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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought. .
Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis .
Emotions are private experiences. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. . We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
. Vary in intensity and quality.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Anger or joy. Meaning and personal significance. Rooted in mental processes (labeling).
Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Body prepared for action. clenched fists. Alert posture. . Autonomic and hormonal systems. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.
.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Why people benefit from emotions. Social and evolutionary advantage. Motivation to take action. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.
gestures. . vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Helps us interpret the situation. How person reacts to event. facial expressions make our emotions public. Postures.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Non-verbal communication. . Foundation for other branches.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Tell when someone is being authentic. Express accurate emotions for situation. Recognizing facial expressions.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
´ Using emotion to help make decisions.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. . ³Care enough to send the very best. Emotional component to motivation. Improve problem solving and boost creativity.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Emotions and behavioral consequences.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Jealousy and envy are destructive. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Read a situation and respond correctly. .
Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. he felt ____.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . (Select the best choice. When his supervisor brought him an additional project. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.
Productive ways to change mood. Use optimistic explanatory style.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Stress coping strategies. Avoid over and under regulation. . Seek natural means rather than alcohol. tobacco or other drugs.
4.. Debbie just came back from vacation...1.3.Very Effective .....4..5.2...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway. Very Ineffective......Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1......2.....Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation......3.... Very Ineffective..5.....1....4.3. Very Ineffective...5..2....... She was feeling peaceful and content.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..1..
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Cardiovascular and immune systems.
Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. .S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system. Undesirable events suppress immune system.
Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. Contribute to illness. .Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
Coping styles could aid healing.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. .
Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. It hurts. . Function of pain. Something is wrong and must be corrected. Negative states signal an alert. get help.
Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .
Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Not seek help.
Positive . Belief that you will get well. Personal resources to seek solutions.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Strength to confront illness. Creativity in thought and action. Do what you can to support recovery.
Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery. (1989) . Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. optimists had healthier habits.
Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.
Lower incidence of heart disease. Decreased levels of stress. Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support With social support. Improved coping with illness. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. .
2. Not just under stress.Affect on Health 1. . Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Both are possible. Only when needed. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. depending on the nature of the stressor.
Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. . Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network.
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. . A topic for later discussion.
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