveness = good performance

5. Cooling Capacity
Heat rejected in kCal/hr or tons of refrigeration (TR)

## TR = mass flow rate of water X specific heat X

temperature difference

## High cooling capacity = good performance

TR = Q x Cp x (Ti – To) / 3024
Q= mass flow rate of coolant in kg/hr
Cp = is coolant specific heat in kCal /kg deg C
Ti = inlet, temperature of coolant to evaporator (chiller) in 0C
To = outlet temperature of coolant from evaporator (chiller) in 0C

## 1 TR = 3024 kCal/hr heat rejected

6. Evaporation Loss
EVAPORATION LOSS (m3/hr)

## = 1.8 m3 of water is evaporated for every

10,000,000 kCal of heat rejected

(T1-T2)

## T1-T2 = Temp. difference in deg C between inlet and outlet

water
9.BLOW DOWN
The portion of the circulating water that is removed in order to
maintain the amount of dissolved solids and other impurities at
an acceptable level is called cooling tower blow down. It may
be noted that if we can ,somehow ,maintain higher TDS (total
dissolved solids) concentration in the circulating water ,it will
result in reduced blow down and hence water conservation .
However the higher the TDS concentration, the greater the risk
of scale, biological growth and corrosion.

## SCALE FORMATION CORROSION

LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASE
*) Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by legionella
bacteria
*) Infection is caused by breathing in droplets of water contaminated by the
bacteria.
*) These bacteria live between 25⁰C and 45⁰C. The bacteria are killed by high
temperature.

## PREVENTING THE RISK:

*) Consideration should be given to whether the risk can be prevented by
changing the type of water system that is used, e.g. replacing a wet cooling
tower with a dry air cooled system.
*) ensure the release of water spray is properly controlled;
*) ensure water cannot stagnate anywhere in the system by keeping pipe
lengths as short as possible or removing’
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