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Control of Electric Drives (2160913)

Chapter 1
Introduction
Lecture 1
INTRODUCTION

• Whenever the term electric generator or motor is


used, we tend to think that the speed of rotation of the
machines is totally controlled only by the applied
voltage and frequency of the source current.
• But the speed of rotation of machine can be
controlled precisely also by implementing the concept
of drive. The main advantage of this concept is the
motion control is easily optimized with the help of
drives.
• Speed of rotation of an electrical machine can be
controlled precisely also by implementing the concept
of drive.
• The systems which control the motion of the
electrical machines are known as electrical drives.
• This drive system is widely used in large number of
industrial and domestic applications like factories,
transportation systems, textile mills, fans, pumps,
motors, robots etc.
• This was first designed in Russia in the year 1838
by B. S. Iakobi, when he tested a DC electric
motor supplied from a storage battery and
propelled a boat.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL
DRIVE
Source: It is either D.C or A.C supply. In India 1
phase or 3 phase 50 Hz ac supplies are readily
available in most locations.
Power Modulator: It performs the following
function.
• It converts electric energy received from the source in
the form suitable to the motor. i.e if the source is DC
and an induction motor is to be employed than it
converts d.c into a variable frequency a.c.
• The power modulator regulates the output power of
the source. It controls the power from the source to
the motor in such a manner that motor transmits the
speed-torque characteristic required by the load.
• Power modulators can be classified into three types,
1. Converters,
2. Variable impedance circuits,
3. Switching circuits.
• converters are used to convert currents from one
type to other type. Depending on the type of
function, converters can be divided into 5 types –
1. AC to DC converters (Diode Rectifier)
2. AC regulators

3. Choppers or DC - DC converters
4. Inverters

5. Cycloconverters
• Variable Impedance circuits are used to controlling
speed by varying the resistance or impedance of the
circuit. But these controlling methods are used in low
cost DC and ac drives. There can be two or more
steps which can be controlled manually or
automatically with the help of contactors.
• Switching circuits in motors and electrical drives are
used for running the motor smoothly and they also
protects the machine during faults.
• To provide interlocking, to disconnect the motor from
the main circuit during any abnormal condition or
faults.
 Load: It is usually machinery designed to perform a
given operation. i.e fans, machine tools, domestic
appliances, trains, pumps e.t.c.
 Motors: Electric motors are of various types.
• The DC motors can be divided in four types – shunt
wound DC motor, series wound DC motor, compound
wound DC motor and permanent magnet DC motor.
• AC motors are of two types – induction
motors and synchronous motors. Now synchronous
motors have two types – round field and permanent
magnet. Induction motors are also of two types – squirrel
cage and wound motor.
• Besides all of these, stepper motors and switched
reluctance motors are also considered as the parts of drive
system.
• Sensing unit: It is employed for sensing the drive
parameters such as speed, motor current, etc. which
may be required for protection purpose or for closed
loop operations. These signals are fed to the control
unit.

• Control unit: The control unit controls the power


modulator which operates at small voltage and power
levels. The control unit also operates the power
modulator as desired. It also generates the commands
for the protection of power modulator and motor.
ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE
• Flexibility: Electric drive is more flexible.
• Cleanliness: Electric drive is clean compared to
steam and or diesel engine drive.
• Space Saving: Electric drive can be arranged nearer
to driven machine, so there is saving in space.
• Better operating characteristics: Separate motor for
each machine facilitates the operating requirement of
machine such as speed can be properly selected.
• Automatic Control: An automatic change in any
operating condition by using electronic control is
easily applicable.
DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE

• The electric drive system is only possible in the


electrified area.
• If the supply fails, the whole system comes to stand
still.
• There is every possibility of getting conductors short
circuited, leakage from conductors or break down of
over head conductors. This may lead to fatal accident.
TYPES OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE

1. Group Drives
2. Individual Drive
3. Multimotor Drive
Lecture 2
Group Drive
• Only one single electric motor is used and other entire
working machines are operated by means of line shaft
from that single motor.

• The line shaft is fitted with a belt and multi-stepped


pulleys which are connected to working equipment
with variation in speed.

• This type of drives is used in that industry in which


different equipment are a relatively small change in
speed.
ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DRIVE

1. Since only one motor is used, it is economical.


2. Due to the presence of single motor, the operation is
simple.
DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICAL
DRIVE
• Reliability is low because malfunction of the motor
causes shut down of the entire system.
• Problems of tear and wear exist in line shaft.
• Since high rated motor is used, the level of noise
produces is very high.
• Due to the use of line shaft, it does not provide the
good appearance and it seems less safe to work.
INDIVIDUAL DRIVE
• In this drive, the separate motor is used to drive the
each individual equipment using gears, pulleys, ropes.

• The individual motor is designed to fulfill the


requirement of that specific equipment.

• This type of drive is used where speed constancy and


flexibility in control is major issues such as lift,
cranes, lathes, drilling machines etc.
ADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL DRIVE

• The separate motor is used for each equipment,


hence, reliability is high.
• Speed can be maintained according to the
requirements of equipment.
• Facility of complete control over the equipment and
motor.
• Appearance, cleanliness, and safety are better.
DISADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL
DRIVE
1. The cost of a high number of the motor is high.
2. Each equipment has its control mechanism so the
system becomes complex.
MULTIMOTOR DRIVE
• Each motor is provided in order to drive different
actuating parts in a single equipment.

• For example in the single crane, three motors is used.


One is for hoisting, another is for travelling motion
and the third one is for cross travel motion.

• The Same motor can not do all work efficiently so the


separate motor is provided.
ADVANTAGES OF MULTIMOTOTR
DRIVE
• It introduces the concept of automation.
• Reliability is increased as more motor is used.
• The separate motor is provided for specific
mechanism hence easy control and operation.
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