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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system. .Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought.
Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.
What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. . We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. Emotions are private experiences.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Rooted in mental processes (labeling).Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. . Meaning and personal significance. Vary in intensity and quality. Anger or joy.
Autonomic and hormonal systems.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Body prepared for action. . Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. clenched fists. Alert posture.
Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. Motivation to take action.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. . Why people benefit from emotions. Social and evolutionary advantage.
Helps us interpret the situation. . vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Postures. How person reacts to event.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. facial expressions make our emotions public. gestures.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Non-verbal communication. Recognizing facial expressions. Express accurate emotions for situation.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Tell when someone is being authentic. Foundation for other branches. .
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
Improve problem solving and boost creativity. Emotional component to motivation. ³Care enough to send the very best. .´ Using emotion to help make decisions.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. . Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Emotions and behavioral consequences. Jealousy and envy are destructive. Read a situation and respond correctly.
(Select the best choice. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project. he felt ____.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery .Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.
Use optimistic explanatory style. . Productive ways to change mood. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Avoid over and under regulation. tobacco or other drugs. Stress coping strategies.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills.
.......4......1..3.2.............5... Very Ineffective. Debbie just came back from vacation. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do...... She was feeling peaceful and content..5...2..2.1..4.. Very Ineffective.....4.3..Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..... Very Ineffective.5.1..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway....3...Very Effective ..Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Cardiovascular and immune systems.
Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Positive moods boost the immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. . Undesirable events suppress immune system.
Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. Contribute to illness. .Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
Coping styles could aid healing. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. .Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. release pent-up negative emotions.
get help. Negative states signal an alert. It hurts. . Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Function of pain.
Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.
Not seek help. Seek help. .Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.
Personal resources to seek solutions. Belief that you will get well. Positive . Creativity in thought and action. Strength to confront illness. Do what you can to support recovery. Focus on and plan for future outcomes.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.
Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. (1989) . optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.
.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.
. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery. Lower incidence of heart disease. Decreased levels of stress.Social Support With social support.
Both are possible. Only when needed. Not just under stress. depending on the nature of the stressor. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. . 2.Affect on Health 1. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times.
Know that help will be provided if needed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. . Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.
A topic for later discussion.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .
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