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Topic 3

BIPOLAR JUNCTION
TRANSISTORS
(BJT)

DEE2023
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
1
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)
CLO1. apply the concept and principles of theoretical
characteristics and electrical properties of
semiconductor devices. (C3, PLO1)
CLO2. solve problems of semiconductor devices
application circuits related to the operation and the
characteristics of the circuits. (C3, PLO1)
CLO3. construct and test the various applications of
semiconductor devices circuit based on schematic
diagrams. (P4, PLO5)
CLO4. demonstrate good communication skill in oral
presentation individually or in group, an assigned topics
within a stipulated time frame. (A3, PLO6)

2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this Topic students should be able to:

3.1 Know the basic of bipolar junction transistor.

3.2 Understand the characteristics and operations of BJT.

Apply the principle and operations of BJT to the basic


3.3 transistor configurations.

3.4 Understand the DC operations of BJT.

3.5 Understand frequency response curve.

Apply the frequency response characteristics of an


3.6 amplifier.

3.7 Understand the classification of amplifier.

Understand other biasing techniques of common emitter


3.8 transistor configuration

3.9 Apply the other applications of BJT.


3
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

INTRODUCTION
• A bipolar transistor essentially consists of
a pair of PN Junction diodes that are
joined back-to-back.
• There are two types of BJT namely NPN
transistor and PNP transistor.
• Physically, the transistor consists of three
parts : Collector, Base, Emitter.

4
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

PHYSICAL STRUCTURE & SYMBOLS

• The arrow at the transistor symbol


shows the direction of conventional
current when it is operates.
. 5
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

Emitter
- It is always forward biased with respect to base. Its
function is to supply majority charge carriers (either
electrons or holes) to the other two layers.
Base
- Very thin and lightly doped central region . It forms
two junctions. The base emitter junction is forward
biased ant the base collector is reverse biased.
Collector
- It is always reverse biased. Its function is to collect
majority charge carriers supplied by the emitter.

6
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

TRANSISTOR BIASING

• The application of suitable DC voltage


across the transistor terminals is called
‘biasing’.
• The emitter base junction is always
forward biased while the collector base
junction is always reverse biased.

7
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

BASIC TRANSISTOR OPERATION (NPN)


• the majority carriers in the n-type
emitter material are electrons
• the base-emitter junction is forward
biased to these majority carriers
and electrons cross the junction and
appear in the base region
• the base region is very thin and only
lightly doped with holes, so some
recombination with holes occurs but
many electrons are left in the base
region
• the base-collector junction is
reverse biased to holes in the base
region and electrons in the collector
region, but is forward biased to
electrons in the base region; these
electrons are attracted by the IE=IC+IB
positive potential at the collector
terminal 8
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

BASIC TRANSISTOR OPERATION (PNP)


• the majority carriers in the emitter p-
type material are holes
• the base-emitter junction is forward
biased to the majority carriers and
the holes cross the junction and
appear in the base region
• the base region is very thin and is
only lightly doped with electrons so
although some electron hole pairs
are formed, many holes are left in
the base region
• the base-collector junction is reverse
biased to electrons in the base
region and holes in the collector
region, but forward biased to holes
in the base region; these holes are IE=IC+IB
attracted by the negative potential at
the collector terminal
9
3.1 Know the basic of bipolar
junction transistor

APPLICATIONS OF TRANSISTOR

• It is used as an amplifier.
• It is used as a switch.
• It is used in oscillator circuit.
• It is used as buffer.
• It is used in logic circuits.

10
3.2 Understand the characteristics
and operations of BJT

THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE


CUTOFF POINTS
• When IB = 0, IC= 0, VCE = VCC, the
transistor is cut off.
• Ideal transistor acts like an open switch.
SATURATION POINTS
• When IB increased, IC also increased,
VCE decreased reach a point where VCE
become less than the base voltage.
• Ideal transistor will act like a closed
switch.
ACTIVE REGION
• Most importance mode, e.g. for amplifier
operation.
• The region where current curves are
practically flat. 11
3.1 Understand the characteristics
and operations of BJT

BJT AS SWITCH

 When the transistor is off, it is in cutoff


condition (no current, switch OFF).
 When the transistor is on, it is in saturation
condition (maximum current, switch ON). 12
3.1 Understand the characteristics
and operations of BJT

BJT AS AMPLIFIER

• DC bias is to allow a
transistor to operate
as amplifier.
• In order to use the
BJT as an amplifier,
it should operate in
the active region.

