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# MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY

## SKILL : Attempting Reading Comprehension

Questions (Expository Texts)
THEME : Technology / Health
TOPIC : Mobile Phones
OBJECTIVES
• Answer at least 2 out of 3 questions correctly
in Activity 1.
• Answer at least 4 out of 7 questions correctly
in Activity 2.
• Answer at least 3 out of 5 questions correctly
in Activity 3.
NOT STATED
TYPES OF QUESTIONS: 3 OPTION
MCQ (Questions 1-7)

The quick brief guide to differentiate 'true, false and not stated' statement:

• both true and false statement require evidence form the text (from either one or both
linear and non-linear text)
• the evidence could also be inferred /make an educated guess.
(inference = an opinion or reasonable guess based on evidence or known facts
provided in the text)
• true statement has an evidence that supports it / agrees with it
• false statement has an evidence that goes against it / disagrees with it
• not stated is for statement that has no contextual evidence/no information given
which agrees or disagrees with it, even if you infer
• You should not use your existing knowledge when responding to questions in 800/3
ACTIVITY 1
Study the bar graph and pie chart given below and attempt the
questions.

## Figure 1 : Sex Ratio of Pupils in Primary Schools

110
108
108 107
106
104
Sex ratio

104
102 101 Male
100 100 100 100 Female
100
98
96
1970 1980 1991 2000
Year
Figure 2: Pupils in Primary Schools in The Year 2000

Female, 49.64%
Male, 50.36%
644073
653453
No Question True False Not
Stated
1 The proportion of male pupils to their female
counterparts in primary schools was 108 males to
every 100 females in 1970.

## 2 The gender gap among primary school pupils in 2000

appears to be quite wide.

## 3 56% of the female pupils in 1991 are Malays.

No Question True False Not Stated
1 The proportion of male pupils to their female counterparts
in primary schools was 108 males to every 100 females in
1970.

## The word ‘proportion’ is used in place of the word ‘ratio’

found in the title of Figure 1. the word ‘pupils’ in the title is
replaced by ‘counterparts’ in the question. These are
exampled of the use of synonyms in paraphrasing.

## 2 The gender gap among primary school pupils in 2000

appears to be quite wide.

## The words in the title ‘sex ration of pupils in primary schools’

has been paraphrased as ‘gender gap among primary school
pupils’. The gender gap is not wide because of only 1 person
difference in 2000.

## This information is not stated anywhere in the texts. No

types of races being mentioned.
ACTIVITY 2
(GROUP WORK)
Mobile phones are growing ever more popular. The increase in mobile
phones has triggered worries about their safety. They have been blamed for a
wide range of health problems, from cancer headaches, which has led some
people to demand that they carry health warnings, like packs of cigarettes.

Mobile phones are a cross between a radio and a telephone. They were
invented in the early 1980s. The handset of a mobile phone is a kind of radio
exchange by "base stations" (pylons).When a mobile phone is switched on, it
releases a signal around every 20 seconds saying "I'm here" to the nearest
base station, so the location of the phone is known and it can receive and
make calls. With mobile phones, the sound is sent and received as a "micro-

People have voiced their concern regarding the radio waves which are used
to transmit and receive mobile telephone calls. Radio waves can pass through
the body and when they do, some of their energy can be absorbed. This
movement of energy is known as radiation. All electrical goods (from
television to microwave ovens) give off a certain amount of radiation, but this
is seen as harmless.
However, some radiation is harmful to the body, for example, the radiation
given off by a nuclear-explosion or even from direct sunlight. Harmful
radiation such as X-rays and gamma-rays can affect body tissues to such an
extent that they change cells and DNA. These changes can lead to cancer and
genetic defects. Mobile phones do expose us to radiation but at a very low
level. The radiation is not like X-rays or gamma-rays. The micro-radio waves
used by mobile phones can be absorbed by tissues (especially watery tissues
such as human flesh) and are heat producing - which is why we use microwave
ovens in the kitchen to cook our food. That is not to say the brain is being
cooked, but research has shown they do cause a slight warming effect on
human tissue. In the case of mobile phones, this means the head and neck are
warmed because these are the parts of the body the phone is close to. The
question is, could the type of radiation we get from mobile phones "cook" the
body enough to cause health problems?
Recent research suggested mobile phones could also be addictive. But
much of this research has involved the exposure of mice and rats to high
levels of microwave radiation — this does not tell us enough about the effects
of using mobile phones in human beings. However, some people are
convinced mobile phones are the cause of their health problems, or have
caused the death of their 35 loved ones. All have been heavy users of mobile
phones, such as telephone engineers or business people. There have been
attempts to sue mobile phone companies for damages — but so far these
have failed.
Most experts say that there is no evidence that mobile phones are a health
hazard or have side-effects. But others liken the mobile phone issue with the
BSE crisis and feel action should be taken 40 now to avoid a disaster. One
thing everybody seems to agree on is the need for more research. The World
Health Organisation is taking the issue seriously and is co-ordinating a massive
research project into the dangers of mobile phones which will take around five
years to complete.

Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

## A What is a mobile phone?

B How do mobile phones work?
C When was the mobile phone invented?
D Why are the base stations linked to the national telephone exchange?

2 People are worried about radio waves transmitted by mobile phones because
they

A are cancerous
B can cause explosions
C can damage electrical goods
D can be absorbed by the body

## A DNA and genetic changes

B physical changes in the body
C changes in the cells and DNA
D changes in X-rays and gamma-rays
4 Why is the microwave oven similar to a mobile phone?

## I The waves are heat producing.

II The rays can be absorbed by the body.
III The waves can change cells and human DNA.
IV It produces gamma-rays which can cook human tissue.

A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D Ill and IV

5 Most scientists say radiation from mobile phones is not harmful because

## I the amount of radiation transmitted by the mobile phone is very low

II the human brain has evolved to cope with temperature changes
III the microwaves emitted by mobile phones do not cause cancer
IV the human body can absorb at least 60 watts of electricity

A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV
6 Attempts to sue mobile phone companies for damages have failed probably
because

## A mobile phone companies are too powerful

B the people were heavy users of the mobile phone
C there is no conclusive evidence about the hazards of mobile phones
D the people had already been ill before they began using mobile phones

7 What conclusion can you form about the use of mobile phones from the
passage?

## A Mobile phones are dangerous to health.

B The safety of mobile phones is still unknown.
C Mobile phones are as safe to use as microwave ovens.
D Human beings can withstand the radiation from mobile phones.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

## A What is a mobile phone?

B How do mobile phones work?
C When was the mobile phone invented?
D Why are the base stations linked to the national telephone exchange?

Paragraph 2

Mobile phones are a cross between a radio and a telephone. They were invented in
the early 1980s. The handset of a mobile phone is a kind of radio transmitter and
receiver. Mobile phones are linked to the national telephone exchange by "base
stations" (pylons).When a mobile phone is switched on, it releases a signal around every
20 seconds saying "I'm here" to the nearest base station, so the location of the phone is
known and it can receive and make calls. With mobile phones, the sound is sent and
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

## A What is a mobile phone?

B
C
How do mobile phones work?
When was the mobile phone invented?
B
D Why are the base stations linked to the national telephone exchange?

##  (B) best summarises the whole paragraph.

Two thirds is about how mobile phones work.

The other options are not suitable because of the following reasons:
 (A) and (C) are merely mentioned to give the reader some added information.
 (D) is one of the supporting details.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

2 People are worried about radio waves transmitted by mobile phones because
they

A are cancerous
B can cause explosions
C can damage electrical goods
D can be absorbed by the body
Paragraph 3

People have voiced their concern regarding the radio waves which are used
to transmit and receive mobile telephone calls. Radio waves can pass through
the body and when they do, some of their energy can be absorbed. This
movement of energy is known as radiation. All electrical goods (from
television to microwave ovens) give off a certain amount of radiation, but this
is seen as harmless.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
2 People are worried about radio waves transmitted by mobile phones because they

A are cancerous
B
C
can cause explosions
can damage electrical goods
D
D can be absorbed by the body

##  (D) is the most suitable option.

 Here, a supporting detail given in paragraph 3, that is ‘the reason why people are
worried about the radio waves transmitted by the mobile phone’, is tested. The reason
is clearly stated in (D).

## The other options are unsuitable because of the following reasons:

 (A) is wrong as the writer does not state waves cause cancer. He just says that some
people claim that on of the related health problems is cancer.
 (B) is clearly wrong because the word ‘explosion’ is usually used in the context of
nuclear bombs etc.
 (C) is also wrong because the writer says that small amounts of radiation are emitted by
electrical appliances and not radiation damages electrical goods.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

## A DNA and genetic changes

B physical changes in the body
C changes in the cells and DNA
D changes in X-rays and gamma-rays
Paragraph 4

However, some radiation is harmful to the body, for example, the radiation
given off by a nuclear-explosion or even from direct sunlight. Harmful
radiation such as X-rays and gamma-rays can affect body tissues to such an
extent that they change cells and DNA. These changes can lead to cancer and
genetic defects. Mobile phones do expose us to radiation but at a very low
level. The radiation is not like X-rays or gamma-rays. The micro-radio waves
used by mobile phones can be absorbed by tissues (especially watery tissues
such as human flesh) and are heat producing - which is why we use microwave
ovens in the kitchen to cook our food. That is not to say the brain is being
cooked, but research has shown they do cause a slight warming effect on
human tissue. In the case of mobile phones, this means the head and neck are
warmed because these are the parts of the body the phone is close to. The
question is, could the type of radiation we get from mobile phones "cook" the
body enough to cause health problems?
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
3 These changes ...(line ) refer to

## A DNA and genetic changes

B
C
physical changes in the body
changes in the cells and DNA
D
D changes in X-rays and gamma-rays

##  (D) is the correct answer.

 The writer used the expressions, ‘These changes…’ to refer to (C). Read sentences 2 and
3 of para.4.
Harmful radiation such as X-rays and gamma-rays can affect body tissues to such
an extent that they change cells and DNA. These changes can lead to cancer and
genetic defects.
The writer ends the 1st sentence by saying,’…they change cells and DNA.’. Naturally the
writer does not want to repeat this at the beginning of the next sentence. So, he refers to it
by using the expression ‘These changes…’

## The other options are unsuitable because:

 Although the words in (A), (B) and (D) are found in para.4, they do not refer to ‘These
changes…’ which refers to changed in the cells and DNA.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.

