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Hawiyah Gas Plant

Expansion Project

M Martinez Garzón
What is a confined space?

Confined space is an enclosed or

partially enclosed space which:
Is at atmospheric pressure during
Is not intended or designed primarily as
a place of work
May have restricted means for entry and
have an atmosphere which contain potentially harmful
levels of contaminant
not have a safe oxygen level
cause engulfment
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Examples of confined spaces


Deep trenches

Silos and vessels

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Why is working in a confined space
more hazardous than working in
other workspaces?
Some examples include:

The entrance/exit of the confined space might not allow the worker to
get out in time should there be a flood or collapse of free-flowing solid.

Self-rescue by the worker is more difficult.

Rescue of the victim is more difficult. The interior configuration of the
confined space often does not allow easy movement of people or
equipment within it.
Natural ventilation alone will often not be sufficient to maintain breathable
quality air. The interior configuration of the confined space does not
allow easy movement of air within it.

Conditions can change very quickly.

The space outside the confined space can impact on the conditions inside
the confined space and vice versa.

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Hazards associated with
confined spaces
The following list in an example of hazards that may
arise while working in a confined space:
 Unsafe oxygen level
 Hazardous substances
 Flammable contaminants
 Engulfment

Other potential hazards are:

Mechanical Noise
Ignition Manual handling Environmenta
Electrical Radiation l

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If the confined space contains
lose materials can bridge or
break swallowing the worker
suffocating or crushing him
with their weight

Before getting into the confined space check for loose
materials and never get into the space proper authorization
and without completing and following a Work Permit and
taking precautions such as safety harness and safety line.

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Work preparation
The following steps must be taken into account
before entering into a confined space:

Identification - is this working place a confined space?

Work Permit- do we need a work permit?
Work Permit
Receiver- do we have trained people to carry
out the job?
and evaluation - do we know hazards present in the
confined space and surrounding areas?

Once these steps are completed we can begin

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Site preparation

1º Get a Work Permit

2º Isolation
3º Hazardous atmospheres

4ºExposure to products or
hazardous substances
5º Physical hazards
6º Access and egress Once you have evaluated
and identified the confined
7º Monitoring and observing spaces at your workplace,
inform employees verbally
8º Job completion and through signs and/or
other effective means.
9º Closing the Work Permit

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Work Permit

is an authorization
usually written, stating
that the space has been ARAMCO
tested by a qualified
person, that the space is Model of
safe for entry; what Confined
precautions, equipment,
etc. are required; and what
work is to be done. Work

To work in a confined space you may need to have

additional Work Permits such as Hot Work Permit

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Controlling hazardous atmospheres

Hazardous atmospheres can be controlled by:

-Testing for Oxygen levels

-Detecting exposures to
dangerous Substances
(toxic gases and vapours)

-Identifying flammable
substances and flammability

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Hazardous atmospheres

Unsafe oxygen levels

Oxygen Symptoms
21% None (normal oxygen level)
15 % No immediate effects
14% Fatigue, impaired judgment
10% Dizziness, shortness of breath, deeper
and more rapid breathing
7% Stupor set in
5% Minimum amount that will support life
2%-3% Death within a minute

When Oxygen exceeds 21%, flammable materials,

such as clothing and air will burn more violently if ignited
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Hazardous atmospheres
Depending on the product, a hazardous substance can take many
forms = gas, powder, liquid, solid or dust
The degree of hazard depends on the concentration of the

The main route of

exposure to dangerous
substances are

Common hazardous substances in the workplace include:

Acids - Caustic substances – Disinfectants
Glues - Heavy metals - Paint
Pesticides - Petroleum products - Solvents.
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Hazardous atmospheres

Flammable and Explosive atmospheres can

be caused by gas, vapour mist dust

Flammable means: Catches on fire easily and burns rapidly

Lower Flammable Limit (LFL), or lower explosive limit (LEL),

is the lowest concentration of air-fuel mixture at which a gas or
vapor can ignite.

Upper Flammable Limit (UFL), or upper explosive limit (UEL),

is the highest concentration of air-fuel mixture that can be

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Tagging and isolation procedures

Isolation of a confined space

is the process where the space
is removed from service by:


Electrical sources preferable at disconnected
switches remote from the equipment


Pneumatic and hydraulics lines, pipes with fluids,
entry of products, etc


Mechanical moving parts within the confined space
or in the vicinity if their movements can affect the
security of the confined space

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Preventative measures

There are several methods for ventilating a confined space. The
method and equipment chosen are dependent upon the size of the
confined space openings, the gases to be diluted (e.g., are they
flammable?), and the source of makeup air.


Should always be done prior to
entry and whenever possible
From outside of the confined

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Physical hazards

The following are same examples of

physical hazards:
Narrow spaces with difficulty for movements

Electrical equipment (Lighting systems rated 25V or less are

preferred, a ground circuit interrupter for any temporary 110 V
inside of the confined space must be provided)
Mechanical moving elements
Slick wet surfaces
Falling objects
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Access and egress

Two aspects of access and egress must be considered

where confined space entry is required:
*Safe controlled passage under normal
or routine conditions where workers
are aware and prepared for unavoidable

*The need for swift evacuation in the

event of emergency or alarm

*Where access is required at heights for

other than the simplest operations it is
essential that a working platform or
approved / tagged scaffold be considered.

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Monitoring and observing
*No person should enter a *The stand by man must be
confined space unless an identified on the Entry Permit
stand by man is appointed and must attend at all times the
and positioned at the point of confined space is occupied

*The stand by man must also be conversant with emergency

procedures and in constant communication with the occupants
of the confined space.
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Emergency procedures

What is an emergency?
Any occurrence inside or outside of the confined space, that may
endanger authorized confined space entrants.

In case of an emergency:
*Raise the alarm using a radio or any other system previously
*Evacuate the confined space if possible
*Never enter into the confined space until help arrives
*Ensure the access to the area and to the confined space are
free of obstructions
*Provide assistance to the rescue team as required

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Emergency Personal
Protective Equipment
In addition to the normal PPE, other equipment may
be required to ensure the safety of the entrant in the
confined space:

For contaminated Safety harness for

atmospheres easy evacuation

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Job completion

1º At the end of the shift or the time allowed

by the Work Permit you must:

*Clean up the confined space

*Store or take out tools and not required materials
*Ensure of the workers get out of the confined space
*Leave the confined space in secure and safe conditions
to reinitiating the job the next time
*Close the Confined Space Work Permit and any other
related Work Permit used

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Job completion

2º When the job has been totally completed you must:

*Inform you supervisor who will check if the job have been properly
*Clean up the confined space
*Withdrew all tools and auxiliary equipment from inside of the
confined space
*Ensure no body remain inside of the confined space and all entrants
have accounted for before leaving the area
*Leave the area around the confined space clean , free of unnecessary
equipment or materials and safe for use and work

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Closing the Work Permit

Once you have taken all the necessary

actions to ensure the completion of the
job and the safety of the area



M Martinez Garzón