13
3.2 Understand the characteristics and
operations of BJT

TRANSISTOR OPERATING
CONFIGURATIONS

14
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations
Common Base Circuit

• In the configuration, emitter current IE is the input current


and collector IC is the output current. The input signal is
applied between the emitter and base (VEB) whereas
output is taken out from the collector and base (VCB) .
• The ratio of the collector current to the emitter current is
called dc alpha
IC
• α (dc ) = IE
15
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations
Common Emitter Circuit

•The input signal is applied between the base and emitter


(VBE) and the output signal is taken out from collector and
emitter current (VCE).
•IB is input current whereas IC is output current.
•The ratio of dc collector current (IC) to dc base current
(IB) is called ß dc; ß = IB
IC

•also known as the current gain of the transistor 16


3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

Common Collector Circuit

• The input signal is applied between the base and


collector (VCB) and the output signal is taken out
from emitter collector (VCE) circuit.
• IB is input current whereas IE is output current.
17
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS


(CE)
• Because of base emitter is
forward bias,so input
resistance for this circuit is features
low (normally around 500 ke Input resistance Low
1.5K) Output resistance high
• For collector base section is output current, I C
reverse bias, so output Current gain AI  high
input current , I B
resistance is high (normally
around 30K ke 50K). Voltage gain high
• The value of IC is more higher Power Gain AP 
output power, Pout high
than IB, current gain for input power, Pin
common emitter circuit is high. 
Iout 2 .Rout

• Voltage gain value for Iin 2 .Rin

common emitter diagram is Different phase 180


high.

18
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS


(CB)
• Because of emitter base is features
forward bias, so this input
resistance is low (around 20 Input resistance low
to 200 only)
Output resistance high
• For collector base is reverse
bias, so the output of output current, Iout no
current gain, A I 
input current , Iin
resistance is high (normally
between 100k -1M ) Difference phase same
• No difference phase between
output and input. Voltage gain high
• Because of the input current
(IC) flow through the low input Output power, Pout high
power gain, A P 
Input power, Pin
resistance and output current
Iout 2 .Rout
(IE) flow via high output 
Iin 2 .Rin
resistance, so it produce the
high power gain. 19
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS


(CC)
• Input resistance for this circuit
very highi (about 100K to
500K).
• Output resistance for this circuit Features
very low (about 50 to 1K).
Input resistance high
• IE is the highest current in
circuit,and IB is the smallest current Output resistance low
in circuit,so the current gain also Current gain IE high
I 
high. IB
• Because of output voltage value is
small compare input voltage value, Voltage gain Vo low
AV 
so the voltage gain value can be Vi
small or less than 1
Power gain low
• Because of power gain is involve
the value output and input
resistance in calculation,it can be Difference phase no
circuit power is low. And power
gain for this diagram is the
smallest.
• output waveform phase can follow
20
the input waveform phase.
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE ( IC-VC )


FOR COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER
• This curve I-V is graph that
plot for current collector vs. IC(mA)

voltage collector for illustrate


what that happen to transistor 3
during the current and
voltage is changing. 2

• IB value is low (around only IB=20A


A ). If VBB (forward bias
1

voltage) is add, can be


VC(V)
happen increasing at current 1 2 3 4 5

base, IB but still in low value.

