Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

. Thought.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.

The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis .

What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. .  Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Anger or joy.  Vary in intensity and quality.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Meaning and personal significance. .

.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. clenched fists.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.  Alert posture.  Body prepared for action.

 Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Social and evolutionary advantage. .  Why people benefit from emotions.  Motivation to take action.

. Postures. facial expressions make our emotions public.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. gestures. vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Helps us interpret the situation. How person reacts to event.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Non-verbal communication.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Foundation for other branches. .  Tell when someone is being authentic.  Express accurate emotions for situation.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  ³Care enough to send the very best.  Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Some emotional responses are maladaptive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Emotions and behavioral consequences. .

he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. (Select the best choice.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.

 Seek natural means rather than alcohol.  Productive ways to change mood.  Stress coping strategies.  Avoid over and under regulation. tobacco or other drugs.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills. .  Use optimistic explanatory style.

...3.. She was feeling peaceful and content.5.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do......2. Very Ineffective...........Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway..4....1...5..Very Effective       ......4.5...3.. Very Ineffective..1. Debbie just came back from vacation..... Very Ineffective.....2.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation..

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .

S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. .

. Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos.

Coping styles could aid healing.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function. release pent-up negative emotions.

It hurts.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Something is wrong and must be corrected. Negative states signal an alert. get help. Function of pain. .

Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.

Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). . Not seek help. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Seek help.

 Belief that you will get well.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Strength to confront illness.  Positive .  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Creativity in thought and action.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Do what you can to support recovery.

Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) . 5 years post surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. optimists had healthier habits.

. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.

. Faster recovery from surgery. Decreased levels of stress. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.Social Support        With social support. Lower incidence of heart disease. Improved coping with illness.

Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times.Affect on Health  1. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.  Both are possible.  2. . Not just under stress. Only when needed. depending on the nature of the stressor.

Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Know that help will be provided if needed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. .Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience.

 A topic for later discussion.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .

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