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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. . Link between mind and body is the immune system. Thought.
The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis . Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. Emotions are private experiences. . We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Vary in intensity and quality. Meaning and personal significance.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. . Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Anger or joy.
clenched fists. . Autonomic and hormonal systems. Body prepared for action.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Alert posture.
Why people benefit from emotions. Motivation to take action.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Social and evolutionary advantage. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. .
vocalizations. gestures.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. How person reacts to event. . Helps us interpret the situation. Postures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. facial expressions make our emotions public.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Tell when someone is being authentic. Recognizing facial expressions. Express accurate emotions for situation. . Non-verbal communication.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Foundation for other branches.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. Improve problem solving and boost creativity. . Emotional component to motivation.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. ³Care enough to send the very best.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Read a situation and respond correctly. . Emotions and behavioral consequences. Jealousy and envy are destructive.
When his supervisor brought him an additional project. (Select the best choice. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.
Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Use optimistic explanatory style. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Avoid over and under regulation. Stress coping strategies. . Productive ways to change mood. tobacco or other drugs.
3..5..... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..Very Effective .Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1. Very Ineffective....4..1.1.........Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5.... Very Ineffective........ Debbie just came back from vacation...5..2.. She was feeling peaceful and content.3.. Very Ineffective...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway................4.1...4.3.2...2.
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. Cardiovascular and immune systems. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.
Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. . Undesirable events suppress immune system.
Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .
Talk about illness. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. .Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions.
Function of pain. It hurts. Something is wrong and must be corrected. Negative states signal an alert. . get help.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment.
Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.
. Not seek help. Seek help.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.
Do what you can to support recovery.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Creativity in thought and action. Personal resources to seek solutions. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Positive . Strength to confront illness. Belief that you will get well.
Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) .Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery. optimists had healthier habits.
Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.
Social Support With social support. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery. . Lower incidence of heart disease. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Decreased levels of stress.
Only when needed. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. Both are possible. . Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. 2.Affect on Health 1. depending on the nature of the stressor. Not just under stress.
Know that help will be provided if needed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Develop and maintain social network. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. .
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. A topic for later discussion. .
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