21
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE ( IC-VC )


FOR COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER
• If VBB is variable to IB=20A and VC
is value 1V, is found IC=0.98mA. IC(mA)
• At IB same value, if VC is increase to
4V, if found not many changing, at
IC value only can a bit increase 5
IB=120A
because current leak.
4 IB=100A

• if IB is increase to 40A and VC


value is 1V , is found IC=1.98mA. 3 IB=60A

• If VC value is increase to 5V, noticed


IB=40A
not many changes at IC value. IC 2
value can a bit increase only,
because current leak. 1 IB=20A

• If we continue this experiment with 1 3 5


Vc
2 4
make several changes at IB value,
the result is like figure beside.
22
3.3 Apply the principle and operations
of BJT to the basic transistor
configurations

THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE ( IC-VC )


FOR COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER
CONCLUSION
• IB value is dependent to forward bias voltage
combination base-emitter (VBB ).
• IC value can follow increase and decrease
dependent on condition IB but the value is
highest than IB value.
• Vcc value (is bias voltage to collector-base) not
more influence for current transistor. it cant be
changing IB, IC and IE value.
• Common emitter amplifier circuit diagram is
current source where the value is controlled by
current base value
23
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

BETA A.T ( a.t ) BETA A.U (a.u)


• Beta factor is dividing to 2 conditions:

1. Beta a.t : collector current value(IC) that flow following current base value
condition( IB) at Vc value is in constant condition.

IC
 a.t  ..............during Vc constant
IB

2. Beta a.u : changes value that happent at current collector when current
base is change at Vc constant condition.

I C
 a.u  ............during Vc constant
I B

24
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

Current And Voltage Calculation For


Common Emitter Circuit
VBB,+20V VCC, +20V VCC, +20V

RB RC RB RC
IC IC
IB C IB C
B E B E

IE IE Figure 3.2
Figure 3.1

• At figure 3.1, bias voltage d.c for base-emitter and


collector-emitter is the same value. So the bias voltage d.c
can be taken from the same source.
• Figure 3.2 is voltage a.t that is taken from the same source
and obseve the supply voltage at the base is label as VBB
change to VCC (remember ! the value is still same).
• To find current value in circuit make easilly. We can
separate this circuit to 2 part, input and output part. 25
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

input section :

VCC = voltage source d.c


VCC, +20V
(bias voltage)
VRB = voltage that produce through
RB
RB.
VRB
VBE = voltage that produce between
IB
C base and emitter (B-E)
= Voltan sawar ( VB-E)
B E

VBE
IE EQUATION
VCC  VRB  VBE
Figure 3.3
VCC  I B .R B  VBE
V V
I  CC BE
B R
B
26
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

Output section :

VCC,+20V

VCC = reverse bias voltage for


VRC collector
RC
IC
VRC = drop voltage at load
C resistor at collector.
Equation :
B
VCE
VCE = voltage drop between
E collector and emitter.
IE
EQUATION
IC  β.IB
VCC  VRC  VCE
Figure 3.4
VCC  I C .R C  VCE
VCE  VCC  IC .R C

27
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

D.C OPERATIONAL POINT (Q –POINT)


• When transistor has given the right bias d.c
voltage, it can start operate (although IC(mA)
during no input a.c voltage).
• Current base ( IB ) can flow,current 5 IB=50A
collector(IC) can follow flow. Collector
IB=40A
current that flow in circuit this time is call as 4
current operation ( ICQ ) 3 IB=30A
• When this current operation through load Q IB=20A
resistor at collector section (RC), VCE value 2
can get : 1 IB=10A
VC  VCC  I C .R L .......... When collecter current flow through
load resistor at collector, Vc can get it Vc
5 10 15 20 25
• At this condition VCE value is voltage value
at operation point ( VCEQ ).
• This meet point know as Q-point (Q symbol
represent word ‘Quiescent’, meaning calm).

28
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

DC SATURATED POINT
• formula for IC( DC saturation):
IC(mA)
 VCC  VRL  VC .............. if VC  0
 VCC  VRL
Saturation region ( IC(SATURATION))
5

VCC  I C .R L ............. 4
Q-point

I C  max collector current that flow


3

2 Cut-off point (VC replace)


 I C  I C (DC saturation) 1

• If IC (DC saturation): VCE


VCC 10 15 20 (V)
IC(DC
5
saturation) 
RL
• DC saturation region is region that collector
current (IC) at maximum point and Vc value
equal to 0. Collector current at this time know
as IC(saturation).
• IC (DC saturation) is the maximum of 29
collector current that can flow for circuit.
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

DC CUT-OFF POINT

• If IB value is low, IC value also can follow low and Vc value can
more higher.If IB value is continuosly decreases, IC value become
zero and VCE value can equal to VCC value
 VC  VCC  VRL
 VC  VCC  I C .R L ..........If the value of I C  0;
 VC  VCC

