Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought. Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. .

) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis .  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.

.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.  Emotions are private experiences.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Meaning and personal significance.  Vary in intensity and quality.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Anger or joy.

 Body prepared for action. clenched fists. .  Alert posture.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.

 Motivation to take action.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. .  Why people benefit from emotions.  Social and evolutionary advantage.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.

vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation. How person reacts to event. .Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Postures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. gestures. facial expressions make our emotions public.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Non-verbal communication.  Tell when someone is being authentic.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Recognizing facial expressions. .  Foundation for other branches.  Express accurate emotions for situation.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 Emotional component to motivation.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking. .  ³Care enough to send the very best.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Some emotional responses are maladaptive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Jealousy and envy are destructive. .

Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . he felt ____. (Select the best choice. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.

tobacco or other drugs.  Productive ways to change mood.  Avoid over and under regulation.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol. .Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Stress coping strategies.  Use optimistic explanatory style.

...4..1.... Very Ineffective..2..... Debbie just came back from vacation....3..5.4..... Very Ineffective. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.....2...Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5...3.3..Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway....Very Effective       ... She was feeling peaceful and content....1... Very Ineffective...4..1.....5..2....

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. .S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system.

Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Contribute to illness. .

Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing. Talk about illness.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. . release pent-up negative emotions.

Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help. Function of pain. It hurts. . Negative states signal an alert.

Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .

Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. .Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help. Seek help.

 Do what you can to support recovery.  Personal resources to seek solutions.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Belief that you will get well.  Creativity in thought and action.  Positive .  Strength to confront illness.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.

5 years post surgery. optimists had healthier habits. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. (1989) .Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery.

.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.

Social Support        With social support. Decreased levels of stress. Faster recovery from surgery. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. . Lower incidence of heart disease. Improved coping with illness.

depending on the nature of the stressor. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. .  2. Not just under stress.Affect on Health  1. Only when needed.  Both are possible. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.

Know that help will be provided if needed. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Develop and maintain social network. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. .

Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.  A topic for later discussion. .

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