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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. . Thought. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.
Rheumatoid arthritis . Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
Emotions are private experiences.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. . We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Anger or joy. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Vary in intensity and quality.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Meaning and personal significance. .
Bodily Arousal Biological activation. clenched fists. Body prepared for action. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. . Autonomic and hormonal systems. Alert posture.
Social and evolutionary advantage. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. . Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Motivation to take action.
How person reacts to event.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. gestures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Postures. . vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation. facial expressions make our emotions public.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
. Tell when someone is being authentic. Express accurate emotions for situation.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Non-verbal communication. Recognizing facial expressions. Foundation for other branches.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
. Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. ³Care enough to send the very best. Improve problem solving and boost creativity.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Jealousy and envy are destructive. Emotions and behavioral consequences. Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. . Read a situation and respond correctly.
(Select the best choice.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.
Productive ways to change mood. Stress coping strategies. Avoid over and under regulation. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. . tobacco or other drugs. Use optimistic explanatory style.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills.
1..4..2..4....1. Very Ineffective...... Very Ineffective..3.....2.3.... She was feeling peaceful and content..1.........5.....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway........Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1...Very Effective .Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5. Very Ineffective....2.. Debbie just came back from vacation...4.3..5. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.......
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. Cardiovascular and immune systems. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .
Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Undesirable events suppress immune system. .S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels.
Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
Negative emotional states reduce immune function. . release pent-up negative emotions. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Coping styles could aid healing.
Something is wrong and must be corrected. get help. . It hurts. Function of pain. Negative states signal an alert.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment.
Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.
.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Seek help.
Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Do what you can to support recovery. Creativity in thought and action. Strength to confront illness. Personal resources to seek solutions. Belief that you will get well. Positive .
Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. (1989) . Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. 5 years post surgery. optimists had healthier habits. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.
´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.
Lower incidence of heart disease. .Social Support With social support. Improved coping with illness. Decreased levels of stress. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Faster recovery from surgery.
Affect on Health 1. Only when needed. 2. . Not just under stress. depending on the nature of the stressor. Both are possible. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.
Know that help will be provided if needed. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. . Develop and maintain social network.
A topic for later discussion.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .
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