 VC  the. max .voltage. flow.in.circuit


VC  VCE ( DC.cut off )

 VCE(DC.cut  off)
 VCC

• Cut-off region is the region that no current flow in circuit


30
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT
DC LOAD LINE
• the line that connected DC saturation
point and cut-off point ,we call it dc
load line.
• The voltage that found between 0 and
VCE represent voltage drop at
collector and emitter section. And the IC(mA)
the voltage between VCE and Vcc Saturation region (IC saturation)
represent voltage drop at load 5
resistor. 4
• Two factor that can change the load 3
Q-point

line slope, which is: 2


• Load resistor RL value is change. 1
Cut-off point VCE(cut-off )

• When we decrease or increase RL VC (V)


value, it can change the saturation 5 10 15 20

point position because we know for V VCE


determines Q-point the equation is: CC Figure 6.29
R L

• Change the supply voltage to


collector, VCC.
Because to get maximum voltage at
collector, VCE(cut-off)=VCC. 31
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

DC LOAD LINE

• Figure below shown what • Figure below shown the


happen if we change the load line slope if the value
RL value. of VCC is change.
IC(mA) IC(mA)
RL origin VCC original
5
5
4
RL decrease 4
3
3 VCC increases
2 RLincrease 2
1 VCC decreases
1
VC (V) VC (V)
5 10 15 20
5 10 15 20

32
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

EXAMPLE CALCULATION TO GET DC


LOAD LINE
• Draw the DC load line for • Solution : Operation point (Q-point ):
common emitter circuit and VBB  VBE
 IB 
sign the Q-point position. RB
Assume =100 
20V - 0.7
333k
VCC,+20V  57.96 A
RC  I C   .I B  100 57.96 A
RB
2K  5.8mA
333k IC
IB  VC  VCC  I C .R L
=100
 20V - 5.8mA 2kΩ 
VCE  20V - 11.6V
IE
 8.4V
 VCQ  VC  8.4V
 I CQ  I C  5.8mA

33
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT
Solution
• Operation point (Q-point ): • Cut-off point :
VBB  VBE
 IB   IC  0
RB


20V - 0.7  VC (DC cut-off)  VCC  15V
333k
 57.96 A
• Load line
 I C   .I B  100 57.96 A
 5.8mA
IC(mA)
 VC  VCC  I C .R L
 20V - 5.8mA 2kΩ  IC(DC saturation)
 20V - 11.6V 10
Q-point
 8.4V 8
 VCQ  VC  8.4V ICQ 6
 I CQ  I C  5.8mA 4

2
• DC Saturation point :
VC (V)
5 8.4 10 15
VCC 20
 I C(DC saturation)  
RL 2k VC(DC cut-off)
VCEQ
 10mA
34
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

THE OPERATIONS OF A COMMON EMITTER


AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT WITH AC INPUT SIGNAL

• If we would like to apply


an ac signal to a amplifier
circuit, we need to
connect via a coupling
capacitor.
• The capacitor acts as
open for dc and acts as
short for ac source.
• The purpose of the circuit
is to produce an output
signal with the same
waveform but bigger
amplitude. 35
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

THE OPERATIONS OF A COMMON EMITTER


AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT WITH AC INPUT SIGNAL
• Capacitor can allow the ac signal through it. So, the
load at output section is rL=RC//RL.
• Collector current value can’t be drop at load line, so
in ac analyze, it can have a new line. It also can
have saturation region and cut-off region a new
one. The line is known as ‘ac load line’.
• The formula to determine ac saturation region and
ac cut-off region :-
VCQ
 IC(ac saturation)
 ICQ 
rL
.....r L is totalresistance at o/psection

 VC(ac cut -off)  VCQ  ICQ .rL


36
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

Example
• Base on figure 3.4, draw the dc
and ac load line for this circuit.
Show the Q-point position.
Neglect VBE.

