Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system. Thought. .Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing.

The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.

 Emotions are private experiences.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Rooted in mental processes (labeling). .  Meaning and personal significance.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Anger or joy.  Vary in intensity and quality.

clenched fists. .Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.  Body prepared for action.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.  Alert posture.

 Motivation to take action. .  Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Social and evolutionary advantage.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.

vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Helps us interpret the situation. facial expressions make our emotions public. . Postures. gestures. How person reacts to event.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Tell when someone is being authentic.  Non-verbal communication.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Foundation for other branches. .  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Recognizing facial expressions.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 Emotional component to motivation.  ³Care enough to send the very best.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Some emotional responses are maladaptive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.  Jealousy and envy are destructive. .Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.

Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. (Select the best choice.

 Avoid over and under regulation.  Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills. .  Stress coping strategies.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.  Productive ways to change mood.

.......... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do...2.....3. Very Ineffective...Very Effective       ...5....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway....5. Debbie just came back from vacation....2.1....1........3....2....4. Very Ineffective...1..4.4.5.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.....Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content..3. Very Ineffective..

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Cardiovascular and immune systems.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.

Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. . Positive moods boost the immune system. Undesirable events suppress immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels.

Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. . Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. Contribute to illness.

Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Talk about illness. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing.

get help. It hurts. Negative states signal an alert. Function of pain.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Something is wrong and must be corrected. .

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Seek help. Not seek help. .Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).

 Belief that you will get well.  Do what you can to support recovery.  Positive .  Strength to confront illness.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Creativity in thought and action.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.

Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery. (1989) . Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.

.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.

Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. . Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support        With social support. Improved coping with illness. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.

 2. . Not just under stress.Affect on Health  1. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. depending on the nature of the stressor. Only when needed.  Both are possible. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times.

Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Develop and maintain social network. Know that help will be provided if needed. . Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.

 A topic for later discussion. .Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.

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