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CARBON CAPTURE &

SEQUESTRATION/UTILISATION

BY
M V RAMACHANDRA RAO
What Is CO2?
 Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of
one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O2). CO2 is just
one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth.
Facts of CO2
 When a ton of carbon combines with oxygen, it makes nearly four
tons of CO2 gas.
 Under normal conditions, CO2 is a gas. At temperatures below -78°C
(-109°F), CO2 condenses into a white solid called dry ice.
 CO2 is produced naturally by processes deep in the earth.
 Every day, millions of tons of CO2 are injected into underground
geologic zones to help produce oil in a well-known industry
practice called "CO2 flooding.
 As a major greenhouse gas,CO2 helps create and maintain the
natural greenhouse effect that keeps our planet hospitable to life.
SOURCES OF CO2
Natural sources
 Decomposition, ocean release and respiration.
Human sources
 cement production, deforestation as well as the burning of fossil fuels
CARBON CYCLE
Global Warming
 What is Global Warming?
 Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to
effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil
fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from
Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect.
 What are the Greenhouse Gases?
 water vapor, 36–70%
 carbon dioxide, 9–26%
 methane, 4–9%
 ozone, 3–7%
It is not physically realistic to assign a specific
percentage to each gas because the absorption and
emission bands of the gases overlap
 The most significant greenhouse gas is actually water vapor, not something
produced directly by humankind in significant amounts.
 Even slight increases in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) can cause a
substant
 Why is this?
 There are two reasons: First, although the concentrations of these gases are not
nearly as large as that of oxygen and nitrogen (the main constituents of the
atmosphere), neither oxygen or nitrogen are greenhouse gases. This is because
neither has more than two atoms per molecule (i.e. their molecular forms are
O2 and N2, respectively), and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that
molecules with more than two atoms have. Both water and CO2, for example, have
these "internal vibrational modes", and these vibrational modes can absorb and
reradiate infrared radiation, which causes the greenhouse effect. ial increase in
temperature.
 Secondly, CO2 tends to remain in the atmosphere for a very long time (time scales
in the hundreds of years). Water vapor, on the other hand, can easily condense or
evaporate, depending on local conditions.
Rising Seas--- inundation of fresh water marshlands Changes in rainfall patterns --- droughts
(the everglades), low-lying cities, and islands with and fires in some areas, flooding in other
seawater areas

Melting of the ice caps --- loss of


habitat near the poles. Polar bears
are now thought to be greatly
endangered by the shortening of
their feeding season due to
dwindling ice packs.
Melting glaciers - significant melting of old glaciers is Widespread vanishing of animal populations --
already observed. - following widespread habitat loss

Spread of disease --- migration of diseases such as


malaria to new, now warmer, regions.
Muir Glacier, August, 1941
Muir Glacier, August, 2004
2009 2100

Global CO2 Emissions 36.31 Gtons 98.96 Gtons


giga tons per year

Atmospheric CO2 390.43 ppm 882.87 ppm


parts per million

Global Temperature Increase 0.81°C 4.47°C


mean projection relative to 1.46°F 8.04°F
pre-industrial

Source: Climate Interactive CROADS version 3.014 run April 22, 2013 based on
confirmed proposals as of April 19, 2013.
 Energy efficient methods
 Renewable energy
 Alternate fuels
 Alternate raw materials
 Plantation
 Scrubbing towers
 CCS
WORLD PROJECTION
CARBON CAPTURE & SEQUESTRATION/UTILISATION
 CCS: Carbon capture and storage (CCS), refers to a set of
technologies designed to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
from largepoint sources such as coal-fired power plants to mitigate
greenhouse gas production.
 CCS technology (or sequestration) involves capturing CO2 and then
storing the carbon in a reervoir other than the atmosphere.
 An integrated CCS system would include three main steps:
 1. capturing and separating CO2;
 2. compressing and transporting the captured CO2 to the
sequestration site; and
 3. sequestering CO2 in geological reservoirs or in the oceans

LATEST IS UTILISATION OF CO2 FOR VARIOUS APPICATIONS


CAPTURING CO2
 The first step in CCS is to capture CO2 at the source and produce a concentrated
stream for transport and storage.

post-
combustion

Capture
of CO2

oxy-fuel
pre-
combustion combustion
capture
This process involves extracting CO2 from the flue gas following combustion of fossil
fuels or biom
 Several commercially available technologies, some involving absorption using
chemical solvents.

1 Solvents and Sorbents for CO2 separation


2 Advanced Membranes
Solvents and Sorbents for CO2 separation Advanced Membranes

P1 P2
Membrane
Flue gas separation
CO2

Un permeated gas

Polyimide hollow fiber membranes


Hollow-fiber tubes with each individual fiber shaped like a
Absorption of CO2 by MEA at 40°C long drinking straw. The fiber membranes preferentially
MEA recovery by desorption at 120°C allow small molecules like CO2 to pass through the fiber
walls or permeate faster. The fiber is made from cellulose
tri-acetate (CTA) polymer.
Pre-Combustion Capture
AIR

Steam H2 Heat
reformi
CH4 or N G exchan
ng
ge H2O

CO2

POWER & HEAT


CCS

This technique is used for internal combustion like GT power plants, IGCC and not
for external combustion like in cement plants & ST power plants
CO2 TRANSPORTATION
 Pipelines are the most common method for
transporting CO2
 Predominately to oil and gas fields, where it is used
for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

 Using ships may be feasible when CO2 needs to be


transported over large distances or overseas
 Rail cars and trucks can also transport CO2, but
this mode would probably be uneconomical for
large-scale CCS operations.
 Costs for pipeline transport vary, depending
on construction, operation and maintenance
 Placement of carbon dioxide from emissions of factories and power plants deep
into the ground or ocean for storage
 Storage possibilities include:
 Deep ocean
 Saltwater aquifers
 Oil and natural gas reservoirs

