Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. . Link between mind and body is the immune system. Thought.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing.

Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.

 Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. .  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Anger or joy. .  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Vary in intensity and quality.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Meaning and personal significance.

 Alert posture.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. .  Autonomic and hormonal systems.  Body prepared for action. clenched fists.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.

 Social and evolutionary advantage. .  Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.  Motivation to take action.

Helps us interpret the situation. vocalizations. Postures. . gestures.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Verbal and nonverbal communication. How person reacts to event. facial expressions make our emotions public.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Tell when someone is being authentic.  Non-verbal communication.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Foundation for other branches.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. .  Express accurate emotions for situation.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  ³Care enough to send the very best.  Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.

(Select the best choice.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . When his supervisor brought him an additional project. he felt ____.

 Productive ways to change mood.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.  Use optimistic explanatory style.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills. tobacco or other drugs.  Avoid over and under regulation. .  Stress coping strategies.

Very Ineffective.1. She was feeling peaceful and content.5. Very Ineffective.. Debbie just came back from vacation...........2....3.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1....5. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..........1..2..3.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation...4...1.2......Very Effective       .... Very Ineffective..4.....5.Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway........3..4..

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

Negative moods lower SIgA levels. . Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Positive moods boost the immune system. Undesirable events suppress immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA.

Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. . Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.

Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. . Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions. Negative emotional states reduce immune function.

Function of pain. It hurts. Negative states signal an alert.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Something is wrong and must be corrected. . get help.

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Seek help.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help.

 Creativity in thought and action.  Belief that you will get well.  Strength to confront illness.  Positive .  Do what you can to support recovery.  Personal resources to seek solutions.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.

(1989) . Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. 5 years post surgery.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. optimists had healthier habits.

´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. .Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.

Faster recovery from surgery. Improved coping with illness. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. .Social Support        With social support. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.

Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. depending on the nature of the stressor. .  Both are possible.Affect on Health  1.  2. Only when needed. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. Not just under stress.

. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Develop and maintain social network. Know that help will be provided if needed.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience.

Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .  A topic for later discussion.

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