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Anatomy and Physiology of the

Prepared By Dr. Muhammad Anees
Structure :
• The stomach is part of the digestive system.
The stomach is connected to the:
• esophagus – a tube-like organ that connects
the mouth and throat to the stomach
• small intestine – a long tube-like organ that
extends from the stomach.
duodenum – the first section that connects to the
jejunum – the middle section.
ileum – the last section.
The Stomach
• It secretes mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes,
including a pepsinogen, gastric lipase; the
hormone gastrin, and intrinsic factor (helps in the
absorbtion of Vit.B12)
• Stomach secretes about 2000-2500 ml of gastric
juice daily.
• Protein digestion begins with pepsinogen which is
converted to active pepsin by HCL.
• Chief cells secrete acid-stable gastric lipase, which
has minor effect on Fats hydrolysis into free fatty
• Very little absorption of nutrients.
• The stomach is a ‘J’ shaped organ of the
gastrointestinal tract, directly inferior to
the diaphragm.
• In the GI tract, it connects the
oesophagus to the duodenum.
• Its position and size varies continuously,
with the diaphragm pushing it inferiorly
during inspiration and pulling superiorly
on expiration.
Layers of the stomach wall :
• The stomach is made up of several layers of tissue:
• The mucosa (mucous membrane) is the inner lining of
the stomach. It has many glands that produce:
– mucus to protect the tissues from the acid produced for
– hydrochloric acid
– digestive enzymes
• The next layer is the submucosa. It is a layer of
connective tissue that has large blood vessels, lymph
glands, nerve cells and fibres, and glands that secrete
digestive hormone.
• The muscularis propria is the next layer. It is the main
muscle of the stomach and is made up of 3 layers of
• The serosa is the fibrous membrane covering the
outside of the stomach.
The stomach is divided into 5 regions:
• The anterior cardia is the small area in the upper portion of the stomach
near the esophagus.
– This region includes the cardiac sphincter, which is a ring of muscle where the
esophagus and stomach join. The cardiac sphincter acts as a valve that prevents
the stomach contents from going back up into the esophagus.
– The area where the esophagus and stomach join is called the gastroesophageal
(GE) junction.
• The fundus is the area below the cardia, but it balloons out above it.
– The fundus serves as a temporary storage area for food.
• The body is the main part of the stomach.
– The body of the stomach is where the food becomes mixed and broken down.
• The antrum is the lower part of the stomach.
– The antrum holds the broken down food, until it is ready to be released into the
small intestine.
• The pylorus is the narrow, bottom part of the stomach near the small
– This region includes the pyloric sphincter, which is a ring of muscle that acts as
a valve to control the emptying of stomach contents into the small intestine.
• The stomach serves as a temporary storage area for food
that has been eaten. It also begins the process of
• When food enters the stomach from the esophagus, the
muscularis contracts and relaxes to mix the food.
• The glands in the mucosa secrete enzymes that work with
the stomach acid to break down the food.
• The food is broken down into a liquid called chyme.
• Small amounts of nutrients are absorbed by the mucosa
layer of the stomach.
• The chyme then passes through the pyloric sphincter into
the small intestine for further digestion and absorption.