Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Thought.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system. .

Rheumatoid arthritis .The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.

What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. .  Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Meaning and personal significance.  Anger or joy. .Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Vary in intensity and quality.

clenched fists.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. .  Autonomic and hormonal systems.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.  Body prepared for action.  Alert posture.

 Social and evolutionary advantage.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force. .  Motivation to take action.  Why people benefit from emotions.

How person reacts to event. Helps us interpret the situation. Verbal and nonverbal communication. . vocalizations.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. gestures. Postures. facial expressions make our emotions public.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Tell when someone is being authentic. .  Foundation for other branches.  Non-verbal communication.  Express accurate emotions for situation.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 ³Care enough to send the very best. .´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Jealousy and envy are destructive. .  Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.

and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. (Select the best choice. he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     .

 Seek natural means rather than alcohol. tobacco or other drugs.  Stress coping strategies.  Productive ways to change mood. .  Avoid over and under regulation.  Use optimistic explanatory style.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.

.Very Effective       ..3...Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1. She was feeling peaceful and content..........4....5.. Very Ineffective.2..1..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway...... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do...3.... Debbie just came back from vacation..... Very Ineffective.4......4.. Very Ineffective.5....5......3....1.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation..1.2.2....

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA.

Contribute to illness. . Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos.

Coping styles could aid healing. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.

Function of pain. It hurts.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. . Something is wrong and must be corrected. Negative states signal an alert. get help.

Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.

Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. . Seek help.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help.

 Belief that you will get well.  Strength to confront illness.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Positive .  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Do what you can to support recovery.  Creativity in thought and action.

5 years post surgery. optimists had healthier habits.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) .

Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. .Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.

. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease.Social Support        With social support. Faster recovery from surgery. Improved coping with illness.

Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. .Affect on Health  1. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.  2. Not just under stress. depending on the nature of the stressor.  Both are possible. Only when needed.

Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Develop and maintain social network. . Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Know that help will be provided if needed.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience.

Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .  A topic for later discussion.