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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Thought. .
Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. Emotions are private experiences. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Meaning and personal significance. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Vary in intensity and quality. Anger or joy.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. .
clenched fists. Body prepared for action. Autonomic and hormonal systems. .Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Alert posture.
.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Social and evolutionary advantage. Why people benefit from emotions. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. Motivation to take action.
Postures. Helps us interpret the situation. facial expressions make our emotions public. How person reacts to event. vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. gestures. .
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Foundation for other branches. .Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Express accurate emotions for situation. Non-verbal communication. Tell when someone is being authentic. Recognizing facial expressions.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
.´ Using emotion to help make decisions.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. Improve problem solving and boost creativity. Emotional component to motivation. ³Care enough to send the very best.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Read a situation and respond correctly. Emotions and behavioral consequences. . Jealousy and envy are destructive. Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.
When his supervisor brought him an additional project.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . he felt ____.
Seek natural means rather than alcohol. . Productive ways to change mood.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Stress coping strategies. Avoid over and under regulation. Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs.
5....Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1......... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.. Very Ineffective. Very Ineffective.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation..2...4..1....4.... Very Ineffective.... Debbie just came back from vacation.......4.2...1...1. She was feeling peaceful and content..5..3....3.....5...2...Very Effective ...3..
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system . Cardiovascular and immune systems.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.
Undesirable events suppress immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. . Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.
. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.
Something is wrong and must be corrected. . It hurts.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help. Negative states signal an alert. Function of pain.
Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.
Seek help. .Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Not seek help.
Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Belief that you will get well. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Creativity in thought and action. Do what you can to support recovery. Positive . Strength to confront illness. Personal resources to seek solutions.
Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. (1989) . optimists had healthier habits.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. 5 years post surgery.
.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.
Social Support With social support. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery. Decreased levels of stress. . Lower incidence of heart disease. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.
2. depending on the nature of the stressor. Only when needed. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. Both are possible. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times.Affect on Health 1. . Not just under stress.
Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Develop and maintain social network. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. .Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Know that help will be provided if needed.
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. . A topic for later discussion.
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