## I The waves are heat producing.

II The rays can be absorbed by the body.
III The waves can change cells and human DNA.
IV It produces gamma-rays which can cook human tissue.

A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D Ill and IV
Paragraph 4

## The radiation is not like X-rays or gamma-rays.

The micro-radio waves used by mobile phones
can be absorbed by tissues (especially watery
tissues such as human flesh) and are heat
producing - which is why we use microwave ovens
in the kitchen to cook our food. That is not to say
the brain is being cooked, but research has shown Relevant information
they do cause a slight warming effect on human as to how the
tissue. In the case of mobile phones, this means microwave oven is
the head and neck are warmed because these are similar to a mobile
the parts of the body the phone is close to. The phone
question is, could the type of radiation we get
from mobile phones "cook" the body enough to Due to these 2
cause health problems? properties, microwave
are used to cook food.
Therefore, (A) is correct.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
4 Why is the microwave oven similar to a mobile phone?

## I The waves are heat producing.

II The rays can be absorbed by the body.
III The waves can change cells and human DNA.
IV It produces gamma-rays which can cook human tissue.

A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D Ill and IV

##  (A) is the best option.

 In this question, you are required to separate the relevant information from that which
is not relevant. In para.4, the writer uses microwave oven to illustrate how the waves
which are similar to those emitted by mobile phones (I) are heat producing and (II) can
be absorbed by tissues.
 The other options are not suitable:
 Statements (III) and (IV) are clearly wrong. Micro-radio waves are not gamma-rays or X-
rasy, which can change cells and DNA. This is clearly stated in the following line:
 ‘The radiation is not like X-rays or gamma-rays.’
(ENRICHMENT
ACTIVITY)
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the given passage.

The illegal wildlife trade in the country is rising to - worrying levels despite
stricter enforcement and heavier penalties. Greedy traffickers, who gain huge
profits from this cruel, unethical trade, are focusing on Malaysia as it is
among the few countries which still has tigers, elephants, sun bears,
pangolins and other species of animals that are sought after for various
purposes.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the given passage.

## According to the Department of Wildlife and National Parks

(Perhilitan), traffickers are motivated by the high profit margins in the illegal
wildlife trade. The Perhilitan spokesman said that tigers are mostly hunted for
bone, skin and body parts, bears for their gall bladders and paws, and
pangolins for their meat. Rare birds are sold at high prices, while geckos are
traded based on claims that they are able to cure ailments, such as HIV.
Illegal wildlife trading involves international networks and operates
much like the illegal drugs and weapons business. Stricter laws and tighter
enforcement have not significantly deterred poachers and traffickers.
Table 1: Reported Wildlife Seizures
Wildlife Major Cases
Tigers October 2010
 At least 56  Perhilitan seized a tiger cub from a couple trying to
seized sell it for RM30,000 in Pekan
between
January 2000 February 2012
and October  Perhilitan discovered 8 tiger skins and 22 bags of
2010 bones in a house in Alor Setar

## Elephant ivory September 2011

 Almost 25  Customs authorities seized two containers containing
tons seized 695 African elephant tusks in Port Klang
between 2006
and 2012 January 2012
 Customs authorities in Port Kiang seized half a ton of
ivory hidden in a container full of laminate flooring
material and used tyres
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
No Question True Fals Not
e Stated
1 Stringent laws have managed to curb the illegal wildlife

## 2 Certain animals are captured and sold illegally because it is

believed that their body parts can cure various ailments.

## 3 Illegal wildlife traders also deal in illegal drugs and

weapons.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
No Question True Fals Not
e Stated
4 According to the table, most tigers were captured between
January 2000 and October 2010.

## 5 It can be concluded that tigers and elephants are the two

most sought after animal species in Malaysia for the illegal
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
No Question True Fals Not
e Stated
1 Stringent laws have managed to curb the illegal wildlife

## 2 Certain animals are captured and sold illegally because it is

believed that their body parts can cure various ailments.

## 3 Illegal wildlife traders also deal in illegal drugs and

weapons.
Questions 1 to 7 are based on the given passage.
No Question True Fals Not
e Stated
4 According to the table, most tigers were captured between
January 2000 and October 2010.

## 5 It can be concluded that tigers and elephants are the two

most sought after animal species in Malaysia for the illegal