Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Thought. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Link between mind and body is the immune system. .

The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .

 We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. .  Emotions are private experiences.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Vary in intensity and quality.  Anger or joy.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling). .  Meaning and personal significance.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.

 Autonomic and hormonal systems.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. clenched fists.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.  Body prepared for action. .  Alert posture.

 Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.  Why people benefit from emotions. .Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Motivation to take action.  Social and evolutionary advantage.

Postures.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. vocalizations. How person reacts to event. facial expressions make our emotions public. . Helps us interpret the situation. Verbal and nonverbal communication. gestures.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Foundation for other branches. .  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Tell when someone is being authentic.  Non-verbal communication.  Recognizing facial expressions.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  Emotional component to motivation.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .  ³Care enough to send the very best.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive. .

and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project. he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . (Select the best choice.

 Stress coping strategies. tobacco or other drugs.  Productive ways to change mood.  Avoid over and under regulation.  Use optimistic explanatory style.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol. .

....2. Very Ineffective.....5.. She was feeling peaceful and content..3..3.3......Very Effective       ...Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..4.........2.. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.1...... Very Ineffective.1.......4.....2...1.5...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway. Debbie just came back from vacation....Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation...4..5. Very Ineffective..

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. . Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system.

Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .

Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions.

get help. Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Function of pain. . It hurts. Negative states signal an alert.

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? .

Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). . Not seek help. Seek help.

 Positive .  Creativity in thought and action.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Belief that you will get well.  Do what you can to support recovery.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Strength to confront illness.

Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) . optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.

.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.

Faster recovery from surgery. Improved coping with illness. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.Social Support        With social support. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. .

depending on the nature of the stressor. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. Only when needed. .  2. Not just under stress.  Both are possible.Affect on Health  1. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.

Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Know that help will be provided if needed. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Develop and maintain social network. .

Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.  A topic for later discussion. .

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