Pumping CO2 into oil and gas


reservoirs to boost production
(enhanced oil recovery, or EOR) is
practiced in the petroleum industry
today.
The advantage of using this technique
for long-term CO2 storage is that
sequestration costs can be partially
offset by revenues from oil and gas
production
Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt involves the injecting of CO2 into deep-sea formations. The CO
2 first mixes with seawater and then reacts with the basalt, both of which are alkaline-rich elements. This
reaction results in the release of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions forming stable carbonate minerals
CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION
Electro catalysis by a copper complex helps reduce carbon
dioxide to oxalic acid. This conversion use carbon dioxide as a feedstock
to generate oxalic acid.

Mineral Carbonation

Carbon, in the form of CO2 can be removed


from the atmosphere by chemical processes,
and stored in stable carbonate mineral forms.

The process involves reacting carbon dioxide with


abundantly available metal oxides–
either magnesium oxide(MgO) or calcium oxide
(CaO)–to form stable carbonates

The reaction rate can be made faster, for example


by reacting at higher temperatures and/or
pressures, or by pre-treatment.
 Bio sequestration is the capture and storage of the
atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by
biological processes.
Enhanced photosynthesis
Enhanced soil carbon trapping
Algal bio sequestration

Enhanced photosynthesis : Modifying RuBisCO genes


in plants to increase the catalytic and/or oxygenation
activity of that enzyme
An algae bioreactor or photo bioreactor is used for
cultivating algae on purpose to fix CO2 or
produce biomass
This kind of bioreactor is based on
the photosynthetic reaction which is performed by
the chlorophyll-containing algae itself using
dissolved carbon dioxide and sunlight energy.
UTILISATION OF CAPTURED CO2
 Captured CO2 can be sent to different industries/application where CO2 is used
 Fire fighting systems
 Carbonated water
 Now a days CO2 I being used as a coolant in nuclear reactor.
 Dry ice : cold storage media
 Co2 can be used as a refrigerant fluid .
 Some industries need CO2 for polymerisation, powder industry, purging gas,
pharmaceutical industry and chemical reagent.
 Working fluid in separation technology like solvent extraction.
 exhaust studies are going on to use CO2 as a working fluid instead of steam in
power plants as attaining super critical state is more easier for CO2 than water.
 supercritical properties of carbon dioxide at above 500 °C and 20 MPa enable
very high thermal efficiencies, approaching 45 percent.
Supercritical CO2 is forced through the green coffee beans which are then sprayed with
water at high pressure to remove the caffeine. The caffeine can then be isolated for resale
(e.g. to the pharmaceutical industry or to beverage manufacturers)
UTILISATION OF CAPTURED CO2
 Princeton University, uses electricity and catalysts (what they are is a secret), to make chemicals
from carbon dioxide, and seems to have progressed to having a near-commercial process to make
ethylene glycol. electricity used can come from solar panels

BASF, and a US company, Novomer, are capturing CO2 from power plants
or other waste sources, using novel catalysts to make polypropylene
carbonate.
.
This plastic can be used for coatings, adhesives, foams and packaging
and can replace other plastics in these applications that are currently
made from oil. Both companies are moving towards commercial
processes.

Bayer, another large German chemical company, is also advancing a process to make
polyurethane foams using carbon dioxide.
SOLAR-JET PROJECT
A more brute force approach is that taken by the Solar Jet programme in Switzerland, led by Dr Aldo
Steinfeld of ETH-Zurich collaborating with Shell.
They designed a reactor that generates very high temperatures from solar energy to break
down carbon dioxide and water, converting them to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. From this
mixture they can make kerosene for jet fuel called solar kerosene

Although in an early stage of development, the process


uses a solar-driven redox cycle with metal-oxide based
materials at high temperatures to rearrange electrons,
converting carbon dioxide and water into hydrogen and
carbon monoxide, also known as synthesis gas

The process is then completed using the Fischer-


Tropsch process, which is already approved to create
fuel for commercial aviation

the process takes the hydrogen and carbon monoxide


from the syngas, and creates kerosene in liquid form

The solar reactor technology features enhanced


radiative heat transfer and fast reaction kinetics,
UTILISATION OF CAPTURED CO2
 Calera : demonstrated an innovative process to directly mineralize CO2 in flue
gas to carbonates and convert them to materials directly usable in the construction
industry.
 Renewable Energy Institute International (REII) (McClellan, Calif.)—REII
processed CO2 and natural gas in a solar reformer to produce syngas suitable for a
Fischer-Tropsch process for making liquid fuels.
 Skyonic Corporation (Austin, Texas)—Skyonic demonstrated its patented
SkyMine® process to remove CO2 from industrial waste streams and generate
saleable carbonate and/or bicarbonate materials.
 Research Triangle Institute (RTI) (Durham, N.C.)—RTI, along with Kellogg, Brown
and Root (KBR) and Süd Chemie, will use CO2 and waste fuel gas stream in existing
ethylene production facilities to produce pipe line quality synthetic natural gas.
Source : Cost Implications of Carbon Capture and Storage for the Coal Power Plants in India
Anand B. Rao , Piyush Kumar
Department of Energy Science & Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Source : Cost Implications of Carbon Capture and Storage for the Coal Power Plants in India
Anand B. Rao , Piyush Kumar
Department of Energy Science & Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Conclusion:
This technology will need special policy incentives (domestic and international) so
that the Indian Industrial sector could consider it as a viable option.