Figure 3.4
37
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
SOLUTION BJT

1. Operation point (Q-point ):

VBB  VBE 30V - 0


 IB    15A Assume VBE = 0
RB 2M
 I C   .I B  100 15A  1.5mA
 VC  VCC  I C .R L
 30V - 1.5mA 10k 
2. DC load line:
 30V - 15V  15V
 I CQ  1.5mA VCC 30V
 I Cdc saturation    3mA
 VCQ  15V R C 10k
 VC(dc cut-off)  VCC  30V

38
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
SOLUTION BJT

3. AC Load line :
 rL  R C // R L  10k//40k   8k IC(mA)

AC Load line
3.5

VCQ
 I C(ac saturation)  I CQ 
3

rL 2.5
Q-point
15V
 1.5mA 
2

8k 1.5 DC Load line

 3.4mA 1

0.5

 VC(ac cut-off)  VCQ  I CQ .rL


VC (V)
 15V  1.5mA  8k  5 10 15 20 25 30

 27V

39
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

THE INPUT AND OUTPUT WAVEFORM IN


TERMS OF AMPLITUDE AND PHASE SHIFT
Vm

• when input voltage is 1mVp

osillate half of negative


0
2mVp-p
cycle, it can caused
output voltage can more -1mVp
positive.
• Base on figure right side,
Vk

we can found phase +11Vp

different between input


and output voltage 180. 10V 2.3Vp-p

-8.7Vp

40
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

VOLTAGE GAIN
• Voltage gain (Av) is comparison Vm

between output voltage values 1mVp

with input voltage value. 0 2mVp-p

-1mVp

Vk
output voltage, Vo
voltage gain, Av  +11Vp
input voltage, Vi
2.3Vp - p
 10V 2.3Vp-p

2mVp - p
 1150 -8.7Vp

41
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

VOLTAGE GAIN
• Another formula can be used to get voltage gain circuit
value is by using ‘ideal transistor concept’ and ‘ first
approximated ’. In this concept, all small value in the
circuit ignored and voltage gain can calculate when we
divide output resistance with input resistance.
• From this concept, assume equation for voltage gain is :

• re’ input at resistance overall for value is

42
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

THE OCCURRENCE OF AMPLITUDE DISTORTION


WHEN A VERY HIGH INPUT SIGNAL IS GIVEN

Saturation region
IC(mA)

100A
10
80A
8
60A
6
40A
4
20A
2

0V
VC (V)
4 5 8 10 12 15 20

Saturation region

43
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT
• One of factor can change IB value is ac input signal so ac input
signal value should not too high and can caused IB oscillate become
big ( refer figure) :
• Base on figure, we can see Q-point position during IB=60A, IC=6mA
and VC=8V.
• Let say, IB oscillate between 40A and 80A during have ac signal
input and oscillate between 4mA and 8mA, it caused VC oscillate
between 4V to12V.
• Actually the Voltage is taken at VC is ac voltage output value for
example, it oscillate at one complete cycle 8 Vp-p .
• If ac input signal is too high, it can caused the oscillate IB is big
(refer waveform at break line). So IC oscillate value also follow big
and follow VC. we found the IC and VC oscillate is over the saturation
region. At this region no more gain value can happen. So, the
waveform that over this region can breakdown/distortion.
• So each amplifier output have section that break, we assume it not
complete and it should avoid in structure the amplifier circuit. So, Q-
point position normally is choosing at the middle of load line to
determine a big and complete oscillates. 44
3.4 Understand the DC operations of BJT

THE MAX INPUT SIGNAL WHICH PRODUCES


UNDISTORTED OUTPUT SIGNAL AMPLITUDE
IC(mA)
3.5 AC Load line
3
2.5 Q-point
2
1.5 DC Load line
1
0.5

VC (V)
0 3 5 10 15 20 25 30
VCQ 27V
VC(alih)
15Vp 12Vp

Section 1 :
VC(ac cut-off) - VCQ = 27V – 15V
= 12Vp

24Vp-p

Section 2:
VCQ – 0 = 15V – 0 = 15Vp

30Vp-p 45
Figure 3.5
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

• Maximum output voltage without distortion mean output


signal that oscillate symmetry and not distortion.
• See figure 3.5 : this figure is load line for circuit in figure 3.4.
• You already explained ac load line can exits when load value
that found ac voltage at circuit output is different with load
value that found for dc output circuit voltage
• Maximum output voltage without distortion ( Vo(max)(without
distortion)) normally draw base on ac load line(this is because
ac load line exits when the circuit is given ac input signal )
• Try you see how to determine which one the signal that call
maximum output voltage without distortion for the next load
line.
• We can choose the section that has small peak voltage count
to get the maximum output voltage without distortion value.
• Try you see, if we take the big peak voltage value as output
voltage, we can found one of peak at output voltage is
distortion. This condition is not the maximum output voltage
without distortion.
46
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

THE MAX INPUT SIGNAL WHICH PRODUCES


UNDISTORTED OUTPUT SIGNAL AMPLITUDE
Example :
• Base on the maximum output voltage without distortion value
(Vo(max without distortion)) at figure 3.5, determine the value of
maximum output voltage without distortion (Vi(max without
distortion)) for this amplifier if voltage gain AV circuit is 100.
Vo
 v 
Vi

24Vp  p
 Vi 
100
 240mVp - p
• Input voltage at this condition is know as the maximum input voltage
without distortion value (Vi(max without distortion)), because output
voltage that used is maximum output voltage without distortion value
(Vo(max without distortion)). 47
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
BJT

From the figure below, find :


a) All the values to sketch the ac and dc load line. Neglect VBE
b) From the graph, sketch the max output voltage without distortion
and find the max input voltage without distortion.

48
3.4 Understand the DC operations of
Answers.. BJT

1
VBB 35V
 IB    63.06 A
R B 555K 2
 I C   .I B  (75)(63.06 A)  4.73mA DC load VCC 35V
 I C(tepu)(a.t)    7mA
 VC  VCC  I C .R C  35V - 33.65V  11.35V Line R C 5kΩ
 I CQ  I C  4.73mA
 VCQ  VC  11.35V  VC(alih)(a.t)  VCC  35V

5
3 4
AC load
 rL  RC // RL  5 K // 55K Vout max Vin max
25mV 25mV
 4.583k
Line (without (without
 re' 
i

4.73mA
 5.29Ω
E

 VC ( alih)( au )  VCQ  ICQ.rL


 11.35V  (4.73mA)(4 .583k)
distortion)  Adistortion)

V

rL 4.58kΩ
  867
(IC=IE)
V
out
Vin re' 5.29Ω
 33.028V

Vout 22.7Vp  p
VCQ  Vin    26mV
 I C (tepu)( a.t )  ICQ  AV 867
rL
Vin  Vin (input without distortion)
11.35V
 (4.73mA) 
4.583k
 7.21mA
3.5 Understand frequency response
curve

Frequency Response Curve

50
3.5 Understand frequency response
curve

• The frequency response is the measure of any


system’s output spectrum in response to an
input signal.
• The frequency response curves are often used
to indicate the accuracy of electronic
components or system.
• The vertical axis (y) is usually labeled as the
level of sound, also called amplitude, in
decibels (dB), while the horizontal axis (x) is
labeled as the frequency, the vibration that is
captured by your ear and is measured in hertz
(Hz).

51
3.5 Understand frequency response
curve

Filters

52
3.5 Understand frequency response
curve

Important parameters of a frequency response


curve

1. Maximum Voltage Gain, Avmax (dB)


• Use Avmax (dB) instead of Avmax (V) because to scale a
large measurement down to a much smaller and more
useable range.
• The dB voltage gain of a circuit is found as twenty times
the common log of Av. By formula:

53
3.6 Apply the frequency response
characteristics of an amplifier

2. Cut-off frequency
• This frequency is where a device will quit working or operating
in an efficient manner resulting in it shutting down or being cut
off
• When dB voltage gain drops to 70.7% of its maximum value,
the change in dB voltage gain is –3 dB.
• There is a lower cut-off frequency (fH) and upper cut-off
frequency (fL).

3. Frequency bandwidth
• Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower
frequencies in a contiguous set of frequencies. It is typically
measured in hertz.

BW = fH – fL
54
3.5 Understand frequency response
curve

deciBel (dB)
• The ratio of circuit output amplitude to input
amplitude is normally expressed using decibels
(dB). Decibels are used because they allow us to
easily represent very large and very small values.
• Bell was considered too large for a unit
measurement, therefore decibel (dB) was defined
such that 10 decibels = 1 bel.

APdB = 10 log10 (Pout/Pin)


or
AvdB = 20 log10 (Vout/Vin)

55
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

The classification of amplifier


• We assumed that for every portion of the input
signal there was an output from the amplifier.
This is not always the case with amplifiers. It
may be desirable to have the transistor
conducting for only a portion of the input signal.
• The portion of the input for which there is an
output determines the class of operation of the
amplifier. There are four classes of amplifier
operations.
• They are class A, class AB, class B, and
class C. 56
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Amplifier Types
Class A Amplifiers are the simplest in design, and
probably the best sounding of all the amplifier classes
due to their low signal distortion.
Class B amplifiers were invented as a solution to the
efficiency and heating problems associated with the
class A amplifiers.
Class AB Amplifier is a combination of the two class A
and class B type amplifiers above, and is currently one
of the most common types of power amplifier design.
The Class C Amplifier design has the greatest efficiency
but the poorest linearity of the classes of amplifiers.

57
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Class A Amplifier

• The output of a class A amplifier conducts for the full


360° of the cycle.
• The Q-point is set at the middle of the load line so
that the AC signal can swing a full cycle.
58
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Class B Amplifier

• A class B amplifier output only conducts for 180° or


one-half of the AC input signal.
• The Q-point is at 0V on the load line, so that the AC
signal can only swing for one-half cycle.
59
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Class AB Amplifier

• This amplifier is a compromise between the class A and


class B amplifier—the Q-point is above that of the Class
B but below the class A.
• The output conducts between 180° and 360° of the AC
input signal.
60
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Class C

• The output of the class C conducts for less than 180° of


the AC cycle. The Q-point is below cutoff.

61
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Comparison of Amplifier classes

Class A AB B C

Less
Operating 180° to
360° 180° than
cycle 360°
180°

Between
Power 25% to
25% (50%) 78.5% *
efficiency 50%
and 78.5%

62
3.7 Understand the classification of
amplifier

Application

• Class A – practically all small signal amplifiers. A few


moderate power amplifiers in audio applications.
• Class AB – high power stages in both audio and radio
frequency applications.
• Class B - extensively for audio amplifiers that require
high-power outputs. It is also used as the driver- and
power-amplifier stages of transmitters.
• Class C – generally limited to radio-frequency amplifier
in transmitters, megaphones. Also called a ‘tuned’
amplifier.

63
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Biasing Techniques of Common Emitter


Transistor Configuration
• Biasing means application of D.C. voltages to establish a
fixed level of current and voltage
• One of the basic problems with transistor amplifiers is
establishing and maintaining the proper values of
quiescent current and voltage in the circuit.
• Thus a need arises for a method to properly bias the
transistor amplifier and at the same time stabilize its dc
operating point (the no signal values of collector voltage
and collector current).
• 2 types biasing techniques of common emitter:
1. base biased with emitter feedback technique
2. biased voltage divider technique
64
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Base Biased With Emitter Feedback


Technique

65
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Emitter Feedback Technique


• Adding resistor RE to the emitter of transistor.
• The emitter resistor RE will improve the stability
level over that of the fixed bias configuration.
• IC begins to increase as temperature rises.
• The increase in IC increase IE and as a result VE
rises.
• VBE (or VB – VE ) is fixed, but the rise in VE reduces
VBE. The overall effect of reducing VBE is to reduce IC
which in turn makes the circuit stable.

66
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Biased Voltage Divider Technique

67
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Voltage Divider Bias


• This circuit differs from the previous two with the
existence of divider resistors R1 and R2.
• These resistors provide a bias connection to the
transistor base terminal which tries to balance
the level of IBQ with the change in beta.
• If proper circuit parameters are employed, any
change of beta will change the level of IBQ but
the operating point defined by ICQ and VCEQ can
remain fixed.
• capacitor C1 to bypass ac signal to ground
68
3.8 Understand other biasing
techniques of common emitter
transistor configuration

Advantage of Biasing Technique

• The voltage divider bias is widely used because


reasonably good stability is achieved with a
single supply voltage.

69
STUDY……
70